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研究生:賴緯
研究生(外文):Wei Lai
論文名稱:IEEE 802.11aa 串流群播之實體層傳輸速率調節機制之研究
論文名稱(外文):Adaptive PHY Rate Control and Retransmission for IEEE 802.11aa Multicast Streaming Services
指導教授:廖冠雄
指導教授(外文):Guan-Hsiung Liaw
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:義守大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:58
外文關鍵詞:IEEE 802.11aaBlockAckRate Control
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在2012年以前的IEEE 802.11[2]標準裡,雖然有定義多種實體層其各自提供了多種傳輸速率,但都沒有規範使用時機和方法。為了有效率的使用實體層所提供的多種傳輸速率,目前已經有許多機制被提出,以改善在不穩定的無線信號環境下所造成的封包遺失或在穩定狀況下提供更高的吞吐量(Throughtput),然而大部份現有的速率控制方法大多針對單點傳送服務(unicast)來設計,對於群播(multicast)/廣播(broadcast)服務則比較少。
因為在IEEE 802.11的MAC層協定中,接收端對於群播/廣播的訊框,不必回覆ACK(acknowledgement)訊框以確認是否成功傳送,造成傳送端無法知道資料是否遺失而進行重傳與傳輸速率的調整,因此很容易造成封包遺失過高的現象,尤其是應用於影音串流傳輸時,將造成影音串流播放的不順暢。為了彌補這項缺失,在IEEE所提出的IEEE 802.11aa[3]的增補標準中,加入了應用BlockAck機制於群播/廣播服務中,使得發送端可以得知各個接收端的資料遺失狀況,而進行重新傳送遺失封包的動作,然而重傳的細部流程,在現有的規範裡並未明確訂定該如何運作。
本論文即是針對群播(multicast)/廣播(broadcast)影串流服務,設計IEEE 802.11aa的BlockAck重傳機制[4],並且在此機制中加入據有適應性的實體層傳輸速率的調整方法,使得整體的傳輸品質更為提升,以提供群播(multicast)/廣播(broadcast)影音串流的客戶端都能有更高品質的享受。本論文亦針對所提出的重傳與速率調整機制,以IEEE 802.11n的無線網路進行系統模擬,並以模擬結果驗證所提機制的效能。

In standard IEEE 802.11-2012, many physical layers which provided multiple data rates are defined, but the approach of choosing data rate for transmitting a data frame is still an open issue. Many approaches for PHY rate control in IEEE 802.11 networks have been proposed in order to improve QoS (such as packet loss rate, throughput, delay, etc.) of the transmission under the unsteady wireless environment. However, most of rate control approaches are designed only for unicast transmission but not multicast or broadcast applications.
In MAC layer of IEEE 802.11, a multicast or broadcast frame must be transmitted without any ACK frame sent back by the receivers. This is, there is no feedback information that can be used for adjusting the transmitting data rate. Thus, the data loss rate could be continuously high if the signal quality is poor at the receiver. Especially for the applications of video streaming, it is trivial that such high data loss rate will lead to bad video playback. In IEEE 802.11aa, BlockAck mechanism is exploited to send back the information about frame reception by the receivers of multicast or broadcast frames. The transmitter can get the data loss information of each receiver and then retransmit the lost data. However, how to apply BlackAck mechanism to form an efficient multicast/broadcast retransmission approach is still open.
In this thesis, an efficient frame retransmission approach with adaptive PHY rate control for multicast/broadcast streaming services is proposed. In the proposed approach, IEEE 802.11aa BlockAck mechanism is applied to let the receiver periodically send back the status of recent frame receiving. The source then accordingly decides a new PHY rate and retransmits the lost data frames. Thus, the subscribers of the streaming services can obtain adaptively high quality of service. System simulation of the proposed approach is performed on an IEEE 802.11n network in which AP acts the source of broadcast streaming service and the stations act its subscribers. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

摘要 I
ABSTRACT III
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2 研究動機與目的 2
1.3 論文組織架構 3
第二章 研究背景 4
2.1 IEEE 802.11簡介 4
2.2 IEEE 802.11架構 6
2.3 IEEE 802.11實體層概論 8
2.4傳統的IEEE 802.11在群播/廣播服務面臨的問題 16
2.5 IEEE 802.11aa簡介 17
第三章 重傳與實體層速率控制機制之設計 21
3.1 統一重傳機制(URM) 25
3.2 個別重傳機制(IRM) 31
第四章 系統模擬 36
4.1 模擬情境說明 36
4.2實驗步驟 40
第五章 結論 43
參考文獻 45

[1] 簡榮宏、廖冠雄(2015),無線區域網路,全華。
[2] IEEE Standard for Information technology--Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, IEEE Std. 802.11, 2007.
[3] IEEE Standard for Information technology--Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 2: MAC Enhancements for Robust Audio Video Streaming, IEEE std. 802.11aa, 2012.
[4] J. Lorincz, D. Begusic, “Physical layer analysis of emerging IEEE 802.11n WLAN standard, ”The 8th International Conference in Advanced Communication Technology, 2006.
[5] IEEE Standard for Information technology—Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements-- Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC)and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 5: Enhancements for Higher Throughput,IEEE std. 802.11n, 2009.
[6] Kostas Maraslis, Periklis Chatzimisios, and Anthony Boucouvalas, “IEEE 802.11 aa Improvements on video transmission over Wireless LANs, ”IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC),2012.
[7] Katarzyna Kosek-Szott, Marek Natkaniec, and Lukasz Prasnal, “ A Novel IEEE 802.11aa Intra-AC Prioritization Method for Video Transmissions, ”IEEE Global
Communications Conference, 2014.
[8] Pablo Salvador, Luca Cominardi, Francesco Gringoli, and Pablo Serrano, “A First Implementation and Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11aa Group Addressed Transmission Service, ”ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review ,January 2014.
[9] A. De La Oliva, “Performance evaluation of the ieee 802.11 aa multicast mechanisms for video streaming, ”IEEE 14th International Symposium and Workshops on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), 2013.
[10] Guan-Hsiung Liaw, Ke-Han Tsai, Sun-Yuan Wang, Tain-Lieng Kao, Lain-Chyr Hwang, and Yuh-Chung Lin, “Adaptive rate control for broadcasting multimedia streams in IEEE 802.11 networks, ”IEEE International Symposium on Next-Generation Electronics (ISNE), 2013.
[11] Katarzyna Kosek-Szott, Marek Natkaniec, and Lukasz Prasnal, “IEEE 802.11aa Intra-AC Prioritization – A New Method of
Increasing the Granularity of Traffic Prioritization in WLANs, ”IEEE ymposium on Computers and Communications (ISCC), 2014.
[12] Munhwan Choi, Weiping Sun, Jonghoe Koo, Sunghyun Choi, and Kang G. Shin, “Reliable Video Multicast over Wi-Fi Networks with
Coordinated Multiple Aps, ”IEEE Conference on Computer
Communications, IEEE INFOCOM 2014.
[13] Qihao Li, Lei Jiao, and Frank Y. Li, “Performance
Evaluation of the GCR Block ACK Mechanism in IEEE 802.11aa Networks, ” Wireless Conference (EW), Proceedings of the 2013 19th European.
[14] M. Ángeles Santos, José Villalón, and Luis Orozco-Barbosa, “Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11aa group addressed service for robust audio-video streaming, ”IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 2012.
[15] Chen Xi, Wan YunHeng, and Lu JianHua, “Cross-layer Link Rate Adaptation for High Performance Multimedia Broadcast over WLANs, ”IEEE Globecom Workshops, 2010.
[16] J. Villalon, P. Cuenca, L. Orozco-Barbosa, Y. Seok, and T. Turletti, “ ARSM a cross-layer auto rate selection multicast mechanism for multi-rate wireless LANs, ”IET Communications, 2007.

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