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研究生:江孟玲
研究生(外文):Mon-Ling Chiang
論文名稱:河川揚塵預警機制建置及抑制工法篩選之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study of warning mechanism establishment and suppression technology selection for aeolain dust
指導教授:林昭遠林昭遠引用關係
口試委員:羅煌木盧惠生陸象豫林德貴
口試日期:2016-07-09
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:水土保持學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:水土保持學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:120
中文關鍵詞:河川揚塵影像分類環境指標迴歸分析聚乙烯醇
外文關鍵詞:river dustimage classificationenvironmental indexregression analysisPolyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)
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  • 被引用被引用:5
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臺灣西部平原,向為發源自中央山脈數條主要河川之氾濫淤積區,經近半世紀之水利河工興修,河川通洪輸砂幾已控制限縮在渠道內,惟上中下游之粒徑分佈與自然河川已相去甚遠,尤以濁水溪下游為最。冬季揚塵壟罩在濁水溪口既為大環境下周期性常態現象,則具體要務應透過建立揚塵發生機制預測之模式,以提出嚴重揚塵事件之事前預警,並藉掌握揚塵熱點區位之推估,以提供經濟性抑制揚塵之實踐方法。
本研究選取濁水溪河口(自強大橋至西濱大橋)為樣區,以鄰近空氣品質監測站資料篩選河川揚塵事件日,分析不同時間尺度下,PM10濃度對氣象因子(風速、溫度及相對溼度)之相關性。結果顯示,時PM10濃度峰值與氣相因子約有2~3小時遲滯現象,其可做為揚塵預測模式之預警時間。其次,利用航照圖及衛星影像進行地覆類別分類,劃定河川乾燥土砂之裸地為揚塵潛在發生區位。合併時間調整之氣象因子與裸地面積建置河川揚塵發生預測模式PM10 = 35.69 WH-2h + 17.62 TH-2h +0.08Abare – 363.98,R2=0.67,並以此作為揚塵預警機制模式。
經文獻篩選各揚塵抑制工法後,本研究選取能快速達到抑制成效之土壤改良法,應用無毒害性、易被細菌分解及易溶於水等特性之生物可降解高分子材料聚乙烯醇(PVA)做為揚塵抑制噴佈材料。結果顯示,PVA具高黏性以及與裸地表土間有較大之分子間吸引力,可與表土膠結成保護層,PVA水溶液濃度與保護層厚度成正相關。當降雨致使PVA濃度降低時,PVA亦能以增加土砂團粒穩定度之機制抑制揚塵,建議施作PVA水溶液之濃度為1%至3%之間。此外,PVA之優點包含施作成本僅每公頃新台幣數百元,且在裸地環境不會降解之特性遠優於三仙膠,噴佈效果能維持至來年豐水期。

The plain in western Taiwan is usually the flooding area of main rivers originating from the Central Mountain Range. In recent half century, the flooding and sediment transportation of river was controlled and limited in the cannel owing to hydraulic construction, but the particle size distribution of the river bed from midstream to downstream was unnatural compared with natural rivers, especially in the Zhuo-shui River. The river dust at the estuary of the Zhuo-shui River is a cyclic and common environmental phenomenon. Therefore, it would be crucial to provide warnings on serious river-dust episodes through establishing the mechanism to predict possible river-dust episodes, and to recommend a practical method for economic river-dust prevention by locating the river-dust recurring areas with the estimation model.
In this study, the region around the estuary of the Zhuo-shui River (from Zi-qiang Bridge to Xi-bin Bridge) was selected as the research site. Data from a nearby air quality monitoring station were used to screen for days with river-dust episodes. The relationships between PM10 concentration and meteorological factors (wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity) were analyzed at different temporal scales to explore the factors that affect river-dust emission. The results showed that a time lag effect of PM10 concentration was 2~3 hours, and this lag time could be used for establishing the warning systems of the river-dust forecast model. Aerial photos and satellite images could be employed to interpret the land cover, and the bare land of dry sediment on the river bed would be marked as the potential area of river dust. The river-dust forecast model, PM10 = 35.69 WH-2h + 17.62 TH-2h +0.08Abare – 363.98,R2=0.67., was established by the meteorological and bare land area factors.
After reviewing the literature on suppression technology, the method of soil refinement was selected as highly effective suppression. The Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) with nontoxic, bacterial decomposition and good water solubility was selected as mulching material of river-dust inhibition. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between the concentration of PVA water solution and the stability of soil aggregates because the cation of soil can aggregate with hydrogen bonding of water molecules in the initial phase of mulching and then with PVA molecules after water evapotranspiration. When the PVA concentration reduction during rainfall, PVA can also inhibit river dust due to soil aggregation increase. The suggestion concentration of PVA is from 1% to 3%. Besides, the advantages of PVA include that the implement cost is only several hundred NT dollars per hectare, degradation rate is lower than that of Xanthan gum, and the mulching effect can maintain until high water level period with higher concentration of PVA.

摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
目錄 v
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xi
第一章 前言 1
第一節 研究緣起與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究架構與流程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 揚塵特性 5
一、 揚塵性質與潛在威脅 5
二、 影響揚塵之因子 10
三、 揚塵與大氣關係 15
第二節 揚塵預測 18
一、 遙測數據運用 18
二、 揚塵模擬模式 23
第三節 揚塵防治方法分類及篩選 25
一、 揚塵抑制方法分類 25
二、 揚塵抑制方法篩選 27
三、 人工合成高分子材料之選用 30
第三章 研究材料與方法 41
第一節 地理位置 41
第二節 研究材料 42
一、 圖資及相關監測資料蒐集 42
二、 測站及資料選用 42
三、 PVA試驗材料 43
第三節 研究方法 46
一、 建立河川揚塵預警機制 46
二、 河川揚塵抑制工法-PVA土壤改良法之試驗 52
第四章 結果與討論 59
第一節 河川揚塵預警機制 59
一、 氣象因子樣本 59
二、 揚塵事件日篩選 64
三、 揚塵發生與氣象因子關係 66
四、 潛在揚塵區位萃取 73
五、 揚塵發生與裸地面積之關係 84
六、 揚塵預測模式建立及驗證 90
第二節 PVA土壤改良法之試驗 94
一、 土砂理化性質 94
二、 發芽試驗 97
三、 入滲時間 99
四、 入滲深度 99
五、 團粒穩定度 100
第三節 揚塵防治對策 101
一、 林相變化對策研擬 101
二、 揚塵潛勢區位施作土壤改良劑抑制揚塵工法 102
第五章 結論與建議 105
第一節 結論 105
第二節 建議 108
參考文獻 109

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