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研究生:郭致與
研究生(外文):Chih-Yu Kuo
論文名稱:樹木腐朽過程中白蟻與螞蟻的演替
論文名稱(外文):Termites and ants succession along tree decay process
指導教授:李後鋒李後鋒引用關係林宗岐林宗岐引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hou-Feng LiChung-Chi Lin
口試委員:葉信廷
口試委員(外文):Hsin-Ting Yeh
口試日期:2016-07-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:昆蟲學系所
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:67
中文關鍵詞:柳杉社會性昆蟲空間分布森林昆蟲學
外文關鍵詞:Japanese cedar social insects space distribution forest entomology
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白蟻與螞蟻在森林中的演替受到取食需求與空間需求的影響。本研究於臺大實驗林之溪頭營林區中砍伐不同腐朽程度的日本柳杉 Cryptomeria japonica (D. Don) 81 棵,研究白蟻與螞蟻的演替和樹木密度與含水率的變化關係。結果顯示活立木、枯死立木與倒木之密度與含水率皆顯著不同;在樹木死亡、倒下後,木材密度持續下降、水分含量會先下降再升至最高,且較高處水分散失得更快。三種腐朽狀態上都棲息著薩摩樹白蟻 Glyptotermes satsumensis (Matsumura, 1907) 與黃肢散白蟻 Reticulitermes flaviceps (Oshima, 1908);其中薩摩樹白蟻在活立木上的出現率顯著高於黃肢散白蟻,而黃肢散白蟻在枯立木及倒木上的出現率皆顯著高於薩摩樹白蟻。腐朽程度的結果顯示出在活立木密度降低、接近死亡時,樹白蟻會開始進入;枯死立木時期的密度與含水率顯著降低時,散白蟻偏好密度較低,含水率較高的木材;倒木高含水率、低密度的環境則是不會影響到兩種白蟻的出現。在活立木上,兩種白蟻不同高度的分布模式並不相似,樹白蟻分布的範圍從 0-18 公尺的高度都有,且分布均勻,而散白蟻集中在 0-3.6 公尺的高度;在立枯木上,兩種白蟻的分布模式相似,出現率隨高度增加而減少。螞蟻在此實驗中出現 16 種,在活立木上 2 種、枯死立木 11 種、倒木 14 種。出現頻率最高者為尼蘭德山蟻屬螞蟻 Nylanderia spp.、愛默網家蟻 Vollenhovia emeryi (Wheeler, 1906)、日本皺家蟻 Tetramorium nipponense (Wheeler, 1928)、臺灣隱針蟻 Cryptopone taivanae (Forel, 1913)、高山鋸針蟻 Odontomachus monticola (Emery, 1892) 與黃足粗針蟻 Pachycondyla luteipes (Mayr, 1862) 六種。木材的密度及含水量不直接影響螞蟻的出現,但在活立木上僅出現游離種的螞蟻,整棵樹木的死亡及倒伏等較大的變化則會影響螞蟻的出現率及物種組成的比例,不同的螞蟻會在不同的樹木狀態下出現。影響白蟻與螞蟻出現的因子並不相同。白蟻是出於食性的選擇,螞蟻是出自於居住空間的選擇。偏好取食白蟻的螞蟻與白蟻的發生並無顯著關聯,反而是非偏好取食的螞蟻與白蟻經常共同出現。白蟻與螞蟻並無掠食的交互作用,偏好取食白蟻的種類並不會依白蟻的發生選擇築巢的位置,而一些非專食性的螞蟻可能偏好利用白蟻的通道築巢,因而容易與白蟻共同出現。

Termites and ants succession in forest are affected by food and nesting availability. In this study, 81 Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) with 3 different decaying status were cut in the Xitou tract (Experimental Forest, National Taiwan University), for studying termites and ants succession during tree decaying process based on wood density and water content. The results showed that density and water content of living trees, dead trees and rotten logs were significantly different. Along the process of trees died and fallen down, wood density decreases gradually, but water content decrease first in dead trees, then significantly increase in rotten logs. Two species of termites, Glyptotermes satsumensis (Matsumura, 1907) and Reticulitermes flaviceps (Oshima, 1908), occurred on each status of trees. The occurrence of G. satsumensis are significantly higher than that of R. flaviceps in living trees, but lower than R. flaviceps in dead trees and rotten logs. When the living trees were dying, the density decrease, then G. satsumensis enter in the living trees for food and shelter. After tree died, both density and water content decrease, which is preferred by R. flaviceps. G. satsumensis occurred at various height of the living trees, while both of the termite species appeared decreasing with height. Sixteen ant species occurred on living trees, dead trees and rotten logs, 2 singleton species on living trees, 11 on dead trees and 14 on rotten logs. The Six most common ants are Nylanderia spp., Vollenhovia emeryi (Wheeler, 1906), Tetramorium nipponense (Wheeler, 1928), Cryptopone taivanae (Forel, 1913), Odontomachus monticola (Emery, 1892) and Pachycondyla luteipes (Mayr, 1862). Although tree density and water content are different in tree status, those changes does not affect the ant occurrence. Thus, I hypothesized that more space available when tree began decaying and ants get inside wood for shelter. Food quality affect termite occurrence, but nesting space affect ant occurrence. Ponerinae that prefer hunting termite for food, are not nesting with termite in wood, however, for those not termite hunting ants, V. emeryi and T. nipponense, often occurred with termites. Ponerinae ant nesting sites does not affect by termite occurrence, but V. emeryi and T. nipponense do. I hypothesized that V. emeryi and T. nipponense nesting closed to termite not for termite hunting but for space availability.

摘要…………..………………………………………………………................………i
Abstract………………………………………………………………………...…........ii
目次……………………………………………...…………………...………..………iii
表次……………..…………………...………………………………………………...iv
圖次……………….…………………………...…………………………………….....v
前言……………..……………..………...……………………………………………..1
一、 森林中的白蟻對樹木的需求與重要性…………….…………….…..…....1
二、 森林中的螞蟻對樹木的需求與重要性.….……………...…………...…....3
三、 螞蟻與白蟻間的交互作用與對彼此的影響……………......…..………....5
四、 樹木的腐朽與測量…………………………………………………………6
五、 問題陳述與研究目的……………………………………...…………...…..8
材料與方法……………………………………..…………………..……….……..…11
一、 試驗地介紹………………..…………………..…………..….…….………11
二、 樣本選擇與選取……..…………………………..…………………………11
三、 砍樹方法與檢查過程……………………………...….…………………... 12
四、 螞蟻與白蟻採集………………….…………………………………...……12
五、 圓盤的取得與測量………………….………………………………...……12
六、 高度、體積測量與密度、含水率換算………………………………………13
七、 木材品質描述………….……………..…………………….……………....13
八、 統計分析………………………………………………...………………….14
結果…………………………..…………………………………………………….....16
一、 白蟻與螞蟻的物種與出現情形...……………….…..…………..…………16
二、 樹木腐朽過程中的密度與含水率變化………………..…………….…….16
三、 白蟻與螞蟻在樹木上的演替……………………….…..……………….…16
四、 螞蟻與白蟻交互作用關係………..……..….………………………...……18
討論………..……………...…...……………………………………………...………20
一、 白蟻食性區位假說……………………………………….………………..20
二、 螞蟻空間區位假說…………….…………………………………………..24
三、 螞蟻食性區位假說……….………………………………………………..26
結論………………………………………………………………………….…….……..31
參考文獻…….……………………………………………………………………..…….32
表…………………………………………………………………………………………42
圖…………………………………………………………………………………………52


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