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研究生:洪郁峰
研究生(外文):Yu-Feng Hong
論文名稱:台灣消費者對食安標章偏好之研究
論文名稱(外文):A study on consumers’ preferences for food safety labels in Taiwan
指導教授:陳韻如陳韻如引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yun-Ju Chen
口試委員:曾偉君郭曉怡
口試委員(外文):Wei-Chun TsengHsiao-I Kuo
口試日期:2016-06-24
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:農業經濟與行銷碩士學位學程
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業經濟及推廣學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:聯合分析法選擇實驗法食品安全願付價格
外文關鍵詞:Conjoint AnalysisChoice ExperimentFood SafetyWillingness-to-pay
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在食安事件頻傳的現況下,本文使用聯合分析法中的選擇實驗法來設計問卷,探討消費者對於食品安全標章之偏好與願付價格。依據過往文獻挑選出重要的食品屬性,如品牌、食品GMP標章、CAS有機農產品標章、SGS認證、HACCP&ISO22000標示與非基因改造標示作為本研究欲探討的重點。本文透過網路平臺、問卷公司及面訪等方式發放問卷,共計蒐集199份網路樣本、200份問卷公司樣本及31份面訪樣本,並進行多元羅吉特模型實證,發現受訪者對於非基因改造標示之願付價格最高,其值為195元,其次依序為食品GMP (139元)、HACCP&ISO22000 (132元)、SGS認證 (131元)、台灣有機農產品CAS (69元),最後才是學校品牌 (44元)。
此外,本文使用混合羅吉特模型分析不同社經特性的受訪者對於食安屬性的願付價格。實證結果顯示,就學校品牌與CAS有機農產品標章而言,學歷為研究所以下且住家每週烹飪次數5次以下的民眾之願付價格最高。其次,學歷為研究所以下且住家每週烹飪次數5次以上的民眾對於GMP、SGS、HACCP&ISO22000與非基因改造標示的願付價格較高。因此,本研究建議業者可依照不同社經背景的消費者之消費偏好,制定產品的行銷策略,也建議政府應建立非基因改造專屬標示,並維持TQF標章的認證品質及宣傳CAS有機標章在食安檢測上的優勢,保障消費者食用安全的權益。


As many food-safety events have been discovered, this study used Choice Experiment (CE) which is based on Conjoint Analysis in order to design the questionnaire and investigate consumers’ preferences and willingness-to-pay for food safety labels. According to previous literature, we selected the following labels to discuss in this research: brand and the labels of GMP, CAS, SGS, Non-genetically modified, and HACPP&ISO22000. This study collected 199 surveys from the internet, 200 surveys from a marketing company, and 31 surveys from face-to-face interviewing. Results from Multinomial Logit Model (MNL) showed that respondents were willing to pay additional dollars (NT.195) to buy non-genetically modified soy sauce which represents that consumers prefer mostly in non-genetically modified soy sauce, and the next willingness-to-pay for the labels are following: GMP (NT.139), HACCP&ISO22000 (NT.132), SGS (NT.131), CAS (NT.69), brand (NT.44).
In addition, this thesis used Mixed Logit Model (MXL) to analyze the willingness- to-pay for food safety attributes of respondents with different socioeconomic status. The results showed that consumers with the educational degree under the master and cooked below five times every week were willing to pay an additional premium for brand and CAS labels. Secondly, consumers with the educational degree under the master and cooked above five times every week were willing to pay additional premium for GMP, SGS, non-genetically modified, HACCP&ISO22000. Therefore, this research suggested that manufacturer could adopt different marketing strategies for consumers’ different educational background or cooking frequency. In addition, the government should maintain the quality of food safety labels to protect the consumers’ equity for food safety.


目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
表目錄 iv
圖目錄 iv
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景、動機與目的 1
第二節 研究步驟 6
第二章 文獻回顧 8
第一節 食品標章的消費偏好與願付價值 8
第二節 敘述性偏好估計法 14
第三章 理論模型 19
第一節 隨機效用理論 19
第二節 多元羅吉特模型 20
第三節 屬性之願付價格 22
第四章 問卷設計 23
第五章 實證模型之建立與分析 32
第一節 實證模型之建立 32
第二節 實證模型之結果分析 36
第六章 結論與建議 45
第一節 結論 46
第二節 研究建議與限制 50
參考文獻 54
附錄一 62

表目錄
表1-1:2011年-2014年台灣調味品之銷售值規模 4
表4-1食品安全標章之屬性與水準值 24
表4-2社會經濟背景資料統計 27
表4-3食安標章與食品購買習慣調查 30
表5-1 變數說明 34
表5-2 全體受訪者對於屬性變數之偏好實證結果 36
表5-3 不同社經背景之受訪者對屬性變數之偏好實證結果 39
表5-4 不同社經背景之受訪者對個別屬性變數之願付價格 42

圖目錄
圖1-1研究流程圖 7


一、中文部分
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杜采藍,2007。「消費者對有機蔬菜購買認知與行為之研究」。碩士論文,國立國立中興大學應用經濟學系。

周靖凱,2006。「消費者對安全性蔬菜之願付價值研究」。碩士論文,國立國立中興大學應用經濟學系。

張永春,2006。「消費者對食品產銷履歷之願付價格研究」。碩士論文,國立國立中興大學應用經濟學系。

張雅雯,2008。「消費者對豬肉產銷履歷願付價格之研究」。碩士論文,國立國立中興大學行銷學系。

張郁瑄,2010。「產品認證標示訊息對消費者態度,利益知覺,風險知覺,產品信任與購買意願之影響-以基改稻米為例」。碩士論文,國立臺灣大學生物產業傳播暨發展學研究所。

陳奕伶,2009。「臺灣消費者對非基因改造大豆沙拉油之願付價值分析」。碩士論文,國立臺灣大學農業經濟學研究所。

陳宛君、黃郁涵,2011。「有機黃豆與黃豆製品之消費者差異性偏好分析」。農業與資源經濟,8(1),頁1-37。

陳炫志,2015。「國人對安心食用油之願付價值估計-以餐飲業者用油為例」。碩士論文,國立國立中興大學應用經濟學系。

陳韻如、劉奕均,2015。「男性居家托育照顧者,聯合托育中的認同與性別分工」。女學學誌;婦女與性別研究,(36),105-144。


黃璋如、周孟萱,2009。「以聯合分析法評估有機農產品之驗證政策」。應用經濟論叢,86期,頁69-94。

黃裕盛,2015。「瀕危物種保育政策偏好之研究-以台灣淡水魚為例」。博士論文,國立國立中興大學應用經濟學系。

廖柏旭,2009。「探討消費者認知及信任度對有機農產品購買意願之影響」。碩士論文,國立高雄第一科技大學運籌管理研究所。

歐于德、陳文雄、劉鋼,2011。「臺灣實施產地國標示之經濟效益:以估計牡蠣及茶葉願付價格為例」。應用經濟論叢,90期,頁137-181。

劉思岑、李雅慧,2010。「消費者對有機農產品之知識與消費分析」。台灣農學會報,11(5),488-500。

劉鋼、徐瑞玲、陳文雄,2013。「產地國標示與臺灣消費者對國產牛肉之價格溢酬」。人文及社會科學集刊,25(1),頁1-44。

劉劭宣,2014。「食品品質標章認證與消費者信賴程度之動態分析」。碩士論文,國立暨南國際大學經濟學系。

闕韶儀,2007。「生活型態與食品消費者行為」。碩士論文,國立國立中興大學行銷學系。


二、英文部分
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Birdir, S., Ünal, Ö., Birdir, K., and Williams, A. T. (2013). “Willingness to pay as an economic instrument for coastal tourism management: Cases from Mersin”,Turkey.Tourism Management,36,279-283.

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Hanemann, W. M. (1984).“Welfare evaluations in contingent valuation experiments with discrete responses.”,American journal of agricultural economics,66(3),332-341.

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Hensher, D. A. (1994).“Stated preference analysis of travel choices: the state of practice.”,Transportation,21(2),107-133.

Hanley, N., Wright, R. E., and Adamowicz, V. (1998).“Using choice experiments to value the environment.”,Environmental and resource economics,11(3-4),413-428.

Hanley, N., Mourato, S., and Wright, R. E. (2001).“Choice modelling approaches: a superior alternative for environmental valuation? ”,Journal of economic surveys,15(3),435-462.

Jan, M. S., Fu, T. T., and Liao, D. S. (2006).“Willingness to Pay for HACCP on seafood in Taiwan.”,Aquaculture Economics & Management,10(1),33-46.

Janssen, M., and Hamm, U. (2012).“Product labelling in the market for organic food: Consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay for different organic certification logos.”,Food Quality and Preference,25(1),9-22.

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Kaneko, N., and Chern, W. S. (2005).“Willingness to pay for genetically modified oil, cornflakes, and salmon: Evidence from a US telephone survey.”,Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, 37(03), 701-719.

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Louviere, J. J., Hensher, D. A., and Swait, J. D. (2000).“Stated choice methods: analysis and applications.”,Cambridge University Press.

Lusk, J. L., Brown, J., Mark, T., Proseku, I., Thompson, R., and Welsh, J. (2006).“Consumer behavior, public policy, and country-of-origin labeling.”,Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 28(2), 284-292.

Loureiro, M. L., and Umberger, W. J. (2007).“A choice experiment model for beef: What US consumer responses tell us about relative preferences for food safety,country-of-origin labeling and traceability.”,Food policy,32(4),496-514.

Lim, K. H., Hu, W., Maynard, L. J., and Goddard, E. (2013).“US Consumers’ Preference and Willingness to Pay for Country‐of‐Origin‐Labeled Beef Steak and Food Safety Enhancements.”,Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d''agroeconomie,61(1),93-118.

Magid, J. M., Cox, A. D., and Cox, D. S. (2006).“Quantifying brand image: Empirical evidence of trademark dilution.”,American business law journal,43(1),1.

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三、網路部分
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(http://www.appledaily.com.tw/appledaily/article/headline/20130518/35026235/) (2013/5/18)。

邱紹雯、陳韋宗、張菁雅、葛祐豪、蘇孟娟,2014。「林鳳營滯銷,他牌被掃光」,自由時報。
(http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/focus/paper/821705) (2014/10/15)。

陳厚耕,2014。「調味品製造業之現況與展望」,台灣經濟研究院產業經濟資料庫。
(http://tie.tier.org.tw/db/content/index.asp?sid=0D358422492263526320&keyword=21833 ) (2014/1/28)。

陳厚耕,2015。「調味品製造業之現況與展望」,台灣經濟研究院產業經濟資料庫。
(http://tie.tier.org.tw/db/content/index.asp?sid=0F152419266507890639&keyword=%bd%d5%a8%fd%ab%7e%bbs%b3y%b7%7e%a4%a7%b2%7b%aap%bbP%aei%b1%e6)(2015/6/30)。

張晃旼,2015。「爆摻低價金蘭醬油!強調絕對合法。豆油伯:全面退費」,三立新聞網。(http://www.setn.com/News.aspx?NewsID=90789) (2015/8/19)。

黃以敬,2005。「醬油大賣,屏科大被追稅70萬」,自由時報。
(http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/paper/9127) (2015/3/28)。

黃建熒、范繼文、林宜潔、王宗翰、陳乙杉,2013。「食安效應!台大鮮奶15分鐘搶購一空」,中時電子報。
(http://tube.chinatimes.com/20131122005495-261402) (2013/11/22)。

葉國吏,2015。「除豆油伯外,屏科大薄鹽醬油也買金蘭生醬汁」,蘋果日報。
(http://www.appledaily.com.tw/realtimenews/article/new/20150821/674677/) (2015/8/21)。



2014。「油品食安事件後,三成網路受訪者會減少外食」,尼爾森行銷顧問股份有限公司。(http://www.nielsen.com/tw/zh/press-room/2014/newsTaiwanEdibleOilreport0217.html) (2014/2/17)。

2014。「食品GMP民調結果與油品分流管制辦法」,經濟部。
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2014。「搶買台大鮮乳,學生、民眾起衝突」,自由時報。
(http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/breakingnews/1145885 ) (2014/10/31)。

2015。「域動行銷2015年第一季台灣網路、行動調查數據報告」,域動行銷股份有限公司。
(http://www.clickforce.com.tw/newspaper/Report/2015Q1.pdf) (2015/第一季)。



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