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研究生:林佩瑩
研究生(外文):Pei-Ying Lin
論文名稱:漸進式相片馬賽克
論文名稱(外文):Incremental Photographic Mosaic
指導教授:王任瓚王任瓚引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ran-Zan Wang
口試委員:吳匡時李遠坤林啟芳
口試委員(外文):Kuang-Shyr WuYeuan-Kuen LeeChi-Fang Lin
口試日期:2015-7-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:元智大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:103
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:相片馬賽克漸進式相片馬賽克非真實渲染裝置藝術
外文關鍵詞:photomosaicincremental photomosaicnon-photorealisticrenderingdecorative arts
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本論文提出一個漸進式相片馬賽克(Incremental Photomosaic)的製作技術,讓使用者經由動態逐步增加磚塊圖片數量,製作並漸進優化相片馬賽克作品之視覺效果。傳統相片馬賽克製作方式為將主圖像分割成互不重疊區塊,並替每個區塊從磚塊圖集中比對尋找特徵相似度最大的磚塊圖將其取代,來製成相片馬賽克作品。本論文建構相片馬賽克的方式則是每取得一張磚塊圖時,會比對所有主圖像中的區塊,找尋此磚塊最適合置放的區塊位置,並設計一個替換準則決定是否利用此磚塊圖取代現有的磚塊圖。我們設計三種不同的建構演算法包括:(1)範圍冗餘法(Ranging redundancy algorithm),(2)磚塊排隊法(Tile queue algorithm),與(3)區塊排除法(Block exclude algorithm),經由逐步增加磚塊圖片數量來建構相片馬賽克作品,並可即時動態呈現馬賽克建置過程。由實驗結果顯示本論文所提出三種演算法各具特色,範圍冗餘法速度快且使用者視覺品質感覺不錯,但磚塊圖多樣性較低。磚塊排隊法使用者視覺品質感覺最好,但速度較慢。而區塊排除法則是在磚塊圖多樣性、使用者視覺觀感與計算速度間取得折衷效果的方案。
In this thesis an incremental photomosaic is proposed. In this method the user can gradually add tile images to construct the photomosaic. The photomosaic rendering process can be displayed step by step and the visual quality of the generated photomosaic will be improved dynamically. In conventional photomosaic generating methods, for each block of the master image, a tile image with similar visual appearance is searched from the database to replace it. In the proposed photomosaic generating method, for each input tile image the best block position to posit it on the photomosaic is searched, and the evaluation criteria is designed to decide whether to replace the tile image with the current one or not. Three different algorithms include: (a) Ranging redundancy algorithm, (2) Block exclude algorithm, and (3) Tile queue algorithm, are proposed to construct the incremental photomosaic. Empirical studies show each algorithm has its own advantages. Ranging Redundancy Algorithm is fast but expresses less diversity to the tile images. The Block Exclude Algorithm has best visual quality of the generated photomosaic but is slower. Tile Queue Algorithm is a compromise method among the visual quality, diversity of tile images and computing time, for constructing the incremental photomosaic.
目錄
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
誌謝 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 x
第一章 簡介 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 相關研究及應用 5
2.1 相片馬賽克 5
2.2 相片馬賽克核心技術 8
2.3 優化影像集即時產生影片馬賽克 10
2.4 磚塊圖片的冗餘 12
2.5 動畫相片馬賽克 14
第三章 所提方法 20
3.1 事前作業 20
3.2 範圍冗餘法(Ranging Redundancy Algorithm) 21
3.3 磚塊排隊法(Tile Queue Algorithm) 24
3.4 區塊排除法(Block Exclude Algorithm) 25
3.5 差異值計算 26
3.6 顏色調整 27
第四章 實驗結果 31
4.1 遞增式相片馬賽克 31
4.2 對主圖像切割不同大小的區塊 36
4.3 顏色調整的重要性 40
4.4 調整範圍冗餘法的臨界值 45
4.5 時間限制 47
4.6 實驗結果統整 48
第五章 結論與未來展望 52
參考文獻 53
附錄一 55


[1] Silvers R., and Hawley M., “Photomosaics,” Henry Holt and Company, Inc. New York, 1997.
[2] http://www.digitalartform.com/archives/2004/12/history_of_phot.html
[3] http://www.cs.princeton.edu/~af/cool/jfk-mm.html
[4] http://www.photomosaic.com/
[5] Battiato S., Di Blasi G., Farinella G.M., and Gallo G., “A Survey of Digital Mosaic Techniques,” Proceedings of Eurographics Italian Chapter Conference, pp. 129135, 2006.
[6] Haeberli P., “Paint by Numbers: Abstract Image Representation,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH1990, pp. 207214, 1990.
[7] Dobashi Y., Haga T., Johan H., and Nishita T., “A Method for Creating Mosaic Images Using Voronoi Diagrams,” Proceedings of Eurographics, pp. 341348, 2002.
[8] Faustino G.M., and De Figueiredo L.H., “Simple Adaptive Mosaic Effects,” Proceedings of SIGGRAPH2005, pp. 315322, 2005.
[9] Choi Y.S., Jung S., Kim J.W., and Koo B.K., “Real-time video photomosaics with optimized image set and GPU,” Journal of Real-Time Image Processing, Issue 3, pp. 569578, 2014.
[10] Shah J., Gala J., Parmar K., Shah M., and Kambli M., “Range Based Search Algorithm For Photomosaic Generation,” International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer and Communication Engineering, Issue 2, ISSN (Online): 22781021, 2014.
[11] Kang D., Seo S., Ryoo S., and Yoon K., “A study on stackable mosaic generation for mobile devices,” Springer Science+Business Media, pp. 145159, LLC 2012.
[12] Narasimhan H., and Sanjeev S., “A Randomized Iterative Improvement Algorithm for Photomosaic Generation,” Published in World Congress on Nature &; Biologically Inspired Computing, pp. 777781, 2009.
[13] D'Souza D., Ciesielski D., Berry M., and Trist K., “Generation of Self-Referential Animated Photomosaics,” Proceedings of the 15th international conference on Multimedia, pp. 489492, 2007.
[14] Badariah S., Sah M., Ciesielski V., and D’Souza D., “Refinement Techniques for Animated Evolutionary Photomosaics Using Limited Tile Collections,” Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 281290, 2010.
[15] http://www.morguefile.com/
[16] http://press.liacs.nl/mirflickr/mirdownload.html
[17] 邱奕平, “Fast Image Resizing with Invariant Aspect Ratio of Salient Region,” 元智大學碩士論文, 2015.
[18] 李亮霆, “An Online Photographic Mosaic Generating System Using Limited Tile Images,” 元智大學碩士論文, 2015.
[19] http://sourceforge.net/projects/opencvlibrary/
[20] http://qt.nokia.com/
[21] Kiho Sakamoto, Kiho Sakamoto, “Photomosaic Generation for Photograph Collection Browsing,” In Proceedings of VINCI, pp. 216216, 2014.

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