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研究生:李沛馨
研究生(外文):Pei-Hsin Lee
論文名稱:從國際節能趨勢探討我國建築節能法規
論文名稱(外文):Evaluation of Energy Saving Buildings Legislation by Adopting the International Trend
指導教授:蘇義淵蘇義淵引用關係
口試委員:蔡岡廷許舜喨
口試日期:2016-01-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:法律學系科技法律碩士班
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:128
中文關鍵詞:建築節能氣候變遷溫室氣體低碳產業
外文關鍵詞:building energy savingclimate changegreenhouse gaseslow-carbon industry
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  • 下載下載:62
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:6
2015年底,聯合國氣候變化綱要公約通過巴黎協定,全球在對抗氣候變遷之議題上取得重大進展。但同年,也是有氣象紀錄以來最熱的一年。如何應對極端氣候和環境污染所帶來的嚴重災害,溫室氣體減量絕對是各國必須共同完成的課題。
目前國際上有許多先進國家已開始朝向低碳產業發展,尤其歐盟及其會員國更是致力於此,其在低碳永續等各方面的法規政策皆相當健全,發展經驗值得我國借鑑。據統計,建築是目前全球溫室氣體三大排放來源之一,所以建築是最具有潛力,能透過政策法規和技術,以具有成本效率的方式大幅降低溫室氣體的排放。只是我國政府過去並不十分重視溫室氣體減量之議題,更遑論建築節能減碳的範疇。本文分析歸納以歐盟為主的國際節能減碳趨勢,著重於由上而下整體關於建築部門節能的法制規範,使得各國得以遵循發展實現低碳經濟。未來我國將分配明確的溫室氣體減量責任給建築部門,若可參酌國外的建築節能法制化經驗,並制定適宜我國的條文和制度,將有助於我國在建築部門推動低碳節能的發展。

The adoption of the Paris Agreement by UNFCCC in 2015 lays a significant milestone to tack global climate change. However, the year of 2015 has also been the hottest year since weather records begun, indicating that the need to solve the issue of climate change is a serious and urgent. Therefore, how to responsed the disasters caused by extreme weather and environmental pollution remains a challenge. The reduction of greenhouse gases is an important task for every country in the world.
So far, many countries started to focus on the development of low-carbon industry, especially in many European Union countries. Those cities have well stablished regulations and policies on low-carbon industry. Their ecperiences are helpful for Taiwan to improve our building regulations. According to statistics, architecture construction is one of the three major emission sources. The construction of buildings can significantly affect greenhouse gas emission through designing changes and enforcement of rules. It should be most cost effective way to reduce emission of GHGs dramatically. However, our government paid too few attention in this topic. This thesis studied the international trend of energy saving in construction sector. Especially the whole buildings legislation of energy saving from top-down makes many countries achieve low-carbon economy. In the future, our government will distribute the precise amount of reducing GHGs emission to the construction sector. Learning those foreign experiences and establishing proper regulations would be helpful in the development of low-carbon legislation in Taiwan.

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第一項 研究動機 1
第二項 研究目的 3
第二節 研究內容與方法 6
第一項 研究內容 6
第二項 研究方法 7
壹、 歷史分析法 7
貳、 文獻研究法 7
參、 比較法分析法 7
第三節 章節架構 8
第二章 環境衝擊與國際間應對變遷略策 9
第一節 全球環境變遷 9
第一項 全球暖化現象 10
第二項 全球環境變遷造成之生態衝擊 15
第三項 永續發展策略 17
第二節 全球對環境保護議題的重視 18
第一項 國際間主要環境會議與公約 19
壹、 聯合國人類環境會議 19
貳、 維也納公約暨蒙特婁議定書 20
參、 里約會議 22
一、 21世紀議程 23
二、 里約宣言 24
三、 森林原則 24
四、 生物多樣性公約 25
第二項 國際間主要溫室氣體減量規範 27
壹、 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約 27
一、 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約簽訂背景 27
二、 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約之基本原則 28
1. 共同但有區別之責任 29
2. 衡平原則 30
3. 預防原則 30
4. 永續發展原則 31
5. 開放的國際經濟體系 31
三、 聯合國氣候變化綱要公約之成員與目標 32
貳、 京都議定書 34
一、 京都議定書簽訂背景及過程 34
二、 京都議定書之規範內容 36
三、 後京都時期(post-Kyoto) 38
參、 巴黎協定 39
第三節 歐盟溫室氣體減量之法制與政策 41
第一項 歐洲氣候變遷計畫 42
壹、 第一階段歐洲氣候變遷計畫(2000年~2004年) 44
貳、 第二階段歐洲氣候變遷計畫(2005年至今) 45
第二項 氣候與能源包裹法案 46
壹、 再生能源指令 47
貳、 修訂歐盟排放交易體系指令 48
參、 減碳分擔決議 49
第三項 2050年歐盟低碳經濟路線圖 49
第四節 小結 54
第三章 國際間低碳建築趨勢 56
第一節 低碳建築之發展 56
第二節 綠建築評估系統 58
第一項 英國BREEAM評估系統 59
第二項 台灣EEWH評估系統 61
第三節 歐盟有關建築節能減碳之作法 63
第一項 歐盟建築節能減碳之措施 64
壹、 建築能源效率指令 65
貳、 能源效率指令 68
第二項 英國建築節能減碳之措施 70
第四節 小結 73
第四章 我國建築節能減碳之策略 75
第一節 我國溫室氣體排放現況 75
第一項 溫室氣體排放跨國比較 75
第二項 國內各部門溫室氣體排放量 77
第二節 我國溫室氣體減量政策 82
第一項 我國溫室氣體減量政策及目標 83
壹、 全國能源會議 85
貳、 永續能源政策綱領 88
參、 國家綠能低碳總行動方案 90
肆、 能源發展綱領 94
第二項 溫室氣體減量及管理法 95
壹、 溫室氣體減量及管理法立法背景 95
貳、 條文架構及相關配套 96
第三節 我國建築節能減碳相關法制策略 99
第一項 綠建築基準 100
第二項 綠建築標章 102
第三項 建築能源效率標示制度 104
第四節 小結 106
第五章 結論與建議 107
第一節 分析我國與英國推動建築節能之法制政策 108
第二節 我國建築部門節能法治策略之發展建議 113
一、 政策條文化 113
二、 建築能源證書制度之建立 113
三、 其他相關法律之探討 114
1. 行政院版都市更新條例修正草案 114
2. 住宅法 114
參考文獻 116

一、中文部分
(一)專書
David Gissen,呂奕欣譯,BIG&GREEN邁向二十一世紀的永續建築,2005年8月。
Earth Pledge,陳重仁譯,永續建築白皮書,初版,2006年5月1日。
James Steele,王文安譯,永續建築—原則、典範與案例研究,初版,2005年4月1日。
江哲銘,永續建築,2012年8月。
柳中明,全球環境變遷,一版,2010年7月。
翁春雄、許晃雄,溫室效應之現象與原因探討,2012年8月。
聯合國環境規劃署,建築和氣候變化決策者摘要,2009。
謝德勇、邱欣瑜,歐盟2050能源路線圖,2012。
(二)論文
王昱婷,我國綠建築法治與認證機制之研究—兼論美國LEED認證機制,中國文化大學法學院法律學系,碩士論文,2014年1月。
呂浥頡,溫室氣體減量法制之研究-以減量政策工具為中心,國立東華大學財經法律研究所,碩士論文,2013年7月。
吳明助,推動綠建築證書與標章提升策略之探討,國立中央大學土木研究所,碩士論文,2008年6月。
謝仕煌,綠建築補助運用於建築物整建維護之研究,國立台灣大學建築與城鄉研究所,碩士論文,2012年1月。
(三)期刊
江哲銘、周伯丞,2003,Green Ecological Building, of "e"Generation「e世代綠"健"築」的構築思維,Dialogue雜誌,第69期。
林祥輝、洪嘉業,談美國建築物能源效率提升計畫,能源報導,2012年3月。
李蘶、葉青、趙強,英國BREEAM Communities可持續社區評價體系研究,ECGB博士生論壇,2014春季刊。
唐超君、謝紅,不同綠色建築認證體系對材料要求的對比研究,房地產導刊,第3期,2014。
曹俊漢,全球治理與氣候變遷:評估哥本哈根會議(COP15)決策機制的衝擊與對策,歐美研究,第43卷第1期,2013年3月。
廖宗聖,臺灣氣候變遷調適法制的建構─從英國調適法制談起,法學新論,第38期,2012年10月。
劉庭芬、陳清楠,國內外綠建築評估系統比較,中興工程,第113期,2011年10月。
蘇義淵,國際環境公約與氣候系統保護,科學發展,第480期,2012年12月。
(四)政府資料
工業技術研究院,美國商業建築節能發展方向及現況,2015年12月5日。
中華民國總統府,〈能源管理法〉,《總統府公報》,第6871期,2009年7月8日。
中華民國總統府,〈溫室氣體減量及管理法〉,《總統府公報》,第7200期,2015年7月1日。
中華民國總統府,〈住宅法〉,《總統府公報》,第7010期,2011年12月30日。
內政部建築研究所,建築節能減碳策略及成本效益分析,2011年12月。
內政部建築研究所,我國推行建築能源效率標示制度之策略研究,2012年12月。
內政部建築研究所,既有建築物節能改善技術之研究,2012年12月。
內政部建築研究所,綠建築評估手冊-基本型,第二版,2014年8月。
行政院國家永續發展委員會,永續發展政策綱領,2009年9月。
行政院綠能低碳推動會,105年度第1次委員會議紀錄,2016年1月5日,頁2。
行政院環境保護署,2014年中華民國國家溫室氣體清冊報告,2014年12月,頁42。
經濟部能源局,從COP18看國際氣候談判趨勢及對我國之可能影響,2013年。
財團法人工業技術研究院,計畫名稱:「推動我實質參與聯合國氣候變化綱要公約之策略研析與規劃」期末報告,2014年2月。
國家發展委員會,「國家綠能低碳總行動方案」103年第4季(含全年)執行檢討報告,2015年2月。
經濟部能源局,87年全國能源會議結論執行成效與檢討,2009年3月。
經濟部能源局,94年全國能源會議結論執行成效與檢討,2009年3月。
經濟部能源局,永續能源政策綱領(核定本),2008年6月。
經濟部能源局,能源發展綱領(核定本),2012年10月。
經濟部能源局,我國燃料燃燒二氧化碳排放統計,2015年7月。
經濟部能源局,能源發展綱領政策評估說明書(草案),2010年12月。
行政院節能減碳推動會秘書處,國家節能減碳總計畫(核定本),2010年5月。

(五)網站資料
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內政部建築研究所,參加104年行政院舉辦「全國能源會議」,建築研究簡訊第88期《大事紀要》,2015年7月,參照http://124.199.64.18/tw/periodical/show/88/1669 (最後瀏覽日期2015年12月9日)
王瑜琦,《蒙特婁議定書》和管理臭氧層破壞物質,2011年7月6日,參照http://highscope.ch.ntu.edu.tw/wordpress/?p=30015 (最後瀏覽日期2016年1月8日)
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楊?弘,探尋新時代的正義-世代衡平,2014年10月22日,參照http://twycc.org.tw/blog_and_news/7016/1021generationbalance/ (最後瀏覽日期2015年12月15日)
經濟部中小企業處,京都議定書與因應策略,參照http://www.moeasmea.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=877&ctNode=645&mp=1 (最後瀏覽日期2015年12月16日)
經濟部能源局,98年全國能源會議結論執行情形說明,參照http://2014energy.tw/image/download/98_energy_final.pdf (最後瀏覽日期2015年11月14日)
臺灣國家公園,台灣的生物多樣性,參照http://np.cpami.gov.tw/chinese/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=130&Itemid=149&gp=1 (最後瀏覽日期2015年12月15日)
經濟部環境保護署,溫室氣體排放統計,參照http://www.epa.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=10052&ctNode=31352&mp=epa (最後瀏覽日期2015年10月30日)

二、英文部分
(一)專書
Barbara Ward and Rene Dubos, Only One Earth: The Care and Maintenance of a Small Planet (1972).
(二)期刊
Nils Meyer-Ohlendorf, Matthias Duwe, Katharina Umpfenbach, Keighley McFarland,The Next EU Climate and Energy Package–EU Climate Policies after 2020, Aug. 15, 2014.
(三)法案、指令與規則
42, U.S.C., 17001, (2015).
Adoption of the Paris Agreement, Paris (France), Dec. 12, 2015, FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1.
Climate Change Act 2008, c. 27., 2008.
Deregulation Act 2015 c.20, 2015.
Decision No 406/2009/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the effort of Member States to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to meet the Community’s greenhouse gas emission reduction commitments up to 2020, 2009 O.J. (L 140) 136.
Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market, 2001 O.J. (L 283) 33.
Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2002 on the energy performance of buildings, 2003 O.J. (L 001) 65.
Directive 2003/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 8 May 2003 on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport, 2003 O.J. (L 123) 42.
Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC, 2003 O.J. (L 275) 32.
Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing Directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC, 2009 O.J. (L 140) 16.
Directive 2009/29/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community, 2009 O.J. L (140) 63.
Directive 2009/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the geological storage of carbon dioxide and amending Council Directive 85/337/EEC, European Parliament and Council Directives 2000/60/EC, 2001/80/EC, 2004/35/EC, 2006/12/EC, 2008/1/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006, 2009 O.J. (L 140) 114.
Directive 2010/31/Eu of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, 2010 O.J. (L 153) 13.
H.R.2454, 111th Congress, American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009.

(四)其他相關報告
DCLG, Code for Sustainable Home: A step-change in sustainable homebuilding practice, Dec. 2006.
HM Government, The Carbon Plan: Delivering our Low Carbon Future, Dec. 2011.
HM Government, The UK Low Carbon Transition Plan-National strategy for climate and energy, July. 15, 2009.
IEA & IPEEC, Building Energy Performance Metrics- Supporting Energy Efficiency Progress in Major Economies, 2015.
(五)網路資料
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