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研究生:傅俊又
研究生(外文):Chun-You Fu
論文名稱:遊戲關卡難度評估模式探討
論文名稱(外文):THE OPTIMAL SOLUTION FOR ADJUSTING GAME DIFFICULTY LEVEL
指導教授:黃維信黃維信引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wei-Shin Huang
口試委員:黃維信
口試委員(外文):Wei-Shin Huang
口試日期:2015-05-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:工業設計學系(所)
學門:設計學門
學類:產品設計學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:92
中文關鍵詞:正規概念分析法遊戲難度調整塔防遊戲
外文關鍵詞:Formal Concept AnalysisAdjust Difficulty LevelTower Defense Games
相關次數:
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在現今遊戲產業越來越蓬勃的發展下,遊戲業的產值屢創新高,不論是在家用主機或是移動平台的市場上,都有越來越多的遊戲企業或是獨立工作室爭相投入開發的行列。而在遊戲產品製作的流程當中,除了初期的概念、中期的技術開發之外,最重要的還有後期的測試與調整,目的就是希望遊戲的成品能夠達到當初設計師所預期的難度層級,以能夠配合遊玩技巧程度不同的玩家,也因為如此,遊戲設計師必須針對各個影響遊戲難度的數值進行調整。或許在簡單的遊戲中,參數的調整很明顯的就會反映在遊戲的難度上,但在更複雜的遊戲當中,遊戲參數的調整對於玩家遊玩遊戲感受到的難度,卻不是那麼地顯而易見。本研究的目的在於提出一個能夠快速發掘與遊戲難度相關參數的方法,進而將分析的結果回饋到遊戲的設計當中。
在本研究中探討目前在遊戲難度分析上的相關研究,包括心流理論、機率分析等各個研究是如何去定義和分析遊戲難度方式,以及介紹本文所使用的正規概念分析法(Formal Concept Analysis),並在正式實驗當中以塔防遊戲為例,分析塔防遊戲的數學模型,從數學模型的概念架構開發出自定義的遊戲關卡,實際以FCA分析實驗關卡的平衡性,挖掘出其中的相依規則、分析各參數的正規內容可信度,並在最後評估其統計輸出的結果。
而實際運用FCA作為遊戲評估的研究結果,相較於其他運用在遊戲難度分析的研究方法,FCA確實存在著許多優勢,在參數與遊戲難度之間相關性的分析上,FCA可以藉由分析紀錄的數據而自動取得這些規則,可以有效的降低調整參數時所耗費的時間,同時不需要大量的實驗對象就可以獲得顯著的成果,而因為使用客觀的參數統計分析,因此最後所評估的輸出內容能更真實的反應出遊戲進行的情形。
As the game industry keeps growing, the market value continues to break records. More and more businesses or independent studios of the industry have jumped into the market, no matter it’s the market on PCs or mobile platforms. In the process of developing games, besides concept development in the preliminary phase as well as the technology development in the middle phase, the key parts also include testing and adjustment in the later phase, with an aim to ensure that the game can reach the difficulty level as the developers planned at the beginning in order to meet the needs of players with different skill levels. Therefore, the game developers must adjust values to determine the difficulty level of each game. For some simple games, any adjustment on values will be easily reflected on difficulty level. But for complex games, it is not as apparent for gamers to identify any change on the level of difficulty for any value changed. The purpose of this research is to present a methodology that can quickly identify the values associated with difficulty level of games, and then feed the research results to the game development.
The research has been focused on discussions about the analysis on difficulty level, including exploring on how the flow theory and probability analysis define and analyze difficulty level, as well as introducing Formal Concept Analysis (hereinafter referred to as FCA) which will be used in this article. In formal experiments, the tower defense games are used as examples to analyze the math models, and different stages of games are defined based on architecture of the math models. FCA is utilized to analyze the balance of various stages of games to explore the associated rules, analyze the credibility of different values of formal contents, and lastly the final results are evaluated.
Compared to other methodologies on analyzing difficulty levels, the research results utilizing FCA have numerous advantages. In analysis of the relationship between values and difficulty level, FCA can automatically identify these rules based on analysis records, which can effectively reduce the time required for adjusting values, while not requiring to use lots of subjects for experiments. Due to the objective methodology that uses parameter statistics analysis, the final content exported can reflect better the real situation for the games in the playing.
目 錄
誌 謝 i
摘 要 iii
Abstract v
目 錄 vii
圖 次 xi
表 次 xiii
第1章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的 4
1.3 研究範圍 4
1.4 研究限制 4
1.5 研究架構流程 5
第2章 文獻探討 9
2.1 遊戲難度的相關研究 9
2.1.1 心流理論 9
2.1.2 機率分析 11
2.1.3 遊戲難度評估指標 14
2.2 正規概念分析法 18
2.2.1 資料探勘 18
2.2.2 正規內容、概念點陣、與相依規則 20
2.2.3 正規概念分析法之實用範例 21
2.2.4 正規概念分析法之相關研究 24
2.3 文獻小結 25
第3章 實驗設計 27
3.1 實驗關卡製作工具 27
3.2 實驗結果分析工具 30
3.3 塔防遊戲的主要架構 33
3.4 塔防遊戲的數學模型 33
3.5 實驗遊戲關卡 40
第4章 研究結果 41
4.1 實驗內容 41
4.1.1 實驗設備工具 41
4.1.2 實驗環境與實驗步驟 41
4.1.3 受測者資訊分析 43
4.1.4 實驗遊戲關卡流程 45
4.1.5 實驗記測的資訊項目 49
4.2 遊戲參數數值之正規內容 51
4.3 遊戲參數數值的關聯規則 57
4.4 分析結果 67
第5章 結論與建議 69
5.1 結論 69
5.2 後續研究建議 70
參考文獻 73
中文部份 73
英文部份 75
網路部份 77
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英文部份
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