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研究生:傅紀瑋
研究生(外文):Chi-Wei Fu
論文名稱:除鹽與乾燥處理對鹹鴨蛋卵白功能特性之影響及其於切片火腿之應用
論文名稱(外文):Effects of desalinization and drying on the functional properties of salted duck egg white and its application to cooked sliced pork ham
指導教授:劉登城譚發瑞
口試委員:吳勇初陳文賢郭秀蘭
口試日期:2016-07-04
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:動物科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:畜牧學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:鹹鴨卵白超過濾噴霧乾燥
外文關鍵詞:Salted duck egg whiteUltra-filtrationSpray drying
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:4
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鹹鴨蛋 (salted duck egg) 為鴨蛋經高濃度食鹽醃漬後所得之產品,傳統上鹹鴨蛋之利用以卵黃為主,剩餘之卵白部分,因鹽度過高而難以利用,往往予以廢棄處理,但鹹鴨卵白 (salted duck egg white) 中除食鹽外,亦含有大量蛋白質,若任意棄置,不僅造成蛋白質資源之浪費,且易有環境汙染問題產生。文獻指出鹹鴨卵白之回收利用方式皆因其中之高鹽度,而造成使用量上有所限制,因此鹹鴨卵白之工業化運用,其關鍵在於除去其中鹽分。故本試驗旨在探討 (1) 超過濾除鹽對卵白特性之影響。 (2) 噴霧乾燥對除鹽鴨卵白 (desalinized duck egg white) 物化性質和功能特性之影響。 (3) 切片火腿添加不同量 (0、1、2及3 %) 之除鹽鴨卵白粉 (desalinized duck egg white powder),真空包裝後於15±2℃儲存21天期間火腿品質之變化。

結果顯示:鹹鴨卵白經超過濾除鹽處理,除去卵白中之鹽分,其食鹽濃度由9.2 %下降至0.65 %,除鹽率可達92.66 %。而除鹽鴨卵白以進風溫度140℃,噴嘴進風量10 L/min,進料速度5 mL/min,出風溫度72℃條件進行噴霧乾燥,可使其起泡力與凝膠性質顯著上升 (P<0.05),總生菌數減少 (87.03 %),並去除沙門氏菌。經噴霧乾燥處理可使產品之水分下降至5.77 %,降低產品之體積與重量,增進其於儲藏期間之安全與安定性,有利於除鹽鴨卵白之工業化運用。除鹽鴨卵白粉以1、2與3 %之添加量加入切片火腿中,當添加3 %時可顯著 (P<0.05) 降低切片火腿之蒸煮失重及改進產品之質地,但會使會使產品顏色偏白。不過各處理組之外觀色澤皆可被品評員所接受,且添加除鹽鴨卵白粉之切片火腿,於感官品評時質地與總接受度均較高。


Salted duck egg is made by duck egg brining in high concentration of saline. Traditionally, egg yolk is widely used in food and bakery. The salted egg white is discarded as waste due to its higher salt content. However, salted egg white contains a lot of protein. If salted egg white was discarded arbitrarily, it is not only protein waste but also environment pollution. Several researches have been reported that the recycle of salted egg white was hard to widely utilization because of the high concentration of sodium chloride. Hence, desalinization is the key point to utilize salted egg white in large quantity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate: (1) Effect of Ultra-filtration on the functional properties of salted egg white. (2) Effect on physicochemical and functional properties of desalinized duck egg white (DSEW) treated by spray drying. (3) The changes in quality of sliced pork ham with different percentages (0, 1, 2 and 3 %) of desalinized duck egg white powder (DSEWP) then packed with vacuum package and stored at 15±2˚C for 21 days.

The results showed that after desalinization the salt in salted duck egg white (SDEW) was significantly decreased (P<0.05) form 9.2 % to 0.65% and the desalinized efficiency was 92.66 %. Desalinized duck egg white was spray drying by inlet air temperature, nozzle air consumption, liquid flow rate and outlet air temperature, which were 140˚C, 10 L/min, 5 mL/min and 72˚C, respectively. After drying, foaming ability and gel elasticity of DSEW was significantly increased (P<0.05). Moreover, the total plate count was removed 87.03 % and Salmonella spp. was not presented. Furthermore, spray drying could remove the moisture of egg white to 5.77%, reduce the size and weight and enhance its safety and stability during storage. Those characteristics have benefits for widely utilization of DSEW in food system. Sliced pork ham added with 0 (control), 1, 2 and 3 % of desalinized duck egg white powder, individually. DSEWP 3 % presented significantly lower cooking loss (P<0.05) and improved texture of sliced pork ham, while it caused the sliced pork ham showed white color. However, the color of sliced pork ham added with DSEWP had been accepted by all panelists and had higher overall acceptance value. Therefore, no adverse effects were found in sliced pork ham added with desalinized duck egg white powder when less than 3 %. Moreover, desalinized duck egg white powder may enhance the pull rate and flavor of sliced pork ham.


目錄
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
表次 vi
圖次 vii
附錄次 viii
壹、前言 1
貳、文獻探討 3
一、鹹鴨卵白之介紹 3
(一) 鹹鴨卵白生產概況 3
(二) 鹹鴨卵白營養組成 3
(三) 鹹鴨卵白之利用 5
二、除鹽方式之介紹 7
(一) 薄膜分離法 7
(二) 蛋白質沉澱分離純化法 18
三、卵白粉之簡介 21
(一) 肉品結著劑之簡介 21
(二) 卵白粉於肉製品中之利用 21
(三) 卵白粉之特性 22
(四) 卵白粉乾燥方式 22
参、材料與方法 25
一、除鹽鴨卵白液之製備 25
(一) 原料來源 25
(二) 除鹽後鹹鴨卵白理化特性之測定 25
二、除鹽鴨卵白粉之製備 25
(一) 原料來源 25
(二) 噴霧乾燥 25
三、添加除鹽鴨卵白粉對切片火腿品質之影響 26
(一) 原料來源 26
(二) 切片火腿製備 26
(三) 試驗設計 27
四、分析項目 29
(一) 一般化學組成分析 (proximate analysis) 29
(二) 水溶性氮 (water soluble nitrogen, WSN) 31
(三) 非蛋白態氮 (non-protein nitrogen, NPN) 32
(四) 胺基態氮 (amino nitrogen, AN) 32
(五) pH值 33
(六) 起泡力 (foaming ability) 33
(七) 乳化力 (emulsifying capacity) 33
(八) 物性測定 (texture) 34
(九) 食鹽含量 (NaCl) 36
(十) 總生菌數 (total plate count) 36
(十一) 乳酸菌數 (lactic acid bacteria count) 36
(十二) 沙門氏菌之檢測 (Salmonella spp.) 37
(十三) 水活性 (water activity) 39
(十四) 溶解度 (solubility) 39
(十五) 還原糖含量 (reducing sugar) 39
(十六) 蒸煮失重 (cooking loss) 40
(十七) 包裝滲出液重 (purge loss) 40
(十八) 色澤分析 (color) 40
(十九) 感官品評 (sensory evaluation) 41
(二十) 統計分析 (statistics analysis) 41
肆、結果與討論 42
一、超過濾除鹽效果之評估 42
二、超過濾除鹽處理對鹹鴨卵白化學組成之影響 44
(一) 一般化學組成 44
(二) 水溶性氮、非蛋白態氮、胺基態氮及pH值 44
三、噴霧乾燥處理對除鹽鴨卵白物化特性之影響 48
(一) 一般化學組成 48
(二) 水活性、溶解度、還原糖含量及pH值 48
四、除鹽與噴霧乾燥處理對卵白功能特性之影響 52
(一) 起泡力 52
(二) 乳化力 52
(三) 凝膠質地 53
五、除鹽與噴霧乾燥處理對卵白微生物品質之影響 55
(一)、總生菌數去除率 55
(二)、沙門氏菌檢測 55
(三)、除鹽鴨卵白粉於儲藏期間總生菌數之變化 55
六、於切片火腿中添加不同量除鹽鴨卵白粉對其儲存期間品質之影響 60
(一) 蒸煮失重 60
(二) 一般化學組成 60
(三) 包裝滲出液 63
(四) pH值 63
(五) 質地測定 66
(六) 色澤分析 71
(七) 微生物品質 76
(八) 感官品評 79
伍、結論 86
陸、參考文獻 87
柒、附錄 97



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