(3.238.173.209) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/16 21:33
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

: 
twitterline
研究生:張佳祐
研究生(外文):Chia-Yu Chang
論文名稱:不同基肥對水田轉作茶園土壤性質與茶苗生長之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of different basal fertilizers on soil properties and tea plant (Camellia sinensis L.) growth in paddy-converted tea garden
指導教授:陳建德陳建德引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chien-Teh Chen
口試委員:鍾仁賜鄭智馨王慶裕許奕婷
口試委員(外文):Reb-Shis ChungChih-Hsin ChengChing-yuh WangYi-Ting Hsu
口試日期:2015-10-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:農藝學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:一般農業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:94
中文關鍵詞:茶樹水稻田轉作茶園茶渣樹皮堆肥牛糞堆肥pH值EC值
外文關鍵詞:teapaddy-converted tea gardentea dust compostbark compostcow manure compostpH valueEC value
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:329
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:17
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
台灣山地開墾嚴重,水土環境惡化,今已限制高海拔茶樹種植,倡議將水稻田轉作茶園,因應茶業市場需求。本研究目的為透過土壤分析與農藝性狀調查,尋得水田轉作茶園之合宜田間處理。試驗材料台茶12號栽種位處台中市霧峰區之國立中興大學北溝水田轉作茶園,以有機栽培法搭配三種基肥施用:茶渣、樹皮堆肥、牛糞堆肥與間作甘藷,探討用不同基肥對水田轉作茶園土壤性質與茶苗生長之影響,測定項目有土壤酸鹼度、電導度、陽離子交換容量、有機質、總體密度與孔隙率。田間土壤分析顯示,豆粕的施用會讓土壤pH值下降、EC值上升;樹皮堆肥有相對較高的pH值,而牛糞堆肥與空白組最低;茶渣與樹皮處理擁有較高的EC值。轉作18個月後,各處理之土壤有機質含量大多仍維持在20 g/kg。上層土壤之土壤孔隙率,茶渣顯著高於樹皮堆肥;中層土壤之土壤孔隙率牛糞堆肥為最高。茶苗生長調查顯示,茶渣死亡率較高,生長速率較高。不同甘藷品種間作處理,茶苗生長無顯著差異,茶渣處理之平均抽梢數目顯著高於其他處理。茶苗乾重調查顯示,去頂植株之全株與地下部乾重,相對重量呈現茶渣、樹皮、牛糞、空白的順序下降;未去頂組存活植株之全株與地上部乾重,相對重量呈現茶渣、樹皮、牛糞、空白的順序上升,而未去頂組死亡之全株與地上部則呈相反趨勢。

The cultivation of the mountain area in Taiwan has worsened the condition of water and soil, resulting in the government restricting high-altitude tea growing and proposing turning paddy field into tea garden to cope with the demand of the market. The research aims to find out proper treatments in a field that is transformed from rice growing to tea growing through the analysis of soil and agronomic traits. In the National Chung Hsing University Agricultural Experiment Station in Beiguo, Wufeng District of Taichung City, the cultivar TTES No. 12 is grown organically with three basal fertilizers—tea dust compost, bark compost, and cow manure compost—and the intercropping of Sweet potatoes. The purpose is to find out the effects of different basal fertilizers on the soil of paddy-converted tea garden and the growth of tea seedlings. Soil pH, EC, CEC, organic matter, bulk density, and porosity were analyzed. The result of the soil analysis showed: soybean meal made the pH value decreased and the EC value increased; bark compost made a higher pH value while soil treated with cow manure compost and the control treatment had a lower pH value; and tea dust compost and bark compost made higher EC values. After 18 months of transformation, the organic matter in these types of soil with different treatments mostly remained at 20 g/kg. Concerning the porosity, soil with tea dust compost was significantly higher than that with bark compost in the upper layer; and soil with cow manure compost was the highest in the medium layer. The investigation of the growth of tea seedlings showed: in the soil with tea dust compost, both the mortality and the relative growth were relatively high; for those intercropped with sweet potatoes, the relative growth of tea seedlings didn’t have a significant difference; and in the soil with tea dust compost, the average new shoot number was significantly higher than the other treatments. The investigation of the dry weight of tea seedlings showed: the whole plant and root dry weights of de-top seedlings decreased in the order of those treated with tea dust compost, with bark compost, with cow manure compost, and the control group; the whole plant and shoot dry weights of alive seedlings without de-topping increased in the order of those treated with tea dust compost, with bark compost, with cow manure compost, and the de-topping treatment; and the whole plant and shoot dry weights of dead seedlings without topping showed the opposite.

中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
縮寫字對照表 ix
一、前言 1
二、文獻回顧 6
(一)茶業市場之概況 6
(二)台灣休耕地概述 9
1. 定義 9
2. 歷年農地重大措施 9
(三)台灣的有機栽培 10
1. 定義與演進 10
2. 有機農業推行現況 12
3. 有機栽種茶的條件 16
(四)平地水田轉作茶樹栽培環境挑戰 19
1. 茶樹原生氣候土宜 19
(五)平地水田轉作茶樹的之環境逆境 20
1. 高溫與高光照度逆境 24
2. 淹水逆境 24
三、材料方法 26
(一)試驗材料 26
(二)試驗方法 28
(三)試驗樣品採取 32
1. 土壤採樣 32
2. 茶苗採樣 32
(四)土壤樣品分析方法 32
1. 土壤前處理 32
2. 酸鹼度 32
3. 電導度 33
4. 土壤有機質含量 33
5. 土壤總體密度 33
6. 土壤孔隙度 33
7. 陽離子交換容量 33
(五)茶苗農藝性狀調查 35
1. 茶苗株高調查 35
2. 茶苗死亡率 35
3. 茶苗乾重 35
(六)試驗處理 35
1. 茶苗去頂 35
2. 甘藷間作 36
(七)統計分析 36
四、結果與討論 37
(一)不同基肥下,茶苗生長速率與死亡率之影響 37
(二)茶苗乾重 41
(三)甘藷間作下,茶苗生長變化 45
(四)茶苗抽梢數目與長度 50
(五)土壤酸鹼度與電導度變化 52
(六)土壤有機質含量變化 56
(七)土壤陽離子交換容量變化 58
(八)土壤總體密度與孔隙率 60
五、結論 62
六、參考文獻 63
附錄 74

工業技術研究院。2005。茶產業營運模式與供銷架構之研究。經濟部商業司委託。
中國農學遺傳資源學會。1994。中國作物遺傳資源。Pp. 548-577。大陸,北京。中國農學出版社編印。
天仁茶業股份有限公司2013年度年報。2014。天仁茶業股份有限公司。臺灣,臺北。
王為一。2004。植物保護圖鑑系列4-茶樹保護。營養障礙症。行政院農業委員會動植物防疫檢疫局。Pp.113-118。
朱惠民。1985。有機質肥料對茶樹生育與土壤改良之研究。臺灣茶業研究彙報 4: 87-111。
行政院。農地—— 上天賜予的禮物。政策與計畫。2015年7月4日。取自:http://www.ey.gov.tw/News_Content16.aspx?n=E9B83B707737B701&s=BA7C056DC81E17D6

行政院農委會農糧署。2013a。糧政環境。臺灣糧食統計要覽 (102年)。臺灣,臺北。行政院農業委員會編印。
行政院農委會農糧署。2013b。主要農產品產銷及進出口量值 (102年)。臺灣,臺北。行政院農業委員會編印。
行政院農委會農糧署。2014。103年公務統計年報。臺灣,臺北。行政院農業委員會編印。
吳振鐸。1963。茶樹花部形態研究。中華農學會報新 44: 34-52。
吳珮琪。1998。兩種有機質肥料對生長在石灰質土壤與紅壤中之臺茶12號與青心烏龍的影響。碩士論文。臺北: 國立臺灣大學農業化學系研究所。
李淑美、陳右人。2003。溫度對茶樹茶菁產量和品質之影響。臺灣茶葉研究彙報22: 43-56。
周孟嫻。2014。從價值鏈觀點思考我國農業發展策略 我國茶葉加值策略分析。臺灣經濟研究月刊 37: 42-48。
林天枝、蔡宜峰。1995。利用土耕法栽培報歲蘭之肥培技術研究。臺中區農業改良場研究會報 46: 19-25。
林木連、姚銘輝、陳俊仁。2013。影響大葉種茶樹日燒症狀之環境因素。102年度農業工程與自動化計畫成果討論文集。Pp.160-165。
林木連、陳右人、張鳳屏、陳玄。1992。茶園有機質肥料比較試驗。土壤肥料試驗研究成果報告。Pp. 227-230。
林木連。2001。有機農法的實務 (一) 茶。永續農業第一輯 (作物篇)。Pp.348-355。臺灣,臺中。中華永續農業協會編印。
林儒宏、簡靖華、蕭建興、郭寬福、黃正宗、邱垂豐、林金池。2013。近10年來中南部茶區農業氣象之溫度調查與變化趨勢。102年度農業工程與自動化計畫成果討論文集。Pp.166-171。臺灣,臺中。行政院農業委員會農業試驗所編印。
邱垂豐。1996。不同氮源對茶菁品質化學成分之影響。中華農學會報新 175: 50-67。
邱垂豐。2005。茶樹開花之研究。博士論文。臺中: 國立國立中興大學農藝學系研究所。
施毓恩、劉美君、林昱至、曾志正。2014。喝茶澀味的分子機制與科學檢測茶澀度的技術發展。農林學報 63: 99-106
張如華。2012。近十年全球茶葉產銷概況。茶訊30: 2-7.
張鳳屏。1996。茶樹營養與施肥。茶業技術推廣手冊茶作篇。臺灣,桃園。行政院農委會茶葉改良場編印。
許登照。2009。臺灣茶產業生產現況與輔導措施。農政與農情 201: 68-72。
郭芷君。2014。茶渣再利用及做為菇類栽培基質之初探。茶業專訊87: 13。
郭彥廷。2013。蓮華池森林動態樣區之地形與土壤性質對於林木豐富度及升質量之影響。碩士論文。臺北:國立臺灣大學農藝化學系研究所。
陳右人。1996。茶樹品種與育種介紹。茶業技術推廣手冊茶作篇。臺灣,桃園。行政院農委會茶葉改良場編印。
陳孝悌。2013。活化休耕農地推動土地正義。臺肥季刊 54 特別報導。
陳國任。1995。茶。臺灣農家要覽,農作篇(ㄧ)。Pp. 181-198。臺灣,臺北。豐年社編印。
黃述鈞。2013。生物炭對茶園土壤溫室氣體釋放及微生物活性之影響。碩士論文。臺北:國立臺灣大學農藝化學系研究所。
楊玉婷。2014。深富自然及人文關懷的親土精神 我國有機農業發展策略分析。臺灣經濟研究月刊 37: 42-48。
楊盛勳。1996。茶園開墾與種植。茶業技術推廣手冊茶作篇。臺灣,桃園。行政院農委會茶葉改良場。
經濟部標準檢驗局。1992。肥料檢驗法-泥炭及腐植質材料之測定。臺灣,臺北。中國國家標準CNS 13027類號N4149。
葉東柏。2004。茶飲料工廠廢棄茶渣中 ECG 與 EGCG 之製備。行政院國家科學委員會專題研究計畫成果報告。
鄧耀宗。2001。有機農業之定義與其經營理念。永續農業第一輯 (作物篇)。Pp. 308-318。臺灣,臺中。中華永續農業協會編印。
鄧耀宗。2003。臺灣稻作之回顧與展望。高雄區農業改良場研究彙報。14: 1-23。
蕭建興。1997。小綠葉蟬危害對茶樹生物及茶菁品質的影響。碩士論文。臺中: 國立國立中興大學農藝系研究所。
鍾仁賜。1999。有機肥料對生長在兩種不同土壤之茶樹的影響。行政院國家科學委員會專題研究成果報告。Pp. 1-6。
魏匡立。2011。施用不同性質有機肥肥料對茶樹生長及土壤之影響。碩士論文。屏東: 國立屏東科技大學農園生產系研究所。
魏偉勝。2009。不同施肥管理對土壤有機質含量及組成之影響。碩士論文。臺北: 國立臺灣大學農業化學系研究所。
Ahmed S., J. R. Stepp, C. Orians, T. Griffin, C. Matyas, A. Robbat, S. Cash, D. Xue, C. Long, U. Unachukwu, S. Buckley, D. Small, and E. Kennelly. 2014. Effects of extreme climate events on tea (Camellia sinensis ) functional quality validate indigenous farmer knowledge and sensory preferences in tropical China. Plos One 9: 1-13.
Aldanondo-Ochoa, A. M. and C. Almansa-Sáez. 2009. The private provision of public environment: consumer preferences for organic production systems. Land Use Policy 26: 669-682.
Barman, T. S., U. Baruah, and J. K. Saikia. 2008. Irradiance influences tea leaf (Camellia sinensis L.) photosynthesis and transpiration. Photosynthetica 46: 618-621
Ben-Dor, E. and A. Banin. 1989. Determination of organic matter content in arid-zone soils using a simple “loss-on-ignition” method. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 20: 1675-165.
Blake, G. R. and K. H. Hartge. 1986. Bulk density. A. Klute (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I, 2nd edn. Pp. 363-376. ASA Monograph No.9. Madison, WI, USA.
Chang, C., C. M. Cho, and H. H. Janzen. 1998. Nitrous oxide emission from long-term manured soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62: 677-682.
Chen, C. L., M. L. Lin, H. Y. Guo, C. F. Chiang, T. G. Liu, and C. L. Chu. 2000. Impact assessment of shifts of land use on soil organic carbon storage of cultivated land in Taiwan. Soil and Environment 3: 363-378.
Dam, R. F., B. B. Mehdi, M. S. E. Burgess, C. A. Madramootoo, G. R. Mehuys, and I. R. Callum. 2005. Soil bulk density and crop yield under eleven consecutive years of corn with different tillage and residue practices in a sandy loam soil in central Canada. Soil and Tillage Research 84: 41-53.
Elisabetta, M., A. M. Mastrangelo, C. Crosatti, D. Guerra, A. M. Stanca, and L. Cattivelli. 2008. Abiotic stress response in plants: When post-transcriptional and post-translational regulations control transcription. Plant Science 174: 420-431.
Eswaran H., E.VanderBerg, and P. Reich. 1993. Organic carbon in soils of the world. Soil Science Society of America 57: 192-194.
FAO. 2014. Current market situation and medium term outlook. Arrived at: http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/est/meetings/IGGtea21/14-Inf3-CurrentSituation.pdf
FAOSTAT. Arrived at: http://faostat3.fao.org/

FiBL. 2015. Organic farming statistic. Arrived at: http://www.fibl.org/en/themen/themen-statistiken.html

Gracia, A. and T. de Magistris. 2008. The demand for organic foods in the South of Italy: a discrete choice model. Food Policy 33: 386-396.
Hollósy, F. 2002. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on plant cells. Micron 33: 179-197.
Jackson, J. D. 1962. Classical electrodynamics. 2nd Edition. Wiley. New York, USA.
Jackson, M. L. 1958. Soluble salt analysis for soils and waters. Soil Chemical Analysis. Pp. 227-271. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs. N. J., USA.
Joshi, P., S. Gartia, M. K. Pradhan, and B. Biswal. 2011. Photosynthetic response of clusterbean chloroplasts to UV-B radiation: Energy imbalance and loss in redox homeostasis between QA and QB of photosystem II. Plant Science 181: 90-95.
Juang, T. C. and Y. S. Chang. 1992. Effect of application of compost and manure on crop growth, nitrogen mineralization and nitrogen uptake under rice-corn rotation. Soil and Fertilizers in Taiwan 1992: 18-39.
Lal, R. 2004. Soil carbon sequestration impacts on global climate change and food security. Science 304: 1623-1627.
Liu, H. Y., P. Zhou, H. H. Zhu, J. S. Wu, and D. S. Zou. 2012. Effect of land use change on topsoil organic carbon storage of paddy soil in a hilly landscape of red earth region. Research of Agricultural Modernization 33: 359-362.
Martin, J. P. and D. D. Focht. 1977. Biological properties of soil. L. F. Elliott, et al. (ed.) Soils for management of organic wastes and waste water. Pp. 114-169. Madison, Wisconsin. USA.
Matsumoto, H., Hirasawa, E., Morimura, S., Takahashi, E., 1976. Localization of aluminium in tea leaves. Plant Cell Physiol. 17, 627-631.
Mclean, E. O. 1982. Soil pH and Lime Requirement. Methods of Soil Analysis.American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America.
Murty, D., M. U. F. Kirschbaum, R. E. Mcmurtrie, and H. McGilbray. 2002. Dose conversion of forest to agricultural land change soil carbon and nitrogen? Global Change Biology 8: 105-123.
Nelson, D. W. and L. E. Sommers. 1996. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. D. L. Sparks D. L. Sparks, A. L. Page, P. A. Helmke, R. H. Loeppert, P. N. Soltanpour, M. A. Tabatabai, C. T. Johnston, and M. E. Sumner. Methods of soil analysis part 3-Chemical Methods. Pp. 961-1010. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. and American Society of Agronomy. Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Nilsson, A. 1996. Ultraviolet reflections: life under a thinning ozone layer. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England.
Olsen, R. J., R. F. Hensler, and O. J. Attoe. 1970. Effect of manure application, aeration, and soil pH on soil nitrogen transformation and on certain soil test values. Soil Science Society of America Journal 34: 222-225.
Olfs, H. W., K. Blankenau, F. Brentrup, J. Jasper, A. Link, and J. Lammel. 2005. Soil-and plant-based nitrogen-fertilizer recommendations in arable farming. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 168: 414-431.
Ono, S. I. 1990. Effects of flooding and liming on the promotion of mineralization of soil organic nitrogen. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 37: 427-433.
Shiu, T. Y. and C. C. Wu. 2010. Beneficial intercropping in the organic production of green onions. Journal of the Taiwan Society for Horticultural Science 56: 105-112.
Shukla, M. K. 2013. Soil physic an introduction. CRC press. New York, USA.s
Smiley, R. W. 1974. Rhizosphere pH influenced by plant, soil and nitrogen fertilizers. Soil Science Society of America Journal 38: 795-799.
Sommerfeldt, T. G., C. Chang, and T. Entz. 1988. Long-term annual manure applications increase soil organic matter and nitrogen, and decrease carbon to nitrogen ratio. Soil Science Society of America Journal 52: 1668-1672.
Tilman, D., J. Fargione, B. Wolff, C. D’ Antonio, A. Dobson, R. Howarth, D. Schindler, W. H. Schlesinger, D. Simberloff, and D. Swackhamer. 2001. Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science 292: 281-284.
Tuomisto, H. L., I. D. Hodge, P. Riordan, and D. W. Macdonald. 2012. Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts? -A meta-analysis of European research. Journal of Environmental Management 112: 309-320.
Upadhyaya, H. and S. K. Panda. 2013. Abiotic stress responses in tea [Camellia sinensis L. (O) kuntze]: an overview. Reviews in Agricultural Science 1: 1-10.
Weatherburn, M. W. 1967. Phenol-hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Analytical Chemistry 39: 971-974.
Wijeratne, M. A., A. Anandacoomaraswamy, M. K. S. L. D. Amarathunga. J. Ratnasiri, B. R. S. B. Basnayake, and N. Kalra. 2007. Assessment of impact of climate change on productivity of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plantations in Sri Lanka. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka 35: 119-126.
Yuan, D., D. Yang, G. Pu., Q. Zhang, X. Chen, W. Peng, J. Sun, S. Xiong, and J. Li. 2013. Fertility dynamics of three types of tea garden soils in Western Sichuan, China. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 50: 29-35.
Zhang, L. Y., L. Y. Hou, Y. H. Chen, Y. L. Guo, J. J. Zhuo, and G. Wang. 2009. Soil nitrogen status in Tieguanyin tea plantation of Fujian Province. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture 17: 225-229
Zinke, P. J., A. G. Stangenberger, A. G., W. M. Post, W. R. Emanuel, and J. S. Olson. Worldwide organic soil carbon and nitrogen data. ORNL/TM-8857, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
Zou, C., C. Penfold, R. Sands, R. K. Misra, and I. Hudson. 2001. Effects of soil air-filled porosity, soil matric potential and soil strength on primary root growth of radiata pine seedlings. Plant Soil 236: 105-115.


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關點閱論文