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研究生:謝銘儒
研究生(外文):Ming-Ru Xie
論文名稱:資訊隱藏應用在關聯式資料庫之研究
論文名稱(外文):A Study of Information Hiding for Relational Databases
指導教授:黃明祥黃明祥引用關係沈肇基沈肇基引用關係
指導教授(外文):Min-Shiang HwangJau-Ji Shen
口試委員:楊政穎
口試委員(外文):Cheng-Ying Yang
口試日期:2016-05-20
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:資訊管理學系所
學門:電算機學門
學類:電算機一般學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:56
中文關鍵詞:資料庫安全資訊隱藏關聯式資料庫數位浮水印擁有權保護可逆的資訊隱藏
外文關鍵詞:Database securityinformation hidingdata hidingwatermarking relational databasesdatabase watermarkingownership protectionreversible information hidingreversible data hiding
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關連式資料庫於私人企業、公家機關是用來儲存重要資料的軟體系統,例如:公司的訂單資料、客戶的個人資料、政府的專案資料…近年來由於資料倉儲(Data Warehouse)和資料探勘(Data Mining)技術的進步。資料是越來越珍貴;因此,如何保護關連式資料庫內的資料已變成一項重要的議題。
也許有人會懷疑,現在的資料庫不是已經很安全了嗎?我們考慮以下關連式資料庫的兩種安全議題:
首先,一個合法的使用者登入資料庫,並且偷取裡面的資料賣給B。而B宣稱這些資料屬於他們。如何證明關連式資料庫內的資料屬於誰?我們需要擁有權資訊(Ownership information)。
再者,一個資料擁有者需要資料探勘服務,所以把資料庫傳送給data mining公司。在資料庫傳輸的過程中,可能被攻擊者竊取並竄改。如何證明關連式資料庫內的資料是原來的,並且資料沒有被竄改過?竄改證明(Tamper proofing) 能夠做到。
關聯式資料庫數位浮水印(Watermarking relational databases)是一種源自於影像資訊隱藏的技術,它能保護所有權並提供關連式資料庫的竄改證明。因此,它能解決上述的兩個安全議題。
在本論文中,我們提出兩個適用於關聯式資料庫的新式資訊隱藏方法。實驗結果證明,方法是可行的,並且可以滿足資料的完整性、資訊隱藏能力等需求。

Relational databases are software systems used to store important information for enterprises and government institutions, e.g. orders of a company, personal data of customers, and project data of government. In recent years, due to the advancement in Data Warehouse and Data Mining technology, data is more and more precious; therefore how to protect the data in the relational databases has become an important issue.
Some people may doubt the database is very safe now. Let’s consider two security issues of relational databases:
First, an illegal use login the database, and steal data and sell to B. However B asserts the data belongs to him. How to prove the data in the relational databases belong to whom? We need ownership information.
Furthermore, a database owner needs data mining service, so he transmits the relational database to a data mining company. In the process of transferring the relational database to the recipient, the data may be stolen and tampered by an attacker. How to prove the relational database is original and the data is not tampered? Tamper proofing can do that.
"Watermarking relational databases" is a technique coming from the information hiding technique for image can protect ownership and provide tamper proofing for relational databases. Therefore, it can solve above-mentioned two security issues.
In this paper, we propose two novel information hiding method which can be applied to relational database. The experimental results show our methods are available, and they can meet requirements, such as the integrity of raw data and information hiding capacity.

摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iii
List of table v
List of figure vi
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. Background and motivation 1
1.2. Requirements 2
1.3. Organization 3
Chapter 2. Related works 5
2.1. Watermarking relational databases 5
2.2. Data distortion watermarking relational databases 5
2.3. Reversible watermarking relational databases 6
2.4. Data distortion-free watermarking relational databases 7
Chapter 3. Image-based watermarking relational databases 8
3.1. Background knowledge for watermarking relational databases 8
3.1.1. Types of watermarks 8
3.1.2. Types of attacks 8
3.1.3. Watermarking relational databases 10
3.1.4. Basic techniques 11
3.2. Image-based watermarking techniques 11
3.2.1. Agrawal-Kiernan''s Scheme 12
3.2.2. Sion-Atallah-Prabhakar''s Scheme 13
3.2.3. Shehab-Bertino-Ghafoor''s Scheme 14
3.2.4. Kamran-Farooq''s Scheme 15
3.2.5. Kamran-Suhail-Farooq''s Scheme 17
3.2.6. Melkundi-Chandankhede''s Scheme 18
3.2.7. Mehta-Pratap Rao''s Scheme 19
3.2.8. Comparison 21
Chapter 4. An information hiding technology for relational databases 23
4.1. The overview of IHRDR 23
4.2. The scheme of IHRDR 25
4.2.1. IHRDR hiding stage 26
4.2.2. IHRDR retrieving stage 32
4.3. Analysis 34
4.3.1. The integrity of raw data 34
4.3.2. Information hiding capacity 36
4.3.3. The amount of fake tuples 36
4.3.4. The time complexity of IHRDR 36
4.4. Discussion and conclusion 38
Chapter 5. A reversible hiding technique using LSB matching for relational databases 40
5.1. Proposed methodology 40
5.1.2. Extraction and restoration phase 45
5.1.3. Example 47
5.2. Experiment and analysis 49
5.2.1. Information hiding capacity 50
5.2.2. The complexity of our algorithms 50
5.3. Discussion and conclusion 51
Chapter 6. Conclusion and future work 53
6.1. Conclusion 53
6.2. Future work 53

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