跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.86.95) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/05/22 13:31
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:留國泰
研究生(外文):Kuo-Tai Liu
論文名稱:專業英語之需求分析與課程設計:以台灣高職生為例
論文名稱(外文):Needs Analysis and Curriculum Design in ESP: A Case Study of Vocational High School Students in Taiwan
指導教授:駱藝瑄駱藝瑄引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Hsuan Gloria Lo
口試委員:駱藝瑄
口試委員(外文):Yi-Hsuan Gloria Lo
口試日期:2015-05-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:應用外語系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
論文頁數:129
中文關鍵詞:需求分析課程設計高職英語教育專業英語課程
外文關鍵詞:needs analysis (NA)curriculum designvocational high school (VHS) English educationESP program
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:678
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:70
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
在台灣,已有許多研究在探討不同科系大學生的專業英語(ESP)需求,然而,針對專業英語對於高職生或探討高職生於不同階段之學習需求研究仍屬少數。因此,本研究嘗試藉由Hutchinson and Waters(1987)所提出的需求分析方式,來探討在四大專業英語課程(認識企業文化、簡報架構、簡報設計、非語言溝通)中,高職生在三個不同學習階段(課程前、課程中、課程後)學習需求(缺乏、需要、想要)之表現。24位分別來自應用外語科、商業經營科及國際貿易科的高職一年級生參與了此項研究。本研究採用了混合研究法(a mixed method),對量化及質化的資料進行了三角測定(triangulation),並以敘述統計及推論統計的方式呈現出問卷及訪談結果。根據研究結果顯示,在同一個學習階段,高職生對四大專業英語課程有不同的缺乏、需要、及想要的學習需求,且這三個需求面向彼此間在不同學習階段更存在著顯著性的差異。另外,本研究也顯示高職生皆普遍認為「非語言溝通」或「肢體表達」是他們感到最缺乏、最需要以及最想要學習的能力。文末,依據研究結果,本研究提供了理論與教學上的建議,另也提出了本研究之限制,以期對未來的高職英語教育及專業英語教學之課程設計有所裨益。
In Taiwan, numerous studies on English for specific purposes (ESP) have explored the needs of ESP teaching and learning for particular groups of learners at the university level. However, few studies have been conducted at the vocational high school (VHS) level and probed VHS students’ changing needs at and among various learning stages. Therefore, the present study employed Hutchinson and Waters’ (1987) needs analysis approach to investigate VHS students’ perceived learning needs (i.e., lacks, necessities, and wants) among three stages: before, during, and after the program. Twenty-four first-year VHS students from the Departments of Applied Foreign Languages, Business Management, and International Trade participated in this mixed-method study. Triangulation was performed, and both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the survey questionnaire and interviews. The results showed that the VHS students’ perceived learning lacks, necessities, and wants toward the four core courses differed from each other at each stage, and each facet of needs also differed significantly among stages. Nonverbal communication was also considered the most lacking, necessary, and desirable skill by the VHS students. This paper discusses the findings regarding theoretical and pedagogical implications for both VHS English education and ESP teaching and learning, and some limitations and suggestions are provided for future ESP curriculum design.
CONTENTS

摘要 iv
ABSTRACT v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT vi
誌謝 vii
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES ix
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 2
1.3 Purpose of the Study 4
1.4 Research Questions 4
1.5 Significance of the Study 5
1.6 Terminology 5
1.7 Organization of the Study 6
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 7
2.1 English for Specific Purposes 7
2.1.1 ESP Development 7
2.1.2 ESP Characteristics and Definitions 12
2.1.3 ESP Variations 17
2.2 Needs Analysis 21
2.2.1 NA Definitions 21
2.2.2 NA Taxonomies 22
2.2.3 Implementation of NA in ESP Course Design 23
2.3 ESP Curriculum 25
2.3.1 Characteristics of ESP Courses 25
2.3.2 Implications of ESP Courses in Taiwan 30
2.4 ESP for Secondary School Learners 31
2.5 Summary 32
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 33
3.1 Context of the Study 33
3.2 Participants 33
3.3 Course Design (10-day program) 35
3.3.1 Introduction to Enterprise Culture 36
3.3.2 PPT Presentation Structure 38
3.3.3 PPT Presentation Design 39
3.3.4 Nonverbal Communication 40
3.4 Instruments 43
3.4.1 Questionnaire 43
3.4.2 Reliability and Validity 44
3.4.3 Follow-Up Interview 45
3.5 Data Collection 45
3.6 Data Analysis 47
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS 49
4.1 What Are the VHS Students’ Learning Lacks, Necessities, and Wants Regarding Business English Presentation Before, During, and After the ESP Program? (RQ1) 49
4.1.1 What Are the VHS Students’ Learning Lacks, Necessities, and Wants Regarding Business English Presentation Before the ESP Program? 49
4.1.1.1 VHS students’ learning lacks regarding business English presentation before the ESP program 51
4.1.1.2 VHS students’ learning necessities regarding business English presentation before the ESP program 52
4.1.1.3 VHS students’ learning wants regarding business English presentation before the ESP program 52
4.1.2 What Are the VHS Students’ Learning Lacks, Necessities, and Wants Regarding Business English Presentation During the ESP Program? 53
4.1.2.1 VHS students’ learning lacks regarding business English presentation during the ESP program 54
4.1.2.2 VHS students’ learning necessities regarding business English presentation during the ESP program 55
4.1.2.3 VHS students’ learning wants regarding business English presentation during the ESP program 55
4.1.3 What Are the VHS Students’ Learning Lacks, Necessities, and Wants Regarding Business English Presentation After the ESP Program? 56
4.1.3.1 VHS students’ learning lacks regarding business English presentation after the ESP program 57
4.1.3.2 VHS students’ learning necessities regarding business English presentation after the ESP program 58
4.1.3.3 VHS students’ learning wants regarding business English presentation after the ESP program 58
4.2 Is There Any Significant Difference Among the Stages of the Program Regarding the VHS Students’ Perceived Learning Lacks, Necessities, and Wants? (RQ2) 59
4.3 Is There Any Significant Difference Among the Divisions of Perceived Needs Before, During, and After the Program? (RQ3) 63
4.4 What Are the Students’ Perceived Strengths and Weaknesses of the ESP Program? (RQ4) 66
4.5 Interview Results 70
4.6 Summary of the Major Findings 82
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS 85
5.1 Summary of the Study 85
5.2 Discussion of the Study 87
5.2.1 Learning Needs 87
5.2.2 ESP Curriculum Design 88
5.2.3 EGP and ESP Education in Taiwan 90
5.3 Implication of the Study 92
5.4 Limitations and Suggestions of the Study 95
REFERENCES 97
APPENDIX A. Application Form (English version) 108
APPENDIX B. Application Form (Chinese version) 109
APPENDIX C. ESP Program Schedule (English version) 110
APPENDIX D. ESP Program Schedule (Chinese version) 112
APPENDIX E. Questionnaire: Before and During the Program 114
(English version) 114
APPENDIX F. Questionnaire: Before and During the Program 120
(Chinese version) 120
APPENDIX G. Questionnaire: Additional Questions After the Program 126
(English version) 126
APPENDIX H. Questionnaire: Additional Questions After the Program 127
(Chinese version) 127
APPENDIX I. Interview Guide (English version) 128
APPENDIX J. Interview Guide (Chinese version) 129
REFERENCES
Ahmadi, M. (2003). Can ESP be tested by EGP? Journal of Medical Education, 3(1), 7-10.
Alexander, R. J. (1999). Business English in Europe: Student requirements and course delivery. In M. Hewings & C. Nickerson (Eds.), Business English: Research into practice. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Aliakbari, M., & Boghayeri, M. (2014). A needs analysis approach to ESP design in Iranian context. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 175-181.
Anthony, L. (1997). ESP: What does it mean? Why is it different? On Cue. Retrieved from http://www.antlab.sci.waseda.ac.jp/abstracts/ESParticle.html
Anthony, L. (2004). Defining English for specific purposes and the role of the ESP practitioner. Retrieved from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/abstracts/Aizukiyo97.pdf
Basturkmen, H. (2006). Ideas and options in English for specific purposes. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Belcher, D. (2006). English for specific purposes: Teaching to perceived needs and imagined futures in worlds of work, study and everyday life. TESOL Quarterly, 40(1), 133-156.
Berwick, R. (1989). Needs assessment in language programming: From theory to practice. In R. K. Johnson (Ed.), The second language curriculum (pp. 48-62). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bojović, M. (2006). Teaching foreign language for specific purposes: Teacher development. Proceedings of the 31st Annual ATEE Conference, Sovenia,
487-493. Retrieved from http://www.pef.uni-lj.si/atee/978-961-6637-06-0/487-493.pdf
Bosher, S., & Smalkoski, K. (2002). From needs analysis to curriculum development: Design a course in health-care communication for immigrant students in the USA. English for Specific Purposes, 21, 59-79.
Botting, G. (2010). Rakuten’s English-only policy endures close media scrutiny. The Japan Times Online. Retrieved from
http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/fd20100822bj.html
Boyd, F. A. (1991). Business English and the case method: A reassessment. TESOL Quarterly, 25(4), 729-734.
Brindley, G. (1984). Needs analysis and objective setting in the adult migrant education programme. Sydney, AU.: New South Wales Adult Migrant Education Service.
Brindley, G. P. (1989). The role of needs analysis in adult ESL programme design. In R. K. Johnson (Ed.), The second language curriculum (pp. 63-78). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, J. D. (1995). The elements of language curriculum: A systematic approach to program development. Boston, MA.: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Carter, D. (1983). Some propositions about ESP. The ESP Journal, 2, 131-137.
Chen, Y. (2006). From common core to specific. Asian ESP Journal, 1(3), 24-50.
Chiang, W. L. (2012). Technological and vocational education in Taiwan, ROC.
Ministry of Education: Taiwan. Retrieved from http://www.edu.tw/FileUpload/1052-15293%5CDocuments/%E4%B8%AD%E8%8F%AF%E6%B0%91%E5%9C%8B%E6%8A%80%E8%81%B7%E6%95%99%E8%82%B2%E7%B0%A1%E4%BB%8B(%E8%8B%B1%E6%96%87%E7%89%88).pdf
Chostelidou, D. (2010). A needs analysis approach to ESP syllabus design in Greek tertiary education: A descriptive account of students’ needs. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 4507-4512.
Crosling, G., & Ward, I. (2002). Oral communication: The workplace needs and uses of business graduate employees. English for Specific Purposes, 21(1), 41-57.
Cruickshank, K. (2009). EAP in Secondary Schools. In D. Belcher (ed.), English For specific purposes in theory and practice (pp. 22-40). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Dar, M. (2010). From general to specific English: A case study of NUML. Journal of NELTA, 15, 28-42.
Derwing, B. L., Schutz, N. W., & Tang, C. (1978). Teaching English as a foreign language and English for science and technology in the Republic of China. Bulletin of Sun-Sen Culture Foundation, 22, 1-38.
DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Dodigovic, M. (2005). Vocabulary profiling with electronic corpora: A case study in computer assisted needs analysis. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(5), 443-455.
Dudley-Evans, T., & St. John, M. J. (1998). Developments in English for specific purposes: A multidisciplinary approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Eslami, Z. R. (2010). Teacher’s voice vs. students’ voice: A needs analysis approach to English for academic purposes (EAP) in Iran. English Language Teaching, 3(1), 3-11.
Executive Yuan. (2009). Plan for enhancing national English proficiency. Taipei: Executive Yuan Research, Development and Evaluation Commission.
Far, M. (2008). On the relationship between ESP & EGP: A general perspective. ESP World, 1(17), Volume 7.
Feng, S. F. (2010). A case study of developing English for specific purposes courses for the pilots and jet-fighter maintenance technicians at the air force base. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan.
Ferris, D. (1998). Students’ view of academic aural/oral skills: A comparative needs analysis. TESOL Quarterly, 32(2), 299-318.
Flowerdew, J., & Peacock, M. (2001). Issues in ESP: A preliminary perspective. In J. Flowerdew & M. Peacock (Eds.), Research perspectives on English for academic purposes (pp. 8-24). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gao, J. J. (2007). Designing an ESP course for Chinese university students of business. The Asian ESP Journal, 3(1), 98-107.
Gatehouse, K. (2001). Key issues in English for specific purposes (ESP) curriculum
development. The Internet TESL Journal. Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Gatehouse-ESP.html
Gozuyeşil, E. (2014). An analysis of engineering students’ English language needs. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 4182-4186.
Guo, C. (1987). A needs study of undergraduate and graduate EST students and in-service technical professionals. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on English Teaching and Learning, Republic of China, 263-274.
Guo, C. (1989). A report on the curriculum evaluation and development of foreign languages. Ching Chu: National Jiao Tong University.
Hua, T. L. (2012). English language education in vocational high schools in Taiwan: A study from an English for specific purposes perspective. Athens: ATINER’S Conference Paper Series, No: EDU2012-0118.
Hua, T. L., & Beverton, S. (2013). General or vocational English courses for Taiwanese students in vocational high schools? Students’ perceptions of their English courses and their relevance to their future career. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 12(2), 101-120.
Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1984). How communicative is ESP? ELT Journal, 38(2), 108-113.
Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (1987). English for specific purposes: A learning-centered approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. (2002). English for specific purposes. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.
Hyland, K. (2002). Specificity revisited: How far should we go now? English for Specific Purposes, 21, 385-395.
Hyland, K. (2007). English for specific purposes: Some influences and impacts. In J. Cummins & C. Davison (Eds.), International handbook of English language teaching. New York: NY: Springer.
Iwai, T., Kondo, K., Limm, S. J. D., Ray, E. G., Shimizu, H., & Brown, J. D. (1999). Japanese language needs analysis. Retrieved from
http://www.nflrc.hawaii.edu/Networks/NW13/NW13.pdf
Johns, A. M., & Dudley-Evans, T. (1991). English for specific purposes: International in scope, specific in purpose. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 297-314.
Jordan, R. (1997). English for academic purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kaewpet, C. (2009). A framework for investigating learner needs: Needs analysis extended to curriculum development. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 6, 209-220.
Karimi, P., & Sanavi, R. V. (2014). Analyzing English language learning needs among students in aviation training program. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 852-858.
Kavaliauskienė, G., & Užpalienė, D. (2003). Ongoing needs analysis as a factor to successful language learning. Journal of Language and Learning, 1(1), 35-50.
Kennedy, C. (1980). Fundamental problems in ESP. In ELT Documents 106, Team teaching in ESP (pp. 118-126). The British Council Teaching Information Centre: London.
Kennedy, C., & Bolitho, R. (1984). English for Specific Purposes. London: Macmillan.
Kim, H. H. (2013). A research on the English for engineering students course based on needs analysis in Korea. International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitous Engineering, 8(6), 279-288.
Lee, M. X. (2012). A study of perceptions of English ability needs in a university of science and technology. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan.
Leonardi, V. (2009). Teaching business English through translation. Journal of Language & Translation [online], 10(1), 139-153.
Lin, J., Wang, A., & Zhang, C. (2014). Integrating curriculum design theory into ESP course construction: Aviation English for aircraft engineering. Open Journal of Modern Linguistics, 4, 219-227.
Liu, J. Y., Chang, Y. J., Yang, F. Y., & Sun, Y. C. (2011). Is what I need what I want? Reconceptualising college students’ needs in English courses for general and specific/academic purposes. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 10, 271-280.
Lo, P. C. (2012). A task-based needs analysis of restaurant English: Perspectives of hotel professionals and technical college students. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan.
Lo, Y. H. (2012). ESP versus EGP: A case study of an ESP program for vocational high school students of Tourism. Taiwan International ESP Journal, 3(2), 71-100.
Long, M. H. (1984). Process and product in ESL program evaluation. TESOL Quarterly, 18(3), 409-425.
Long, M. H. (2005). Methodological issues in learner needs analysis. In M. H. Long (Ed.), Second language needs analysis (pp. 19-76). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mackay, R., & Mountford, A. (1978) (Eds.). English for specific purposes: A case study approach. London, Longman.
Marshall, S., & Gilmour, M. (1993). Lexical knowledge and reading comprehension in Papua New Guinea. English for Specific Purposes, 12, 69-81.
Munby, J. (1978). Communicative syllabus design. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nation, I. S. P. (2007). The four strands. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1(1), 1-12.
Nation, I. S. P., & Macalister, J. (2010). Language curriculum design. New York: Routledge.
Nelson, M. (2000). A corpus-based study of business English and business English teaching materials. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Manchester.
Nunan, D. (1988). Syllabus design. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.
Nunan, D. (1999). Second language teaching and learning. Boston: Heinle & Heinle Publishers.
Orr, T. (1998). The language teacher. ESP for Japanese universities: A guide for intelligent reform. The Language Teacher Online. Retrieved from http://jalt-publications.org/old_tlt/files/98/nov/orr.html
Orr, T. (2008). Next generation English for specific purposes (NextGen ESP). In L. Huang & L. Li (Eds.), English education and English for specific purposes (pp. 1-6). Shih Chien University, Taipei: Crane Publishing Co., Ltd.
Pickett, D. (1989). The sleeping giant: Investigations in business English. Language International, 1(1), 5-13.
Pien, J. (2007, August 22). Taiwan ranks 17th on IELTS scores, behind Japan, Korea.
The China Post. Retrieved from http://www.chinapost.com.tw/news/2007/08/22/119333/Taiwan-ranks.htm
Prachanant, N. (2012). Needs analysis on English language use in tourism industry. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 66, 117-125.
Richards, J. C. (1984). The secret life of methods. TESOL Quarterly, 18(1), 7-23.
Richards, J. C. (2001). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Richards, J. C. (2003). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Robinson, P. (1991). ESP today: A practitioner’s guide. Hemel Hempstead: Prentice-Hall.
Salmani-Nodoushan, M. A. (2006). Language teaching: State of the art. The Reading Matrix, 6(2), 125-140.
Savignon, S. (1997). Communicative competence: Theory and classroom practice (2nd edition). New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Schleppegrell, M., & Royster, L. (1990). Business English: An international survey. English for Specific Purposes, 9, 3-16.
Seedhouse, P. (1995). Needs analysis and the general English classroom. ELT Journal, 49(1), 59-65.
Shen, Q. (2008). A study of an ESP curriculum for airline agents in China. English Language Teaching, 1(1), 54-60.
Stoller, F. L. (2001). The curriculum renewal process in English for academic purposes programs. In J. Flowerdew & M. Peacock (Eds.), Research perspectives on English for academic purposes (pp. 208-224). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Strevens, P. (1988). ESP after twenty years: A re-appraisal. In M. Tickoo (Ed.), ESP: State of the Art (pp. 1-13). Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Centre.
Swales, J. M. (1985). Episodes in ESP: A source and reference book on the development of English for science and technology. New York: Pergamon Press.
Sysoyev, P. (2000). Developing an English for specific purposes course using a learner centered approach: A Russian experience. The Internet TESL Journal, 6(3). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Sysoyev-ESP.html
Tsao, C. H., & Hsu, C. H. (2010) The English-learning needs of technical university students: A case study of Fooyin University. Journal of Lan Yang Institute of
Technology, 5(9), 60-72. Retrieved from http://ir.fy.edu.tw/ir/retrieve/13533/24+%E6%9B%B9%E5%98%89%E7%A7%80%E5%BE%90%E9%9D%92%E8%8D%B7.pdf
Tseng, C. Y. (2012). A study of post need through pedagogical translation in technical EOP classroom. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan.
Ulucay, S., & Demirel, Ö. (2011). Perceptions of professionals, academicians and current and graduate students on designing an ESP curriculum for logistics department. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 794-800.
Warden, C. A., & Lin, H. J. (2000). Existence of integrative motivation in an Asian EFL setting. Foreign Language Annuals, 33(5), 535-545.
Weng, C. Y. (2013). Current situation of English for specific purposes (ESP) curriculum at Chaoyang University of Technology. Published master’s thesis, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan.
West, R. (1994). Needs analysis in language teaching. Language Teaching, 27(1), 1-19.
Westerfield, K. (1989). Improved linguistic fluency with case studies and a video method. English for Specific Purposes, 8, 75-83.
Widdowson, H. G. (1978). Teaching language as communication. Oxford, UK.: Oxford University Press.
Widdowson, H. G. (1981). English for specific purposes: Criteria for course design. In L. Selinker, E. Tarone, & V. Hanzeli (Eds.), English for Academic and Technical Purposes (pp. 1-11). Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers.
Widdowson, H. G. (1983). Learning purpose and language use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wu, T., & Hsieh, T. (1988). A study on the objectives of the freshman English course in National Chi Hua University. Ching Chu: National Chi Hua Uiversity.
Yalden, J. (1987). The communicative syllabus: Evolution, design and implementation. London, UK.: Pergamon Press.
Yanase, M. (2004). Prerequisite EGP plus ESP courses for speaking ability:Curriculum development from theory to practice. Retrieved from
http://repository.tku.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/11150/122/1/komyu21-04.pdf
Yılmaz, F. (2014). An investigation into students’ Turkish language needs at Jagiellonian University in Poland. Educational Research and Reviews, 9(16), 555-561.
Yogman, J., & Kaylani, C. (1996). ESP program design for mixed level students. English for Specific Purposes, 15, 311-324.
Yu, Z. H. (2007). Gao zhi ying wen xie tong jiao xue zhi tan tao [An investigation of team teaching in vocational high school], Journal of Yu Da, 21, 297-301.
Zhang, H., & Wang, G. (2011). Recent developments in pedagogical research on business English in China: A synthesis of literature. The Asian ESP Journal, 7(3), 143-169.
Zhang, Z. (2007). Towards an integrated approach to teaching business English: A Chinese experience. English for Specific Purposes, 26, 399-410.
Zohrabi, M. (2014). Promoting teacher development through an interactive approach to curriculum development. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 2025-2034.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top