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研究生:陳宇欣
論文名稱:閱讀文學之教學初探:台灣雙語學生批判思考之行動研究
論文名稱(外文):Teaching Critical Thinking with Literature: An Action Research in a Bilingual Context in Taiwan
指導教授:劉怡君劉怡君引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:英語教學碩士在職專班
學門:教育學門
學類:普通科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:86
中文關鍵詞:行動研究批判思考文學雙語蘇格拉底式提問法
外文關鍵詞:action researchcritical thinkingliteraturebilingualSocratic Questioning
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本論文以行動研究方式,探討一所台灣雙語學校英語為外語(EFL)學生,在接受為期四十週的英語文學課程期間,哪些教學策略最能激發其做批判思考。研究的對象為二十一位七年級的學生,按其CEF語言分級結果,九位為中高級程度,十二位為中級。除探討教學策略的成效,亦分析這些策略對於兩組英語程度和學習背景(有雙語教育背景及無雙語教育背景)相異的學生分別所產生的作用。透過行動研究的步驟―亦為開發、實施、檢討、修正―以及五階段的學生學習成果分析,教師—研究者不斷調整其教學策略來回應學生學習上的需求。
本論文所探討之研究問題為三:(一)哪些文學課程的教學策略最能激發所有研究對象做批判思考?(二)根據問題一,有雙語教育背景及無雙語教育背景的研究對象分別受哪一教學策略刺激最多? (三)透過文學教學,兩組研究對象分別在哪些批判思考項目表現最有進步空間?
教師—研究者以Ennis的批判思考評分表為基礎做修正,並以此評分表比較分析實驗對象之前測、學習單、與批判思考紙筆回應。根據資料與教師實際觀察,鷹架理論、蘇格拉底式提問法、舉證、自身實例、創意思考與溝通式教學最能激發學生產生批判思考,而所有研究對象無論其語言程度或學習背景如何,皆能表現出批判思考的技能。不過,就情意上,中高級有雙語教育背景的學生較習慣於開放性的思辯與討論過程,而中級無雙語教育背景的學生則因自身的語言及西方文化認識的限制而需要適應與協助。

This study had been conducted in a seventh-grade bilingual classroom of nine high-intermediate and twelve intermediate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students over forty weeks in Taiwan. The aim of the study was to seek strategies that would best help stimulate students’ critical thinking (CT) skills through the teaching of literature, and how those strategies affected the learning results of the two groups of participants with different language proficiency levels and prior education experiences (EFL bilingual context vs. EFL non-bilingual context). The teacher-researcher had adopted the developing, implementing, reflecting, and modifying steps of an action-research framework, and through analyzing students’ learning results in the 5 reflecting Stages, modified tasks and pedagogies were implemented right away to address students’ learning needs. Three questions anticipated responses from the study, which were: “What teaching strategies can stimulate all the participants’ critical thinking skills through literature?”, “Based on Question 1, which strategy is the most CT-stimulating for the bilingual group and which for the non-bilingual group?” and “Through literature study, which CT skills are the most-improved for the bilingual and the non-bilingual group?” In answering the questions, students’ pretest, weekly worksheets, and CT written responses were evaluated against the teacher-researcher’s self-created CT rubric adapted from Ennis’ version in every Stage for further lesson modification. Based on these data, 6 teaching strategies were proved to be CT-stimulating, which were: scaffolding, Socratic Questioning, evidence of proof, making personal connections, thinking outside the box, and adopting the Communicative Approach. All the participants were able to perform an amount of CT skills regardless of their language proficiency levels or learning backgrounds; however, in terms of CT dispositions, the high-intermediate bilingual participants feel more comfortable expressing their ideas openly, and the intermediate non-bilingual ones were influenced by their own linguistic and cultural limitations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iii
CHINESE ABSTRACT vii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT viii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background and Motivation 1
Research Questions 2
Significance of the Study 3
Overview of the Paper 4
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Definitions of Critical Thinking 5
The Influence of Literature on CT in L1 and ESL Teaching Context 7
Literature and CT in the EFL and Bilingual Context 8
Action Research 10
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 13
Method 13
Research Procedure 13
Research Context 13
Participants 13
Teaching Materials 15
Course Structure 16
Overall Procedure of Study 16
Data Collection 17
My CT Rubric of This Study 17
CHAPTER FOUR: TEACHING PROCESS & DATA ANALYSIS
Stage 1: Semester 1, Week 3
Developing 19
Implementing 22
Reflecting 25
Modifying &Developing 27
Stage 2: Semester 1, Week 11
Implementing 29
Reflecting 33
Modifying & Developing 36

Stage 3: Semester 1, Week 20
Implementing 37
Reflecting 41
Modifying & Developing 43
Stage 4: Semester 2, Week 11
Implementing 43
Reflecting 46
Modifying 48
Stage 5: Semester 2, Week 20
Developing & Implementing 49
Reflecting 53
Overview 56
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
Research Question 1 57
Research Question 2 64
Research Question 3 67
Discussion 68
The Teacher-researcher’s Self-reflection 70
Conclusion and Teaching Implications 97
REFERENCES 75
APPENDICES 83
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