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研究生:陳渭中
研究生(外文):Wei-Chung Chen
論文名稱:石門水庫排洪與排砂操作對淡水河系統代謝的影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of flood discharge and sediment release from the Shihmen Reservoir on the ecosystem metabolism of the Danshui River
指導教授:林幸助林幸助引用關係
口試委員:任秀慧施上粟
口試日期:2016-07-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:生命科學系所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:颱風極端降雨水庫排砂操作系統代謝
外文關鍵詞:typhoonreservoir desiltingprimary productionecosystem metabolism
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石門水庫上游山坡地由於過去不當開發及地震影響使地質脆弱、結構鬆散,每逢汛期降雨,便會將大量泥砂帶入庫體。假如不解決淤砂問題,水庫將會逐漸失去功能。因此石門水庫曾藉由汛期間(5月到10月)受到梅雨及颱風等極端降雨影響時,進行排砂操作。排砂操作可減少淤沙,延長水庫壽命,但也會造成流量、懸浮固體濃度上升、河床泥沙堆積等問題,其間利弊與水文、泥沙條件及生物、環境特色均有關係,需深入探討。本研究藉由系統代謝量變化來評估水域生態系統功能之變化。自2014年4月至2015 年10月共進行3次非汛期及5次汛期採樣,其中兩次汛期採樣曾進行排砂操作。本研究於淡水河流域共設立六個測站(城林橋、新海橋、華中橋、台北橋、關渡、挖子尾),使用密閉式溶氧代謝培養法,估算淡水河沿岸水層及底棲系統總初級生產量(gross primary production, GP)、淨初級生產量(net primary production, NP)及呼吸量(respiration, R)。
結果顯示,當汛期颱風適量降雨及水庫少量排洪時,各測站系統GP和R皆會明顯上升。因汛期時水溫高、光照充足,加上適量淡水輸入,帶來更多營養及有機物輸入。藻類生物量的增加讓GP上升;而帶來的有機物輸入,不但使濁度增加,亦使R上升。整體GP上升較R高出許多,讓大部分測站變為更加自營狀態。而當汛期颱風帶來極端降雨及水庫排洪與排砂操作影響下,各測站GP明顯下降。顯示高流量狀態下,藻類生物量的損失與高濁度的光限制,讓系統GP大幅下降,大部分測站轉變為異營狀態。與淡水河先前相關研究比較,顯示水庫排砂操作時,確實會造成各測站變為異營狀態。但由採樣時間差距的結果可知,環境因子在事件發生後約兩週即可恢復至正常汛期水平,而生物因子雖回復較慢,但預期在環境因子重新建立後,也會逐漸回復。綜合上述推測,當極端降雨事件發生時,似乎為進行水庫排砂操作之較佳時機,除了能提供緩解下游河道環境汙染之效果,也較不會對生態系統代謝造成更長期之影響。


As the number and severity of extreme rainfall events are predicted to increase due to climate change, increasing sediment from upstream may flow into reservoirs during the flood season followed by severe deposition which may decrease the lifespan of reservoirs. If siltation is not controlled, reservoirs would be simply filled. After desilting, sediment flows from reservoirs to downstream may change the downstream morphology and influence its ecological function. To examine the impacts of typhoon and desilting events of Shihmen Reservoir on ecosystem metabolism along the Danshui River, five flood and three non-flood events were sampled between April 2014 and October 2015, in which two of flood events have experienced reservoir desilting disturbance (August and October 2015). Six sites (WZ, GD, TP, HC, HH, CL) were chosen along the Danshui River. Pelagic and benthic metabolisms in terms of oxygen production and consumption were quantified through incubation of surface water and soil in both light and dark cores. The results showed that an increase in water temperature, nutrient inputs, and microalgal biomass, during the flood season without desilting operation, increased both pelagic and benthic production. Conversely, low microalgal biomass and high turbidity, during the flood season with desilting operation, reduced primary production. Our study suggests that the relationship between primary production and river discharge reflects a balance between nutrient and organic matter inputs and advective losses of microalgae associated with high-flow conditions. In summary, system metabolism was autotrophic during moderate rainfall events without reservoir desilting operation ,but was heterotrophic during extreme rainfall evernts with reservoir desilting operation. According to our results and other relevant literature, we recommend reservoir desilting operation should be conducted when extreme rainfall events occur to minimize the ecological impacts of sediment releasing.

目錄
第一章 前言........................................................1
1. 河口及沿岸生態系............................................1
2. 氣候變遷與颱風..............................................1
3. 水庫排砂操作................................................3
4. 生態系統代謝................................................5
5. 淡水河流域背景及相關研究....................................7
6. 研究動機與目的..............................................8
第二章 材料與方法..................................................9
1. 研究地點.....................................................9
2. 測站規劃.....................................................9
2.1. 挖仔尾..................................................9
2.2. 台北橋..................................................9
2.3. 新海橋..................................................9
2.4. 城林橋.................................................10
2.5. 關渡...................................................10
2.6. 華中橋.................................................10
3. 採樣時間....................................................11
4. 颱風基本資訊................................................14
4.1. 麥德姆颱風.............................................14
4.2. 鳳凰颱風...............................................15
4.3. 昌鴻颱風...............................................16
4.4. 蘇迪勒颱風.............................................17
4.5. 杜鵑颱風...............................................18
5. 環境因子....................................................19
5.1.光度....................................................19
5.2 基本水質................................................19
5.3 營養鹽..................................................19
5.3.1 正磷酸鹽..........................................19
5.3.2 硝酸氮............................................19
5.3.3 亞硝酸氮..........................................20
5.3.4 氨氮..............................................20
5.4 底質有機物含量..........................................20
5.5 底質粒徑................................................20
6. 生物因子....................................................23
6.1. 浮游藻類生物量.........................................23
6.2. 底棲藻類生物量.........................................23
6.3. 大型底棲無脊椎動物生物量...............................24
7. 系統代謝....................................................24
7.1. 水層系統培養管採樣.....................................24
7.2. 底棲系統培養管採樣.....................................24
7.3. 系統代謝培養實驗設計...................................24
7.4. 淨生產量、呼吸量及總生產量.............................26
7.5. 一日生產量估算.........................................27
8. 統計分析....................................................29
第三章 結果.......................................................30
1. 環境因子....................................................30
1.1. 光度...................................................30
1.2. 基本水質...............................................30
1.3. 營養鹽.................................................31
1.4. 底質因子...............................................32
2. 生物因子....................................................43
2.1. 浮游藻類生物量.........................................43
2.2. 底棲藻類生物量.........................................43
2.3. 大型底棲無脊椎動物生物量...............................43
3. 系統代謝....................................................47
3.1. 系統淨生產量...........................................47
3.2. 系統呼吸量.............................................47
3.3. 系統總生產量...........................................48
3.6. 相關分析...............................................49
3.7. 逐步複回歸分析.........................................51
4. 光合作用參數................................................59
5. 日總生產量、呼吸量及淨生產量................................60
第四章 討論.......................................................68
1. 淡水河環境特性..............................................68
2. 環境因子對藻類生物量之影響..................................69
2.1. 浮游藻生物量...........................................69
2.2. 底棲藻生物量...........................................71
3. 系統代謝重要影響因子........................................72
4. 極端降雨事件與水庫排砂操作對系統代謝之影響..................75
5. 歷年相關研究比較............................................77
5.1. 環境因子比較...........................................77
5.2. 生物因子比較...........................................78
5.3. 水層及底棲系統代謝比較.................................79
6. 綜合探討與經營管理建議......................................82
第五章 結論.......................................................92
第六章 參考文獻...................................................83
第七章 會議記錄..................................................102


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