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研究生:蔡青青
研究生(外文):Ching-Ching Tsai
論文名稱:接受心導管檢查中年婦女不同停經狀態之冠狀動脈危險因子探討及生活型態管理計畫之成效
論文名稱(外文):Exploring the coronary risk factors and the effectiveness of lifestyle management program in various menopausal status among middle-aged women with catheterization
指導教授:鄭綺鄭綺引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chii Jeng
口試委員:潘文涵謝敏雄蔡仁貞陳品玲
口試委員(外文):Wen-Harn PanMing-Hsiung HsiehJen-Chent TsaiPing-Ling Chen
口試日期:2015-06-26
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:臺北醫學大學
系所名稱:護理學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:179
中文關鍵詞:中年婦女冠狀動脈疾病危險因素心臟復健生活型態管理
外文關鍵詞:middle-aged womencoronary artery diseaserisk factorcardiac rehabilitationlifestyle management
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冠狀動脈疾病(coronary artery disease, CAD)是女性重要死因,針對中年女性CAD相關研究卻很少。本研究分兩階段進行,第一階段旨在探討中年婦女CAD之預測因子,第二階段旨在探討生活型態管理計畫對改善CAD危險因素之成效。
第一階段採橫斷式研究設計。於2010年2月至2014年9月期間,在臺北地區兩家醫學中心心臟內科病房進行收案。選取247位因疑似CAD接受心導管檢查40-64歲中年婦女為對象,依自述停經狀態分為未停經(n=46)、已停經(n=156)及子宮切除(n=45)三組。依心導管結果分為CAD組(至少一條主要血管狹窄>50%)與non-CAD組。第二階段採隨機對照試驗,針對第一階段CAD組選取35位個案,隨機分配至實驗(n=17)或控制組(n=18),實驗組接受12週生活型態管理計畫,控制組則維持原來的生活型態。以填寫問卷、查閱病歷、血液檢驗及測量方式收集資料。
第一階結果顯示,整體平均年齡56.8±5.9歲,憂鬱與焦慮間具中度正相關(ψ=0.36, p<0.01),高hsCRP與不活動(ψ=0.23, p<0.01)具輕度正相關。中年婦女危險因素發生百分率最高為脂質異常,其次為肥胖;未停經者目前或曾經抽菸的比例顯著高於已停經和子宮切除者(30.4% vs. 11.5% vs.13.3%, p=0.01),未停經者不活動的比例顯著高於子宮切除者(56.5% vs. 28.9%, p=0.03)。中年婦女有糖尿病史者會增加2.74倍罹患CAD的風險(p<0.01),有CAD家族史發生CAD的機率是沒有家族史的1.97倍(p=0.03)。不同停經狀態,其發生CAD的預測因子不同。未停經者,曾經或目前抽菸者發生CAD的機率是從未抽菸者的7.5倍(p=0.03)。已停經者,有糖尿病史者發生CAD的機率是沒有糖尿病史的3.07倍(p<0.01),有暴露二手菸者發生CAD的機率是沒有暴露者的2.07倍(p=0.04)。子宮切除者,收縮壓每增加1mmHg,增加4%發生CAD的風險(p=0.04)。第二階段結果顯示,實驗組執行生活型態管理計畫後,可顯著增加高密度脂蛋白(B=7.83, p<0.01)、降低總膽固醇(B= -49.21, p=0.04)及腰圍(B= -6.42, p<0.01),減少64%發生肥胖的風險(OR=0.36, p=0.04)。
本研究結果將有助於接受心導管檢查中年婦女,更精確有效的進行CAD的初級與次級預防。
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of death in women. Scant studies on middle-aged women with CAD have been conducted. This study comprised two stages. Stage 1 explored predictors of CAD in middle-aged women; Stage 2 explored the effectiveness of a lifestyle management program on improving the risk factors of CAD.
A cross-sectional design was adopted for Stage 1. From February 2010 to September 2014, patients in the cardiology wards of two medical centers in Taipei were recruited to participate in this study. A total of 247 middle-aged women aged 40 to 64 years who had undergone cardiac catheterization because of suspected CAD were recruited for this study. These participants were divided into three groups: the premenopause (n = 46), postmenopause (n = 156), and hysterectomy (n = 45) groups. These participants were further divided into two groups: the CAD (with at least one coronary artery with > 50% stenosis) and non-CAD groups. A randomized controlled trial was adopted for Stage 2. A total of 35 patients were selected from the CAD group and were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 17) or control (n = 18) groups. The experimental group received a 12-week lifestyle management program, and the control group maintained their original lifestyle. The data were collected by administering a questionnaire, reviewing medical records, and performing a blood test.
The results obtained from Stage 1 showed that the average age of the participants was 56.8 ± 5.9 years. The depression level of the participants was moderately positively correlated with the anxiety level of the participants (ψ= 0.36, p < 0.01); high-sensitivity c-reactivity protein was slightly positively correlated with physical inactivity (ψ= 0.23, p < 0.01). The highest risk factor for CAD in middle-aged women was dyslipidemia, followed by obesity. The proportion of women who ever or currently smoked in the premenopause group was higher than those in the postmenopause and hysterectomy groups (30.4% vs. 11.5% vs.13.3%, p = 0.01); the proportion of women who exhibited physical inactivity in the premenopause group was significantly higher than that in the hysterectomy group (56.5% vs. 28.9%, p = 0.03). The risk of CAD in middle-aged women with diabetes was 2.74 times higher than that in middle-aged women without diabetes (p < 0.01); the incidence of CAD in middle-aged women with a family history of CAD was 1.97 times higher than that in middle-aged women without a family history of CAD (p = 0.03). The predictors of CAD varied among the premenopause, postmenopause, and hysterectomy groups. For the premenopause group, the risk of CAD in those who ever or currently smoked was 7.5 times higher than that in those who never smoked (p= 0.03). For the postmenopause group, the risk of CAD in those who experienced diabetes was 3.07 times higher than that in those who had not experienced diabetes (p < 0.01); the risk of CAD in those who were exposed to second-hand smoke was 2.07 times higher than that in those who were not exposed to second-hand smoke (p = 0.04). For the hysterectomy group, an increase in systolic blood pressure of 1 mmHg increased the risk of CAD by 4% (p = 0.04). The results obtained from Stage 2 showed that after receiving the lifestyle management program, the experimental group’s high-density lipoprotein level significantly increased (B = 7.83, p < 0.01), whereas their total cholesterol level (B = -49.21, p = 0.04) and waist circumference (B = -6.42, p < 0.01) significantly decreased; in addition, their risk of obesity decreased by 64% (Odds ratio [OR] = 0.36, p = 0.04).
The results of this study can facilitate middle-aged women with catheterization effectively applying primary and secondary CAD preventions.
誌 謝 ••••••••••••••••••• I
中文摘要 ••••••••••••••••••• III
英文摘要 ••••••••••••••••••• V
目 錄 ••••••••••••••••••• VIII
圖表目次 ••••••••••••••••••• XII
縮寫對照表 •••••••••••••• XIV

第一章 緒論
第一節 研究動機與重要性•••••••••••••• 1
第二節 研究目的與假說••••••••••••••• 4
第三節 名詞界定•••••••••••••••••• 5
第二章 文獻查證
第一節 中年女性及不同停經狀態下CAD的流行狀況•••• 7
第二節 CAD的危險因素及相關性•••••••••••• 9
第三節 中年女性及不同停經狀態下CAD危險因素之發生狀況11
第四節 中年女性及不同停經狀態下CAD之預測因子•••• 13
第五節 女性生活型態建議指引及行為調整••••••• 14
第六節 CAD女性生活型態管理計劃的成效•••••••• 17
第三章 研究架構••••••••••••••••••• 22
第四章 第一階段研究方法
第一節 研究設計•••••••••••••••••• 23
第二節 研究場所與對象••••••••••••••• 23
第三節 研究工具與信效度•••••••••••••• 24
第四節 各項危險因素定義•••••••••••••• 28
第五節 資料收集過程•••••••••••••••• 29
第六節 資料分析方法•••••••••••••••• 30
第五章 第二階段研究方法
第一節 研究設計•••••••••••••••••• 31
第二節 研究場所與對象••••••••••••••• 31
第三節 隨機分組與隱匿••••••••••••••• 31
第四節 生活型態管理計畫•••••••••••••• 32
第五節 研究工具與信效度•••••••••••••• 35
第六節 資料收集過程•••••••••••••••• 37
第七節 資料分析方法•••••••••••••••• 38
第六章 分析與結果
第一節 第一階段研究對象基本屬性•••••••••• 41
第二節 各項危險因素間之相關性••••••••••• 42
第三節 中年婦女與不同停經狀態下危險因素之發生百分率42
第四節 中年婦女罹患CAD之預測因子••••• •••••52
第五節 不同停經狀態下罹患CAD之預測因子••••••• 56
第六節 第二階段研究對象之基本屬性••••••••• 63
第七節 執行生活型態管理計畫後對改善危險因素之成效• 68
第七章 討論
第一節 各項危險因素間之相關性••••••••••• 80
第二節 中年婦女危險因素之發生百分率•••••••• 81
第三節 中年婦女罹患CAD之預測因子•••••••••• 82
第四節 不同停經狀態下各項危險因素之發生百分率••• 84
第五節 不同停經狀態下罹患CAD之預測因子•••••• 86
第六節 執行生活型態管理計畫後對改善危險因素之成效• 91
第八章 結論與建議
第一節 結論•••••••••••••••••••• 94
第二節 研究限制•••••••••••••••••• 95
第三節 應用與建議••••••••••••••••• 96
參考資料
中文部分•••••••••••••••••••••••99
英文部分•••••••••••••••••••••••102
附錄
附錄一 前測基本資料表•••••••••••• 128
附錄二 飲食頻率量表作者同意函•••••••• 134
附錄三 飲食頻率量表(以兩頁為例)••••••• 135
附錄四 中文版貝克憂鬱量表第二版••••••• 137
附錄五 中文版貝克焦慮量表•••••••••• 139
附錄六 人體試驗委員會通過函••••••••• 140
附錄七 第一階段研究同意書•••••••••• 142
附錄八 「遠離心血管疾病的方法—執行健康生活型態」手冊154
附錄九 放鬆訓練作者同意函•••••••••• 162
附錄十 後測基本資料表•••••••••••• 163
附錄十一 24小時飲食回憶記錄表作者同意函••• 166
附錄十二 24小時飲食回憶記錄表(以兩頁為例)•• 167
附錄十三 七日身體活動回憶量表作者同意函••• 169
附錄十四 七日身體活動回憶量表•••••••• 170
附錄十五 第二階段研究同意書••••••••• 171

圖表目次
圖一 研究概念架構圖•••••••••••••••• 22
圖二 第一階段個案流程圖•••••••••••••• 44
圖三 第二階段個案流程圖•••••••••••••• 64
圖四 兩組個案介入前後HDL之變化••••••••••• 72
圖五 兩組個案介入前後TC之變化••••••••••• 73
圖六 兩組個案介入前後WC之變化••••••••••• 74
圖七 實驗組介入前後各項危險因素比例•••••••• 77
圖八 控制組介入前後各項危險因素比例•••••••• 78
圖九 兩組個案介入前後肥胖比例之變化•••••••• 79
表一 單獨針對女性進行介入措施之成效研究•••••• 19
表二 第二階段研究設計示意表•••••••••••• 33
表三 身體活動能量消耗計算公式••••••••••• 40
表四 第一階段研究對象之基本屬性(類別性資料)•••• 45
表五 第一階段研究對象之基本屬性(連續性資料) •••• 47
表六 危險因素間之相關性分析•••••••••••• 49
表七 中年婦女危險因素之發生百分率及不同停經狀態下之差異 50
表八 中年婦女兩組個案類別性基本屬性之比較••••••• 53
表九 中年婦女兩組個案連續性基本屬性之比較••••••• 54
表十 中年婦女CAD預測因子之多元邏輯斯迴歸分析••••• 55
表十一 不同停經狀態兩組個案類別性基本屬性之比較••••• 58
表十二 不同停經狀態兩組個案連續性基本屬性之比較••••• 60
表十三 不同停經狀態下CAD預測因子之多元邏輯斯迴歸分析• 62
表十四 第二階段兩組個案基本屬性之比較•••••••••• 65
表十五 介入措施後測量值GEE成效分析 ••••••••••• 70
表十六 介入措施後危險因素GEE成效分析•••••••••• 75
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