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研究生:陳韋宗
研究生(外文):Wei-Chung Chen
論文名稱:以關稅收入占進口比例為自由貿易指標下探討其對所得不均之影響
論文名稱(外文):Free Trade and the Income Inequality–Using Tariff-Import ratio as trade indicator.
指導教授:陳盛通陳盛通引用關係
口試委員:謝耀智黃定遠
口試日期:2016-06-17
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:逢甲大學
系所名稱:財稅學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:財政學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:42
中文關鍵詞:自由貿易所得不均關稅吉尼係數薪資-租金比例
相關次數:
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  • 下載下載:4
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
對於現今自由貿易對所得分配的影響,一直沒有定論,其中有學者認為簽訂更多的自由貿易協定會使得經濟成長提高,順勢帶動非技術勞工的所得的提高,進而改善所得分配(e.g. 陳坤銘和楊書菲(2005),李叢禎和黃明惠(2006), Ben-David (1993), Ronaldj(1996)),但其他學者則認為大多利潤都被資方及管理階層持有,導致所得分配更為擴張(e.g. Ben-David和Michael(1998),莊希豐和陳亞為(2009),林宗弘(2015), Stiglitz(2013)),對於這樣分歧的影響,Davis(1996)提出,若將資本收入與勞動收入作為區分的依據,利用薪資與租金比例當指標,發現不管開發中國家或已開發國家在不同薪資租金比率條件下,自由貿易對所得分配的影響會有不同的結果。因此,本文使用實證分析對Davis(1996)模型做檢驗,以關稅收入占進口總額為自由貿易指標,驗證在不同薪資租金比率條件下,不同國家是否會存在Davis(1996)現象,而實證結果發現15國中只有3個國家實證研究符合Davis(1996)模型, 實證研究中有8國顯示越自由貿易下,其會讓所得分配越緊縮,代表多數國家的自由貿易會改善所得分配,但是這並不符合Davis(1996)的假說。故本研究認為貿易環境更自由下,是可以改善所得分配,而台灣近幾年貿易自由化下,我們認為台灣要改變整體的勞動要素市場及經濟環境,是可以因此改善台灣的所得分配。
This paper studies the impact of free trade to income inequality. Many researches agree that free trade will improve income inequality because unskilled labor wages can rise. But other researches take a different view. They think that only a few people can get the profits. Therefore, we want to figure out why the controversial opinions exist. Davis(1996) provides an explanation about the controversial opinions. He tells that the problem comes from the wages to rental ratio. For developing countries, liberalization will principally benefit the abundant unskilled labor. Yet extensive empirical studies have identified many cases with a contrary result. Davis(1996) shows that countries which are labor abundant in a global sense may see wages decline with liberalization if they are capital abundant in a local sense. And he analyzes that capital and wage are important points. Therefore, we want to prove that if the liberalization will improve income inequality based on the conditional setting by Davis (1996). We set tariff-import ratio to be trade liberalization index and Gin coefficient as income inequality index from 15 countries. The results of our empirical research would compare with the results of Davis (1996). Empirical result shows that only 3 countries suit to the conditional setting from Davis (1996). The result also shows that free trade will improve income inequality in 8 countries. We think that the more free trade agreements are signed will improve income inequality in our empirical research. And the free trade agreements do not give rise to income inequality in Taiwan. Government should improve the factor market of labor and economic environment in Taiwan. We believe these will improve income inequality in Taiwan.
第一章 緒論 2
第二章 文獻探討 9
第三章 研究方法 13
第一節 研究流程 13
第二節 數據來源 14
第三節 線性內插 18
第四節 單根檢定 20
第五節 共整合檢定 22
第六節 向量自我迴歸模型 24
第七節 向量誤差修正模型 25
第八節 實證結果比對模型研究 26
第四章 實證結果與分析 27
第一節 單根檢定結果 27
第二節 共整合檢定結果 29
第三節 向量自我迴歸模型結果 31
第四節 向量誤差修正模型結果 32
第五節 實證結果比對理論模型結果 35
第五章 結論與建議 39
第六章 參考文獻 41
一、中文部份
李叢禎、黃明惠,2006,「入會關稅減讓對台灣地區工資變動之影響:特定要素理論的驗證」,農業經濟半年刊,79 : 31-70。
林宗弘,2015,「台灣階級不平等擴大的原因與後果」,臺灣經濟預測與政策,45(2):45-68。
陳坤銘、楊書菲,2005,「國際貿易對相對工資之影響-以中國大陸貿易自由化為例」,中國大陸研究,48(2):99-122。
莊希豐、陳亞為,2009,「貿易開放與所得不均:以門檻回歸法分析」,經濟研究,47(2):185-224。
朱敬一、康廷嶽,2015,「經濟轉型中的『社會不公平』」,台灣經濟預測與政策,45(2):1-22。
陳智華,2005,「政府消費性支出與經濟成長」,經濟論文,33(1):67-101。

二、英文部份
Ben-David, D. and Michael B . Loewy, 1998, “Free Trade, Growth, and Convergence,” Journal of Economic Growth, 3: 143–170 .
Ben-David , D., 1993, “Equalizing Exchange: Trade Liberalization and Income convergence” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 108(3):663-679.
Davis , D. R., 1996, “Trade Liberalization and Income Distribution,“ National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper ,5693.
Dickey ,D.A., W. A. Fuller,1979, “Distribution of the Estimators for Autoregressive Time Series With a Unit Root .” Journal of the American statistical association, 74(366) :427-431.
Stiglitz , J. E.,2013, “The Free Trade Charade”, Project Syndicate .
Wonnacott, R. J.,1996, “Free-Trade Agreements for Better or Worse,” The American Economic Review,86(2):62-66.
Gastwirth, J. L., 1972, “The Estimation of the Lorenz Curve and Gini Index,” The Review of Economics and Statistics, 54(3):306-316.
Kuznets, S., 1995,” Economic growth and income inequality,” The American Economic Review, 45(1):1-28.
Stack, S., 1978, “The Effect of Direct Government Involvement in the Economy on the Degree of Income Inequality: A Cross-National Study?” American Sociological Review, 43(6):880-888.
Clarke, G. R. G, 1992, “More Evidence?on Income Distribution And Growth, “Journal of development Economics, 47(2): 403-427.
Aschauer, D. A., 1991, ” Transportation Spending and Economic Growth The Effects of Transit and Highway Expenditures,” American Public Transit Association.
Utt, R., 2008,” More Transportation Spending: False Promises of Prosperity and Job Creation,” Heritage Foundation, No.2121.
Aaberge, R. and A. Langorgen, 2003, “Measuring the Benefits from Public Services The Effects of Local Government Spending on the Distribution of Income in Norway, “ Discussion Papers. No. 339.
Abell, J. D., 1994, “Military Spending and Income Inequality?,” Journal of Peace Research, 31(1):35-43.
Jones, R. S. 2007, “Income Inequality, Poverty and Social Spending in Japan,” OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 556.
Mello, L. and E. R. Tiongson, 2006, “Income Inequality and Redistributive Government Spending,” Public Finance Review, 34:282-305.
Said, E. S. and D. A. Dickey, 1984, “Testing for unit roots in autoregressive-moving average models of unknown order,” Biometrika, 71(3):599-607.
Engle, R. F. and C. W. J. Granger, 1987, “Co-Integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing,” Econometrica,55(2):251-276.
Johansen, S., 1991, “Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models,” Econometrica, 59(6):1551-1580.
Johansen, S. and K. Juselius, 1990, “Maximum likelihood estimation and inference on cointegration—with applications to the demand for money,” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,52(2):169-210.
Sims. C. A., 1980, “Macroeconomics and Reality,” Econometrica, 48(1):1-48.
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