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研究生:趙晨婷
研究生(外文):Chen-Ting Zhao
論文名稱:弱勢品牌易腐品之補貨與展售空間策略-以超市鮮乳為例
論文名稱(外文):The study of shelf replenishment and space allocation strategies for weak-brand perishables: the case of milk
指導教授:王建富王建富引用關係
口試委員:白凢芸武為棣
口試日期:2016-07-27
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:行銷學系所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:行銷與流通學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:46
中文關鍵詞:易腐性產品品牌競爭折扣策略店內補貨策略貨架空間配置模擬
外文關鍵詞:Perishable productsBrand competitionDiscountIn-store replenishmentShelf space allocationSimulation
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易腐性產品(Perishable Product),如:新鮮農產品、乳製品及肉類製品等此類產品會隨時間流逝而導致產品逐漸腐敗,並且產品品質也會隨時間而耗損,對於易腐性食品而言,由於顧客多數認為食品越新鮮,產品品質就越好且健康,因此通常會偏好購買新進貨的新鮮產品,使易腐性產品產生LIFO後進先出(Last In, First Out)的情形,導致之前進貨的舊產品庫存與過期數量過多造成浪費,使零售商面臨損失。另外,品牌也是一項影響顧客購買行為的重要因素之一,因顧客會對相對強勢(如知名度、曝光率較高)之品牌產生信心,偏好購買熟悉的品牌,使得市場上相對弱勢的品牌較不被青睞。
因此本研究希望以弱勢品牌立場探討如何使強弱勢品牌競爭時,弱勢品牌仍能吸引顧客前來購買,以減少庫存過多產生的不必要之浪費。根據過往文獻指出折扣與店內補貨政策可緩減顧客LIFO取貨行為,而貨架擺放空間也能對顧客購買行為產生影響,因此本研究提出三種策略 - 折扣政策、店內補貨政策與擴大貨架空間政策,希望透過分析結果提出協助弱勢品牌面對強勢品牌競爭時之應對策略。
本研究以鮮乳為例,使用Simul8模擬模型模擬顧客面對強弱勢品牌鮮乳之購買行為,並考量廠商訂貨系統與店內補貨系統來進行模擬分析,探討本研究提出的三種政策對顧客購買行為產生之影響。經分析後重要結論如下:第一,不論強勢品牌有無進行折扣時,弱勢品牌採取折扣並配合擴大貨架擺放空間對於提升鮮乳銷售數與利潤之績效相較於其他政策而言最佳;第二,採取折扣並配合次新鮮品售完之補貨政策則對於減少過期品與提升次新鮮鮮乳銷量之績效最佳。透過本研究分析結果希望改善弱勢品牌庫存與過期品過多產生的損失。


The quality of perishable products (such as vegetables, dairy and meat) usually decreases with time. For these products, customers believe that the fresher they are, the better their qualities are. Therefore, customers prefer to pick fresh products rather than older ones. This kind of customer purchase behavior may lead to the situation of Last-in-first-out (LIFO) for these products, and thus result in higher inventory of older products as well as more expiration. In addition, the popularity of brand is also an important factor to influence customer purchasing because a customer may choose the product with a brand that has higher reputation rather than an unfamiliar one.
This study aims at exploring how a brand with less popularity can increase its sales and reduce expiration for a perishable product when competing with a brand that has higher reputation. Based on literature reviews, three strategies, including product discount, in-store replenishment, and shelf space allocation policies, are proposed to analyze how these factors will affect the behavior of customer purchasing.
This study uses milk sales as an example. By applying simulation models built using the Simul8 package, the following important results are found. First, no matter whether the competing brand takes a discount action or not, the strategy to offer a product discount and expand shelf space can bring the highest milk sales and profits to the brand with less popularity. Second, the strategy to conduct a product discount and replenish fresh products only when older ones are sold out works best to reduce product expiration and promote older products. Through the study, it is hoped to improve the problems of high inventory of older products and the losses caused by product expiration for a brand with less popularity.

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 2
第三節 研究流程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
第一節 易腐性產品 5
第二節 品牌競爭態勢 7
第三節 價格策略 8
第四節 店內補貨策略 9
第三章 研究方法 10
第一節 顧客購買模擬系統流程 11
第二節 調整政策 12
第四章 模擬分析 14
第一節 模擬系統設定 14
第二節 各方案模擬建置 19
第三節 衡量績效 33
第五章 模擬模型分析結果 34
第一節 各方案績效 35
第二節 各方案績效之比較 38
第六章 結論與建議 41
第一節 策略建議 41
第二節 研究貢獻 43
第三節 研究限制 43
第四節 後續研究方向 43
參考文獻 45


一、中文參考文獻
蔡靜嘉(2011)。依產品新鮮度定價對消費者選擇行為之影響-以超市銷售乳品為例。(未出版之碩士論文) 國立國立中興大學行銷學系,台中市。
李欣育(2014)。折扣幅度與補貨政策對易腐性產品銷售的影響。(未出版之碩士論文) 國立國立中興大學行銷學系,台中市。
翁紹仁與Savory(2013)。系統模擬與Simul8教戰手冊,高雄:阜盛文教。
何應欽(2014)。供應鏈設計與管理,台北:華泰文化。
二、英文參考文獻
AC Nielsen. (2016). What''s hot around the globe, insights on growth in food & beverages, Executive News report. Retrieved from
http://www2.acnielsen.com/reports/documents/2006WhatsHotFoodBev.pdf
Agrawal, D. (1996). Effect of Brand Loyalty on Advertising and Trade Promotions: A Game Theoretic Analysis with Empirical Evidence. Marketing Science, 15(1), 86-108
Broekmeulen, R., & Bakx, C. (2010). In-store replenishment procedures for perishable inventory in a retail environment with handling costs and storage constraints. Retrieved from
http://alexandria.tue.nl/repository/books/673430.pdf
Broekmeulen, R ., & van Donselaar, K. (2009). A heuristic to manage perishable inventory with batch ordering, positive lead-times, and time-varying demand. Computers & Operations Research, 36(11), 3013-3018. doi:10.1016/j.cor.2009.01.017
Cheng, Y.L., & Peng, S.K. (2012). Quality and Quantity Competition in a Multiproduct Duopoly. Southern Economic Journal, 78(1), 180-202.
doi: 10.4284/0038-4038-79.1.180
Corstjens, M., & Doyle, P. (1981). A Model for Optimizing Retail Space Allocations. Management Science, 27(7), 822-833
Desai, P. (2001) Quality Segmentation in Spatial Markets: When Does Cannibalization Affect Product Line Design? Marketing Science, 20(3), 265-283.
Dodds, W.B., Monroe, K.B., & Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of Price, Brand, and Store Information on Buyers'' Product Evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 28, 307-319. doi: 10.2307/3172866
ECR Europe, Optimal Shelf Availability: Increasing Shopper Satisfaction at the Moment of Truth, 2003 (ECR Europe and Roland Berger: Kontich, Belgium)
Herrán, G.M., Taboubi, S., & Zaccour, G. (2006). The Impact of Manufacturers'' Wholesale Prices on a Retailer''s Shelf-Space and Pricing Decisions. Decision Science, 37(1), 71-90. doi:10.1111/j.1540-5414.2006.00110.x
Jagmohan S.R., & Srinivasan, V., Lal, R. (1990). The Effects of Brand Loyalty on Competitive Price Promotional Strategies. Management Science, 36, 276-304.
Lee, K. W., & Lambert, C.U. (2006). Using Simulation to manage waiting time in a cafeteria. Information Technology in Hospitality, 4(4), 127-141. doi:10.3727/154595306779868458
Mckinnon, A.C., Mendes, D., & Nababteh, M. (2007). In-store logistics: an analysis of on-shelf availability and stockout responses for three product groups. International Journal of Logistics Research and Applications, 10(3), 251-268.
doi:10.1080/13675560701478075
Nijs, V.R., Dekimpe, M.G., Steenkamp, J & Hanssens, D.M. (2001). The Category-Demand Effects of Price Promotions, Marketing Science, 20(1), 1–22.
Theotoki, A., Pramatari, K & Tsiros, M. (2012). Effects of Expiration Date-Based Pricing on Brand Image Perceptions. Journal of Retailing, 88(1), 72-87. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2011.06.003
Tsiros, M., & Heilman, C. (2005). The Effect of Expiration Dates and Perceived Risk on Purchasing Behavior in Grocery Store Perishable Categories. Journal of Marketing, 69, 114-129.
Van Donselaar, K., Van Woensel, T., Broekmeulen, R.,& Fransoo, J. (2006). Inventory control of perishables in supermarkets. International Journal of Production Economics, 104(2), 462-472. doi:10.1016/j.ijpe.2004.10.019
Wanga, Z., Mao, Y., & Gale, F. (2008). Chinese consumer demand for food safety attributes in milk products. Food Policy, 33(1), 27-36. doi:10.1016/j.foodpol.2007.05.006


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