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研究生:林俊昌
研究生(外文):Chun-Chang Lin
論文名稱:人類群聚傾向與建築逃生出口疏散設計模式之探討
論文名稱(外文):Particle Swarm Simulation of Evacuation Mode in the Exiting Design
指導教授:郭其珍郭其珍引用關係
口試委員:張志超黃玉麟
口試日期:2016-07-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:53
中文關鍵詞:避難逃生粒子群最佳化出口規劃設計
外文關鍵詞:emergency evacuationParticle Swarm OptimizationExiting Design
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火災對人類的生活、生存與安全,隨時隨地具有潛在的威脅,一旦發生火災,人們棲身的房舍、珍貴的財產,均在片刻間化為灰燼,就連寶貴的生命亦可能遭吞噬。隨著社會經濟發展、多元化、都市人口密集化,建築物類型、使用型態越趨大型化、複合化、高層化及機能精緻化,並追求空間舒適的要求。對於這些收容大量人員的建築物,一旦發生火災,其避難逃生是否能於短時間內完成,實需適切之規劃與對策。
回顧國內幾起至少10人死亡的單一火災案件,不外乎均為民眾只知道單一出口,當建築物內發生火災導致濃煙竄流而影響人員避難安全。因建築物建置時之考量與使用現況往往有所差異,除強化建築物防火耐燃、增加消防安全設備與避難設備外,當發生火災時,人員規劃避難亦是重點,由於場所內發生火災時,人員瞬間大量湧至出口,倘無良好之避難規劃設計,逃生時間增加,進而造成更多人員傷亡。因此政府相關單位的法規,均不斷要求與強調宣導任一居室必須有兩個出口以上,並且強調逃生出口處勿放置物品阻礙及勿為了防盜而上鎖,以避免當火災發生時而逃生受阻。尤其為公共場所火災,最易成為大眾關切的焦點,乃此類場所之出入群眾甚多,一旦發生火災,將會造成不可收拾的後果。若場所僅有單一出入口,一旦於發生火災或遭人縱火,因人群避難推擠,可能將造成逃生受阻。
當災害發生時,群眾避難逃生之行為皆會出現群聚效應,此種類型的行為表現係為跟隨群體的行動來行動,或模仿他人行為來行動,以及讓他人替自己做重要的決定;尤其遇到需要緊急避難之決策時,依賴性強的人則會仰賴群體的行動,無法自行判斷來進行避難逃生。反之,倘受過訓練的人,自主性較強,便會自己尋找出口來進行避難,不過也因為自主性較強,未參考其他對象行動,反而花費更多時間來找尋出口。
藉由粒子群演算法(Particle Swarm Optimization,PSO)之最佳化演算法技術,主要係觀察空中鳥群或水中魚群作群體活動的動物行為作為構想;以個體間相互傳遞的訊息與群體共享的概念,對整體作出更好的行為修正,續由模擬隨機個體組成之群體,以及個體之間的資訊傳遞演化過程來完成最佳解之預測。在此乃利用粒子群最佳化演算法的方法,進行群眾避難逃生時的行為模擬,並針對建築物避難逃生出口規劃與避難時間的影響進行探討。


Fire hazards would be potential threats to the humankind’s life, existence and safety anytime. Once the fire happens, the house and precious properties would transform into ashes in a very short while, even the valuable lives would possibly be engulfed. Along with the social economy development and diversification, the category of building and the using style tend to be large-scale, composite, high-rise, and function-refined, and also pursing claims on comfortable room. We have to plans and take measures properly regarding those buildings sheltering numerous people to consider that once the fire happens, if the evacuation could be finished in a short time.
Reviewing several sole fire hazard case in our country that at least ten people die, it ‘s nothing more that the citizens only know one exit when there was a fire in the building resulting in the smoke spreading to influence the safety of evacuation. As there are always differences between the consideration of building and current using situation. Besides to strengthen the fireproof and incombustibility of the building, and the fire safety equipment and evacuation device, if there is a fire, the people evacuation planning is also an importance. As the fire breaking out, a great amount of the people inside throng to the exit. If there is not any nice evacuation design, it would lead to prolong the escaping time, and thereby resulting in more casualties. Therefore, the legislation of relevant department in the Government all constantly claim and emphasize to publicize that any one of the room in the building must have more than two exits. The rule also stresses not to place articles nearby the emergency exits to be blocks, on the other hand, not to lock up against theft in order to avoid blocked when escaping from the breaking out fire. Especially, the fire occurring in public place is the easiest to be the focus of the public concern for the amount of people within this kind of place is numerous. Once a fire breaks out, there would be out of hand consequences. If there is only one exit in a place, and the fire is even breaking out, or is set fire, people might be blocked for the crowd jostle for escape.
When the disaster takes place, the escaping behavior of the common masses always brings independence character of cluster effect. This style of behavior is to let others to make some important decisions, or to follow the masses action, especially to decide how to escape, the people of dependence will follow the masses actions. However, trained people have stronger opinions to find their own outlet, also they might spend more time finding the outlet for their strong opinion without referring others.
The optimal algorithm of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) takes advantage of the concept of fish population in water or bird flock in sky. The group action can be remodeled by means of communication among individuals and by means of idea contribution to group. The prediction of the optimal solution can be gained by the assimilation of random combinations of individuals and by the optimal procedures of individual communication. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the assimilation model of normal people’s behaviors during evacuation and escaping. Furthermore, the study also aims to explore the correlation between the number of emergency exits and the evacuation time.


摘要 i
目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
圖目錄 ix
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2研究方法及目的 5
第二章 粒子群最佳化演算法 7
2.1起源 7
2.4粒子群演算法步驟 11
第三章 粒子群逃生出口模型之架構 14
3.1人員運動理論基礎 14
3.1.1人員運動 14
3.2出口特性與人員疏散 20
3.2.1人員疏散之逃生 20
3.2.2人類對出口之逃生路徑的直覺 20
3.3粒子群逃生出口模型之建構 27
3.4分析模型 30
3.4.1狀況一 30
3.4.2狀況二 31
3.4.3狀況三 32
第四章 結論與建議 50
4.1 結論 50
4.2 建議 51
參考文獻 52


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