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研究生:劉玤琳
研究生(外文):Christina F. L. Liu
論文名稱:解剖同情心: 由王爾德到拉斯馮提爾
論文名稱(外文):An Anatomy of Sympathy: From Oscar Wilde to Lars Von Trier
指導教授:勞維俊
指導教授(外文):Louis Lo
口試委員:Jeremy Tambling霍弘毅
口試委員(外文):Jeremy TamblingThomas Wall
口試日期:2014-11-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺北科技大學
系所名稱:應用英文系碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
語文別:英文
中文關鍵詞:聖殤(導演:金基德)性愛成癮的女人(導演: 拉斯馮提爾)米德爾馬契同理心同情心
外文關鍵詞:NymphomaniacPietaMiddlemarchEmpathySympathy
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同情心本是正面的美德,是維繫人際關係社會化不可或缺的要素,但是在十九世紀,同情的意義發生了變化,自正面意義轉變為負面意義,並且在二十世紀出現另一個相似的概念:「同理心」。論文的第一章分兩部分:第一部分先釐清「憐憫」和「同情」的差別,探討「同情」的字源和不同時代意思的演變。透過簡述十九世紀前不同理論家(大衛休謨、亞當史密斯、約翰拉斯金、奧斯卡王爾德)提出的理論或看法,再綜觀十九世紀後各界對「同情」的認知 ,顯示此概念的變化。本篇論文旨在探討同情心在歷史上的演變,論文的章節將按時序安排。 第二章檢視喬治艾略特的小說《米德爾馬契》,除了檢視「同情」在十九世紀的用法和變化,也探討同情、慈善行為、藝術美學、想像和道德之間的關係,並指出「同情心」的問題所在。 第三章延續同情面臨的問題,討論「同理心」的出現和定義,說明為何二十世紀心理咨詢和各領域開始強調「同理心」的重要,並避免表現「同情心」。此章後半部將分析拉斯馮提爾的電影《性愛成癮的女人》,探索敘事者和傾聽者之間的關係,兩人如何引發對方同情,甚至同理,而達到真正的理解。不同於以往自白的形式,敘事者和傾聽者之間的互動、共同創作故事、電影敘事結構都是此章探討重點。 第四章把「同情心」帶到更複雜層面並作結,檢視金基德的電影《聖殤》劇中復仇者如何利用表演轉變觀眾(受害者)的身份和認同,使主觀意識經由認同產生新的身份,萌發「同情心」或「同理心」,並由主角最後的贖罪代表真正的同情。
This paper aims to examine the history of sympathy in literature and films. Sympathy first appeared in English in the sixteenth century and was regarded as a good virtue. However, in the nineteenth century, sympathy changed from a positive meaning to a negative one. Also, a similar concept, empathy, appeared in the beginning of twentieth century. This thesis begins with an two-part introduction: the first part differentiates pity and sympathy, then gives a historical account on the evolution of the definition of sympathy, follows by a discussion of the word in different time. The second part draws a critical introduction about different theorists’ point of view on sympathy, such as David Hume, Adam Smith, John Ruskin, and Oscar Wilde. Chapter 2 focuses on George Eliot’s Middlemarch (1871-72), in order to see how the use of sympathy changes, and investigates how sympathy and egoism are related to each other. This section also examines how sympathy, philanthropy, aesthetics, imagination, and ethics are related to each other. Chapter 3 follows the discussion on arts and sympathy, and comes to a critique about empathy. Not only did empathy emerged, but also there has been a huge development of strategy about empathy in the psychological counseling session. The relationship between analyst and analysand is actually listener and storyteller. This chapter analyzes Lars Von Trier’s Nymphomaniac (2013), to explore the relationship between the listener and the storyteller and how the storyteller’s narrative is changed by the listener’s degree of sympathy/empathy. Chapter 4 explores a more intense relationship between the two parties involved in sympathy. In Kim’s Pieta (2012), the woman’s vengeance could be seen as a performance ‘attracting’ the revenged to empathize with the role designed by the revenger. The subjectivity of both the revenger and the revenged are transformed. This chapter explores in what way the revenger uses her performance to manage the revenged figure’s identity. The subjectivity of the revenged changes by identifying the new identification, and therefore, the revenger creates the feeling of sympathy or empathy in the revenged.
Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction: Theorizing Sympathy 1 On Pity 1 The Chronicle of Sympathy 5 Sympathy and Identification: From the Enlightenment to the Nineteenth Century 10 David Hume 10 Adam Smith 13 John Ruskin 16 Chapter 2 Victorian Morbid Sympathy in George Eliot’s Middlemarch (1872) 23 The “Fanaticism of Sympathy”: Aesthetics and Ethics 24 Oscar Wilde: Philanthropy and Sympathy 42 Chapter 3 Improvisation in Nymphomaniac (2013): The Politics of Empathy in Storytelling 52 A Critique of Empathy 53 Confession and Yet a Creative Storytelling 61 Empathy: Knowledge vs. Experience? 68 Chapter 4 Conclusion: Sympathy and Redemption in Kim Ki-duk’s Pieta (2012) 73 Plot Synopsis 73 Revenge and The Politics of Sympathy: Debt and Suffering 74 Theatricality of Sympathy 76 The Intrusion of Subjectivity and Identity 78 Conclusion: What is “Real” Sympathy? 80 Works Cited 84
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