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研究生:王尋玉
研究生(外文):Xun-Yu Wang
論文名稱:運用電腦視覺技術完成室內盲人避障及導引之系統
論文名稱(外文):An Indoor Obstacle Avoidance and Guidance System for the Blinds Using Computer Vision Techniques
指導教授:蘇義明
指導教授(外文):Yih-Ming Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:義守大學
系所名稱:電子工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:Mean-Shift群聚演算法Flood Fill演算法物體偵測室內導引
外文關鍵詞:Mean-Shift AlgorithmFlood-Fill AlgorithmObstacle DetectionIndoor Guidance
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為了實現室內盲人避障及導引系統之建立,本系統首先擷取視訊中的圖像,使用均值偏移(Mean-Shift)群聚演算法作為圖像前處理,再與洪水填充(Flood Fill)演算法進行顏色分割,接著擷取出地面區域顏色,作為篩選其他非地面區域的條件。當獲得的地面區域後,從此區域擷取出左右邊緣的兩條直線,再計算圖像中兩條直線的交點作為消失點(Vanishing Point)特性,並依消失點找出這兩條直線所夾的角平分線作為導引的方向。當地面上有障礙物如行人或物體時,將使用一個具有近距離限制的路線定位方法找出規避的方向。由於地面區域的輪廓會受到障礙物的影響,因此進行障礙物的偵測並找出障礙物的區域範圍,去除圖像中非地面顏色得到初歩地面,並找出障礙物輪廓影響的興趣區域,接著使用前景特性所產生的顯著顏色,校正此興趣區域得到更精確的障礙物位置,從地面區域的輪廓所佔據的範圍,取得的中心點座標可規劃出一個導引路線。而不同障礙物的影響下產生的地面區域範圍,也會產生不同的地面導引路線,因此達到動態的規避功能。最後,實驗結果中擷取的地面區域與物體偵測都有近88%的成功率,亦可在近距離的障礙物之下完成盲人避障和導引等功能。

In indoor environment color are basic on building fabric, and its distributed also related on building construct, which make floor and non-floor region can easily understand. The floor region has walkable condition, and space extend conception, that can seem as the guidance direction, which make the floor region become the walkable path.
In this thesis, we present an obstacle avoidance and guidance system for the blind in the indoor environment. In the system, we capture images from the video, use Mean-Shift algorithm for image preprocessing, and the Flood-Fill algorithm for color segmentation. After the color segmentation, the floor color is segmented to filtering non-floor colors, which extract two lines from floor edge on right and left side of the corridor to calculate their intersection point regarded as a vanishing point. A guidance line is obtained from the position of the blind to the vanishing point. Furthermore, there are some pedestrians or objects existed on the floor. The avoidance direction is decided to use a near distance decision to locate path. Due to the non-floor region and obstacle to change the contour of floor region, we can use this specific floor contour to obtain first coordinate position, which can locate region of obstacle in the image. This region will have foreground saliency color, which we can use to adjust region position by compare with background color. The continuous center points of floor region can connect to be a guidance line to achieve the object avoidance. Finally, the floor region and obstacle detection has the successful rate of the 88% in the experiment. It also has good avoidance and guidance performance in the near-distance obstacles.

摘要 iii
ABSTRACT iv
致謝 vi
目錄 vii
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xi
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與背景 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究方法 2
1.4論文架構 5
第二章 相關文獻與研究 6
2.1導航系統硬體架構探討 6
2.2地面區域擷取探討 7
2.2.1邊緣與輪廓特徵 8
2.2.2顏色與質地特徵 10
2.3物體偵測探討 12
第三章 系統方法 15
3.1圖像前處理 15
3.1.1 均值偏移群聚演算法 16
3.1.2 洪水填充顏色分割 19
3.2顏色特徵的擷取 21
3.2.1地面區域擷取 21
3.2.2色相值圖像 24
3.3地面輪廓特徵的擷取 25
3.3.1地面凹形特徵區域 25
3.3.2地面區域候選路線座標 28
3.3.3直線偵測 30
3.4 導引方向的決策 32
3.4.1障礙物的偵測 32
3.4.2行進路線的定位 35
3.4.3行進路線的方向 37
3.4.4導引標示 38
第四章 系統實作與討論 43
4.1實驗環境 43
4.2實驗成果 44
4.2.1靜態障礙物實驗成果 44
4.2.2動態障礙物實驗成果 48
4.2.3實驗數據討論 53
第五章 結論 58
參考文獻 61
附錄 70

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