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研究生:梁維仁
研究生(外文):Wei-Ren Liang
論文名稱:台灣產象白蟻屬(等翅目:白蟻科:象白蟻亞科)之分類
論文名稱(外文):Taxonomy of Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae) in Taiwan
指導教授:李後鋒李後鋒引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hou-Feng Li
口試委員:楊曼妙李奇峰
口試委員(外文):Man-Miao YangChi-Feng Lee
口試日期:2016-06-15
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:72
中文關鍵詞:高等白蟻白蟻害蟲分類16S rRNAITS
外文關鍵詞:higher termitetermite pesttaxonomy16S rRNAITS
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象白蟻屬 (Nasutitermes) 為白蟻科 (Termitidae) 中物種多樣性最高的類群,在系統學上為ㄧ並系群。台灣的象白蟻屬物種被廣泛應用於白蟻基礎生物學研究,然而這些物種的分類地位至今並未經過嚴謹的研究定義。為了瞭解台灣的象白蟻屬物種,本研究透過形態與mitochondrial 16S rRNA 以及 internal transcribed spacer (ITS)兩種分子序列,確認台灣已知的木下象白蟻 (N. kinoshitai (Hozawa, 1915))、小象白蟻 (N. parvonasutus (Nawa, 1911))與高砂象白蟻 (N. takasagoensis (Nawa, 1911)) 之單系性,並重新描述三個物種之主要階級及提供物種檢索表。本研究首次發現並描述木下象白蟻的兵蟻及工蟻階級,並重新指定小象白蟻與高砂象白蟻之新模式標本。形態、分子序列以及生物學資訊顯示木下象白蟻與小象白蟻並不屬於象白蟻屬,然而象白蟻亞科 (Nasutitermitinae) 中許多形態相近與親緣關係近的屬級尚待重新修訂,因此目前無法給予此兩物種適當的分類地位。根據台灣各地438個白蟻群體樣本,本研究提供台灣三種象白蟻的地理分布、分飛季節、工兵蟻之多型性以及喜白蟻性生物等之生物學資訊。

Nasutitermes Dudley is a speciose and paraphyletic group of Termitidae. Taiwanese species have been widely used for studying basic termite biology. However, the taxonomic status of these species has not been well defined. In order to provide a solid identification standard, three species, Nasutitermes kinoshitai (Hozawa, 1915), Nasutitermes parvonasutus (Nawa, 1911), and Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Nawa, 1911), were confirmed their monophyly based on morphology and gene sequences of mitochondrial 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). These three species were redescribed in this study. The soldier and worker caste of N. kinoshitai were described for the first time, and the neotype specimens of N. parvonasutus and N. takasagoensis were designated. The identification keys of the three Nasutitermes spp. were also provided. The significant difference of their morphology, gene sequences, and biology indicated that N. kinoshitai and N. parvonasutus are not belong to the genus Nasutitermes, however, as the genus and several morphologically similar and systematically related genera in the Nasutitermitinae are in need of revision, currently it is not possible to propose a revised generic placement. Based on 438 colony samples of the three species, their distribution pattern, dispersal flight season, polymorphism of soldier and worker caste, and termitophiles were also discussed.

摘 要 i
ABSTRACT ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES iv
LIST OF FIGURES v
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS 3
2.1. Termite collection and specimen examination 3
2.2. Description and morphometric analysis 3
2.3. DNA extraction, amplification and sequencing 4
2.4. Species delimitation procedure 5
2.5. Abbreviations for depositories 6
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 7
3.1. Discovery soldier and worker castes of Nasutitermes kinoshitai 7
3.2. Species delimitation 7
3.3. Descriptions, redescriptions, and biological notes of three Nasutitermes species in Taiwan 8
Nasutitermes kinoshitai (Hozawa, 1915) 8
Nasutitermes parvonasutus (Nawa, 1911) 13
Nasutitermes takasagoensis (Nawa, 1911) 18
3.4. Comparison of three Nasutitermes species in Taiwan 23
3.4.1 Winged imago comparison 23
3.4.2. Soldier comparison 23
3.4.3. Worker comparison 24
3.5. Taxonomic key to the Taiwanese Nasutitermes species 25
3.5.1. Key to the species of Nasutitermes in Taiwan based on winged imago caste 25
3.5.2. Key to the species of Nasutitermes in Taiwan based on soldier caste 26
3.5.3. Key to the species of Nasutitermes in Taiwan based on worker caste 26
3.6. Systematic position of Nasutitermes in Taiwan 27
4. CONCLUSIONS 29
5. REFERENCES 30
6. APPENDIX 37
6.1. Material measured and sequenced 37
6.2. Additional specimens examined 40

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