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研究生:葉奕辰
研究生(外文):Yi-chen Yeh
論文名稱:桶陳帝國司陶特與蘭比克類型啤酒之試釀
論文名稱(外文):Brewing of Barrel - Aged Imperial stout and Lambic style beer
指導教授:段國仁段國仁引用關係
指導教授(外文):Kow-Jen Duan
口試委員:段國仁
口試委員(外文):Kow-Jen Duan
口試日期:2015-07-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:生物工程學系(所)
學門:工程學門
學類:生醫工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:246
中文關鍵詞:啤酒釀造
外文關鍵詞:Beer Brewing
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精釀啤酒的釀造方式與各種配方測試,已在近10年內襲捲全球,許多國家的酒廠如火如荼的加入這場宛如軍備競賽般的瘋狂活動中,市售精釀啤酒品項在這幾年不斷的增加中,如何釀造出最特殊與最符合市場的精釀啤酒,成了釀酒師日以繼夜的努力目標。
本論文以桶陳帝國司陶特 (Barrel - Aged Imperial Stout Style) 與蘭比克 (Lambic Style) 這兩種難度較高的精釀啤酒類型進行研究與試釀。
桶陳帝國司陶特為高酒精濃度的啤酒類型,著重濃郁麥芽香氣、高酒精度與橡木桶風味三種和諧並存,在麥芽的選用上需特別注意比例以達到其濃郁的口感,酵母株的選擇與接種量皆需撐過高酒精度的考驗,橡木桶的烤桶溫度與時間更是關鍵的決定最後香氣表現。
蘭比克啤酒為一種歷史悠久的釀造方式,傳統的比利時蘭比克啤酒為自然落菌式發酵,本實驗為了縮小變因,特別選用傳統蘭比克啤酒中常出現的乳酸菌與特殊蘭比克酵母菌種一起混合釀造,並以特殊釀造方式—乳酸糖化法 (Sour Mash)釀造,在增加酸味的表現下也讓啤酒酵母完全展現其風味,本試驗還添加了三種水果的果肉—鳳梨、百香果與白葡萄,加入進行二次發酵與熟成,使成品擁有豐富的果香。
兩種類型的釀造成品表現上,皆有達到啤酒最高指導原則 Beer Judge Certification Program (BJCP) 中所規範的各項標準,試飲的部分也都普遍獲得好評。
The last decade has witnessed a growing need to investigate various brewing processes and to test various formulations of craft beer. Studies have
commercial craft beer products in the market has increased over the last few years. Further, brewing of unique craft beers that satisfy market demands is currently the aim of master brewers.
The two types of craft beer that are difficult to brew are the Barrel-aged Imperial Stout and Lambic beer; these two beers were selected for research and to test the processes involved in brewing.
The Barrel-aged Imperial Stout generally has high alcoholic content with a harmonious co-mingling of rich malt aroma and oak barrel flavors. Particular attention is paid to the proportion of malt selected, in order to achieve a full-bodied taste.
A yeast strain was selected and inoculated into the brew to test the endurance of the strain to high alcohol concentration. The factors involved in determining the final aroma of the beer included the toasting temperature and duration of oak barrel retention.
The brewing process of Lambic beer has a long history. Traditional Belgian Lambic beers were produced by spontaneous fermentation. In order to limit this variable, Lactobacillus spp., frequently found in traditional Lambic beers, were mixed with the Lambic beer yeast for fermentation, followed by a unique brewing process i.e., a saccharification (sour mash) brewing method. In addition to enhancing the sour flavor of the beer, the complete flavor of the beer yeast was extracted. Three fruits, such as pineapple, passion fruit, and white grapes were added for secondary fermentation and allowed to age, in order to develop a beer rich in fruity aroma.
Both beer types met all the criteria specified in the Beer Judge Certification Program (BJCP), which is the highest guiding principle for beers. The taste component was also generally well-received by the consumers.
致謝 I
摘要 II
ABSTRACT IV
目錄 1
圖目錄 9
表目錄 16
第1章 前言 17
第2章 文獻回顧 19
2.1 關於精釀啤酒 19
2.1.1 全球的精釀啤酒大國簡介 20
2.1.1.1 美國 20
2.1.1.2 德國 23
2.1.1.3 比利時 25
2.1.2 臺灣精釀啤酒概況 28
2.2 關於釀造原料 29
2.2.1 麥芽 29
2.2.1.1 皮爾森麥芽PILSNER MALT 30
2.2.1.2 淡色麥芽 PALE ALE MALT 30
2.2.1.3 小麥麥芽 WHEAT MALT 31
2.2.1.4 稞麥麥芽 RYE MALT 31
2.2.1.5 餅乾麥芽 BISCUIT MALT 31
2.2.1.6 勝利麥芽 VICTORY MALT 32
2.2.1.7 慕尼黑麥芽 MUNICH MALT 32
2.2.1.8 維也納麥芽 VIENNA MALT 32
2.2.2 水 35
2.2.3 啤酒花 38
2.2.4 酵母 42
2.2.5 添加物 46
2.3啤酒的釀造 48
2.3.1 糖化 48
2.3.1.1酵素作用 48
2.3.1.2 酸休止 (ACID REST) 51
2.3.1.3 蛋白質休止 (PROTEIN REST) 51
2.3.1.4 澱粉轉換與糖化休止(STARCH CONVERSION & SACCHARIFICATION REST) 52
2.3.1.1酸糖化法(SOUR MASH) 54
2.3.2 煮沸 56
2.3.2.1煮沸的目的 56
2.3.2.2 煮沸的時間 58
2.3.3 接種酵母與發酵 59
2.3.4 後續處理 60
2.3.4.1 冷泡啤酒花 (DRY HOPPING) 60
2.3.4.2 橡木桶熟成 (BARREL - AGED) 61
2.3.4.3 加入水果熟成 64
2.3.4.4 低溫熟成 66
2.3.5 裝瓶 68
2.3.5.1 瓶內發酵 (BOTTLE CONDITION) 69
2.3.5.2 強制碳酸化 (FORCE CARBONATION) 72
2.3.5.3比重計的使用 74
2.4 著名的精釀啤酒類型簡介 77
2.4.1 拉格 LAGER STYLE 78
2.4.1.1 皮爾森 PILSNER 78
2.4.1.2 美系拉格 AMERICAN LAGER 80
2.4.1.3 慕尼黑淺色拉格 MUNICH HELLES 80
2.4.2 混合型啤酒 HYBRID STYLE 80
2.4.2.1 科隆啤酒 KOLSCH 80
2.4.2.2 蒸氣啤酒 STEAM BEER 85
2.4.3 小麥啤酒類型 WHEAT STYLE 88
2.4.3.1 美式小麥啤酒 AMERICAN WHEAT 88
2.4.3.2 比利時白啤酒 WITBIER 88
2.4.4 比利時啤酒類型 BELGIAN STYLE 92
2.4.4.1 比利時烈性金啤酒 BELGIAN GOLDEN STRONG ALE 92
2.4.4.2 比利時雙倍啤酒 BELGIAN DUBBEL 94
2.4.4.3 比利時三倍啤酒 BELGIAN TRIPEL 96
2.4.4.4 比利時四倍啤酒 BELGIAN QUADRUPEL 98
2.4.5 淡色類型 PALE ALE STYLE 100
2.4.5.1 美式淡色愛爾啤酒 AMERICAN PALE ALE 100
2.4.5.2 印度淡色啤酒 INDIA PALE ALE 103
2.4.5.3 英式淡色啤酒 ENGLISH PALE ALE 107
2.4.5.4農家啤酒 FARMER SAISON 109
2.4.6 琥珀愛爾 AMBER ALE STYLE 113
2.4.6.1 美系琥珀愛爾 AMERICAN AMBER ALE 113
2.4.7 英系棕愛爾 ENGLISH BROWN ALE 115
2.4.8 苦啤酒 BITTER 118
2.4.9 大麥酒 BARLEYWINE 119
2.4.10 深色艾爾類型 DARK ALE STYLE 121
2.4.10.1 波特啤酒 PORTER 121
2.4.10.2 司陶特啤酒 STOUT 123
2.4.10.3 IMPERIAL STOUT 125
2.4.11 木桶陳放類型 BARREL - AGED STYLE 127
2.4.12 LAMBIC STYLE 129
2.4.12.1 FRUIT ALE 132
第3章 材料與方法 133
3.1 接種菌液製備 133
3.1.1 菌株 133
3.1.1.1 桶陳帝國司陶特 ( BARREL - AGED IMPERIAL STOUT ) 133
3.1.1.2 蘭比克 ( LAMBIC ) 135
3.1.2 製備培養液 135
3.1.3 接種菌種及培養 136
3.2 兩種啤酒之麥汁製備 137
3.2.1 麥芽配方 137
3.2.1.1 桶陳帝國司陶特 ( BARREL - AGED IMPERIAL STOUT ) 之麥芽配方使用目的與簡介 137
配方表參見 139
3.2.1.2 蘭比克 ( LAMBIC ) 之麥芽配方使用目的與簡介 147
3.2.2 啤酒花及副原料配方 149
3.2.2.1 桶陳帝國司陶特 ( BARREL - AGED IMPERIAL STOUT ) 之啤酒花及副原料配方使用目的與簡介 149
3.2.2.2 蘭比克 ( LAMBIC ) 之啤酒花及副原料配方使用目的與簡介 154
3.3 麥汁糖化流程 157
3.3.1 桶陳帝國司陶特麥汁糖化流程 157
3.3.2 蘭比克麥汁糖化流程 159
3.4 麥汁煮沸與加入啤酒花流程 162
3.4.1 桶陳帝國司陶特之麥汁煮沸與加入啤酒花流程 162
3.4.2 蘭比克之麥汁煮沸與加入啤酒花流程 163
3.5 酸糖化法流程 164
3.6 橡木塊簡介 165
3.6.1 橡木塊的烤製加工 165
3.7 酒廠將啤酒罐入橡木桶之流程 168
3.8 加入果肉進行二次發酵 174
3.8.1 果肉預先處理流程 175
第4章 結果與討論 176
4.1 BARREL - AGED IMPERIAL STOUT經不同熟成方式之結果 176
4.1.1 經由橡木桶熟成 176
4.1.2 經由橡木塊熟成 182
4.2 LAMBIC STYLE BEER加入不同果肉二次發酵 183
4.2.1 百香果 183
4.2.2 白葡萄 188
4.2.3 鳳梨 193
第5章 結論 198
5.1 BARREL - AGED IMPERIAL STOUT 結論 198
5.2 LAMBIC BEER 結論 199
第6章 文獻回顧 200
第7章 附錄 208
主要類型之BJCP原文準則 210
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71.啤酒. Available from: https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%95%A4%E9%85%92.
72.ratebeer. 3 Fonteinen Oude Geuze Vintage. Available from: http://www.ratebeer.com/beer/3-fonteinen-oude-geuze-vintage-all-from-2002-/56716/.
73.ratebeer. Kuhnhenn Raspberry Eisbock. Available from: http://www.ratebeer.com/beer/kuhnhenn-raspberry-eisbock/25627/.
74.wyeast. YEAST STRAIN: 1728 | Scottish Ale™. Available from: https://www.wyeastlab.com/hb_yeaststrain_detail.cfm?ID=143.
75.hopunion. NUGGET. Available from: http://hopunion.com/nugget/.
76.hopunion. VANGUARD. Available from: https://www.hopunion.com/vanguard/.
77.hopunion. HALLERTAU. Available from: https://www.hopunion.com/hallertau/.
78.hopunion. FUGGLE. Available from: https://www.hopunion.com/Fuggle/.
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86.brewgeeks. Toasted Oak Cubes - by gregscsu. Available from: http://www.brewgeeks.com/toasted-oak-cubes.html.
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90.lola. 蘿拉來到南投境內尋找天然的百香果. Available from: http://www.lola.com.tw/food.php?id=14.
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