(3.238.99.243) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/05/17 00:20
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:黃玠文
研究生(外文):Chieh-Wen Huan
論文名稱:探討犬EB病毒核蛋白1變異株及其抗體之生物意義
論文名稱(外文):Exploring the biological significance of EBNA1 variants and anti-EBNA1 antibodies in dogs.
指導教授:邱繡河
口試委員:周寬基孫孝芳
口試日期:2016-07-05
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:微生物暨公共衛生學研究所
學門:獸醫學門
學類:獸醫學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:EB病毒EB病毒核蛋白1紅斑性狼瘡
外文關鍵詞:Epstein-Barr virusEBNA1Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:23
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
EB病毒(Epstein-Barr virus, EBV)是一種γ疱疹病毒(γ-herpesvirus),此病毒普遍感染人類族群,與人類多種惡性腫瘤如鼻咽癌(nasopharyngeal carcinoma, NPC)、伯奇氏淋巴瘤 (Burkitt’s lymphoma, BL)等有密切的關聯,並與紅斑性狼瘡(systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE)等自體免疫性疾病的發展有關。EB病毒核抗原1(Epstein–Barr nuclear antigen 1, EBNA1)是EB病毒編碼之蛋白,可於EBV潛伏感染過程中持續表現。在人類自體免疫相關研究已經顯示,辨識EBNA1抗原位之抗體可與自體抗原史密斯抗原 (Smith antigen, Sm antigen)與謝格連氏症A型抗原 (Sjögren’s syndrome type A antigen, SSA)產生交叉反應(cross-reaction)。先前我們與其他的研究團隊指出,許多犬血清檢體中可測出抗EBV抗體,並在犬腫瘤檢體可發現EB病毒訊號或類EB病毒顆粒。本論文研究之目的包括調查犬是否具有EBNA1 DNA序列或EBNA1變異株,以及探討在犬隻中,抗EBNA1抗體與SLE相關的自體抗體之間是否有潛在關聯性。我們首先收集犬隻全血並抽取其周邊單核細胞DNA,以聚合酶鏈反應(polymerase chain reaction, PCR)檢測是否有EBV特有序列存在,再進一步藉由巢式PCR偵測到EBNA1 DNA序列,與B95-8病毒株EBNA1序列進行比對,確定具有prototype-ala與prototype-thr兩種亞型,分別與B95-8病毒株相同與相近。另外,我們收集88個疑似有自體免疫症狀的犬血清檢體,以間接免疫螢光染色法 (indirect immunofluorescent assay, IFA)檢驗血清之抗核抗體 (antinuclear antibodies, ANA),並表現重組蛋白Sm (recombinant Sm protein, rSm)、EBNA1-N端重組蛋白(rEBNA1-N)與EBNA1-C端重組蛋白(rEBNA1-C),運用西方墨點法(Western blot analysis)檢測犬血清中是否具有抗Sm與抗EBNA1抗體,並進一步分析犬隻ANA陽性與抗Sm抗體陽性分別與抗EBNA1-C端與N端抗體之間的關聯性。結果顯示具有ANA陽性抗Sm自體抗體陽性(與SLE相關)之犬隻,其抗EBNA1-C端抗體的比率顯著高於ANA陰性(36.6% vs. 8.5%)與抗Sm抗體陰性(84.2% vs. 15.8%)組別,本研究結果顯示在犬隻中,抗EBNA1-C端抗體與ANA陽性或抗Sm自體抗體陽性均有關聯性 (p < 0.01),而其中ANA被列為犬SLE診斷要件,抗Sm抗體則為犬SLE指標自體抗體。

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gammaherpesvirus that causes widespread infection in the human population. It is associated with multiple human malignancies, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL). In addition, EBV is also correlated with the development of autoimmune diseases, in particular, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is persistently expressed during EBV latent infection. Several studies have shown that antibodies against EBNA1 cross-react with the SLE-related autoantigen, Smith antigen (Sm) and Sjögren’s syndrome type A antigen (SSA). Previous studies by us and others have shown that EBV or EBV-like virus particles were detected in canine samples. Moreover, the anti-EBV antibodies were also detected in canine sera. Those results indicated that EBV or an EBV-like virus might be present in dogs. The purposes of this study are to investigate whether EBNA1 DNA sequence or EBNA1 variants could be present in dogs and to explore any potential linkage between anti-EBNA1 and SLE-related autoantibodies in dogs. By performing nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR), we examined EBNA1 DNA sequence in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and identified two EBNA1 subtypes, prototype-alanine and prototype-threonine, from 15 dogs. On the other hand, we collected 88 sera from dogs with suspected autoimmune disorder and determined the presence of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Furthermore, we expressed recombinant Sm (rSm), EBNA1 N-terminal (rEBNA1-N) and C-terminal (rEBNA1-C) proteins and detected anti-Sm and anti-EBNA1 antibodies in canine sera by Western blot analysis. Percentages of anti-rEBNA1-C antibody were higher in dog sera that were positive versus (vs.) those negative for ANA (36.6% vs. 8.5%) and anti-Sm (84.2% vs. 15.8%) antibodies. Our results indicate that the presence of anti-EBNA1-C antibody in dogs correlates with positive ANA (P < 0.01) and positive anti-Sm (P < 0.01), which are listed as a prerequisite and a marker autoantibody for SLE, respectively.

中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iii
圖表目錄 vii
中英文縮寫對照表 viii
第一章 緒言 1
第二章 文獻探討 3
第一節 EB病毒 3
1-1 EB病毒發現的起源 3
1-2 EB病毒感染機制 4
1-3 EB病毒潛伏基因介紹 5
第二節 EB病毒核抗原1 (Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1, EBNA1)
6
2-1 EBNA1功能與結構 6
2-2 EBNA1變異株 7
2-3 EBNA1的分子模擬(molecular mimicry)機制與自體免疫 7
第三節 紅斑性狼瘡(systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE) 9
3-1人類SLE 9
3-2犬SLE 10
3-3 SLE致病因子 10
3-4 SLE的主要診斷指標 12
第四節 抗核抗體(antinuclear antibodies, ANA) 12
4-1 SLE之ANA指標 12
4-2抗dsDNA 13
4-3抗Sm抗體 13
4-4抗SSA及SSB抗體 13
4-5抗組織蛋白(histone)抗體 14
第三章 材料與方法 15
第一節 自犬周邊血單核細胞 (PBMCs) DNA偵測EBNA1變異株 15
1-1犬PBMCs DNA的製備 15
1-1.1犬周邊血血清樣本收集及保存 15
1-1.2犬PBMCs DNA的萃取 15
1-2聚合酶鏈反應 (polymerase chain reaction, PCR)與巢式聚合酶 鏈反應 (nested polymerase chain reaction, nested PCR) 16
1-2.1偵測犬PBMCs DNA之EB病毒訊號 16
1-2.2 自犬PBMCs DNA增幅EB病毒基因片段 16
1-2.3 DNA序列分析與胺基酸序列比對 17
第二節 重組EBNA1之N端與C端表現質體構築及蛋白表現 17
2-1重組蛋白質體構築 17
2-1.1 EBNA1之N端(EBNA1-N)基因序列引子設計 17
2-1.2 EBNA1之N端(EBNA1-N)基因片段增幅 18
2-1.3 PCR目標片段產物之純化 18
2-1.4 DNA酵素切割 18
2-1.5目標片段與載體之接合 (ligation) 19
2-2重組蛋白表現與純化 19
2-2.1轉形作用(transformation) 19
2-2.2重組蛋白表現 20
2-2.3重組蛋白純化 20
2-2.4重組蛋白濃度測定 21
第三節 檢測犬血清中ANA、抗Sm抗體與抗EBNA1抗體 21
3-1抗核抗體 (antinuclear antibody, ANA)檢測 21
3-1.1細胞培養 21
3-1.2間接免疫螢光染色 (indirect immunofluorescence assay, IFA) 22
3-2西方墨點法 (Western blot analysis)分析抗體 22
3-2.1西方墨點法檢測犬血清中抗Sm之抗體 22
3-2.2西方墨點法檢測犬血清中抗rEBNA1-N、rEBNA1-C之抗體 23
3-2.3統計分析 24
第四章 結果 25
第一節 自犬PBMCs DNA增幅EBNA1 變異株 25
第二節 EBNA1 之C端變異株序列分析 25
第三節 EBNA1之N端重組蛋白(rEBNA1-N)質體構築與蛋白表現純化 26
3-1原核表現EBNA-1N重組質體構築 26
3-2 EBNA1-N重組蛋白表現 27
3-3 EBNA-1N端重組蛋白大量表現及純化 27
第四節 EBNA1之C端重組蛋白(rEBNA1-C)表現與純化 28
4-1 EBNA1-C端重組蛋白大量表現 28
4-2 EBNA1之C端重組蛋白純化 28
第五節 ANA檢測與抗Sm抗體偵測 29
5-1犬ANA之檢測 29
5-2西方墨點法檢測抗Sm自體抗體 29
第六節 抗EBNA1抗體之檢測 30
6-1西方墨點法檢測抗EBNA1-N抗體 30
6-2西方墨點法檢測抗EBNA1-C抗體 30
第五章 討論 32
圖表 37
參考文獻 55
附錄 65


關智尤。2000。犬紅斑性狼瘡之抗核抗體分析與環境致病因子之探討。碩士論文。國立國立中興大學獸醫微生物暨公共衛生學研究所。台中。中華民國。
陳榆蓁。2004。紅斑性狼瘡相關自體抗原表現與犬抗磷脂抗體偵測。碩士論文。國立國立中興大學獸醫微生物暨公共衛生學研究所。台中。中華民國。
Adams A, Lindahl T. 1975. Epstein-Barr virus genomes with properties of circular DNA molecules in carrier cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 72:1477-1481.
Alspaugh MA, Tan EM. 1975. Antibodies to cellular antigens in Sjögren''s syndrome. J Clin Invest; 55:1067-1073.
Akizuki M, Powers R, Holman HR. 1977. A soluble acidic protein of the cell nucleus which reacts with serum from patients with systemic lupus erythermatosus and Sjögren''s syndrome. J Clin Invest; 59:264-272.
Baer R, Bankier AT. Biggin MD, et al. 1984. DNA sequence andexpression of the B95-8 Epstein-Barr virus genome. Nature; 310: 207-211.
Borza CM, Hutt-Fletcher LM. 2002. Alternate replication in B cells and epithelial cells switches tropism of Epstein-Barr virus. Nat Med; 8:594-599.
Babcock GJ, Decker LL, Volk M, Thorley-Lawson DA.1998. EBV persistence in memory B cells in vivo. Immunity; 9:395-404.
Bencze G, Lakatos L, Ludanyi M. 1976. Two types of lupus erythematosus cell factor, shown by induced L.E. cell phenomenon in dogs. Medicine; 55:313-322.
Brinet A, Fournel C, Faure JR, Venet C, Monier JC. 1988. Anti-histone antibodies (ELISA and immunoblot) in canine lupus erythematosus. Clin Exp Immunol; 74:105-109.
Bhatia KRaj A, Guitierrez MI, Judde JG, Spangler G,Venkatesh H. 1996. Variation in the sequence of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 in normal peripheal blood
lymphocytes and in Burkitt’s lymphomas. Oncogene; 13:177–181.
Billings PB, Hoch SO. 1983. Isolation of intact Sm/RNP antigens from rabbit thymus.J Immunol; 131:347-351.
Callan MF. 2004 . The immune response to Epstein-Barr virus. Microbes infect; 6:937-945.
Conti F, Ceccarelli F, Perricone C, Massaro L, Marocchi E, Miranda F, Spinelli FR, Truglia S, Alessandri C, Valesini G. 2015. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus with and without Anti-dsDNA Antibodies: Analysis from a Large Monocentric Cohort. Mediators Inflamm; 2015:328078.
Chabanne L, Fournel C, Monestier M, Monier JC, Rigal D. 1999a . Canine systemic lupus erythematosus. I. Clinical and biologic aspects. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet; 21:135-141.
Chabanne L, Fournel C, Monestier M, Monier JC, Rigal D. 1999b . Canine systemic lupus erythematosus. II. Diagnosis and treatment. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet; 21:402-411.
Costa O, Fournel C, Lotchouang E, Monier JC, Fontaine M. 1984. Specificities of antinuclear antibodies detected in dogs with systemic lupus erythematosus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol; 7:369-382.
Chiou SH, Chow KC, Yang CH, Chiang SF, Lin CH. 2005. Discovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA signal and EBV nuclear antigen leader protein DNA sequence in pet dogs. J Gen Virol; 86:899-905.
Chiou SH, Lan JL, Lin SL, Chen DY, Tsai NY, Kuan CY, Lin TY, Lin FJ, Lee WM, Chang TJ. 2004. Pet dogs owned by lupus patients are at a higher risk of developing lupus. Lupus; 13:442-449.
Clark G, Reichlin M, Tomasi TB Jr. 1969. Characterization of a soluble cytoplasmic antigen reactive with sera from patients with systemic lupus erythmatosus. J Immunol; 102:117-122.
Cheng TC, Hsieh SS, Hsu WL, Chen YF, Ho HH, Sheu LF. 2010. Expression of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 in gastric carcinoma cells is associated with enhanced tumorigenicity and reduced cisplatin sensitivity. Int J Oncol; 36:151-160.
Capone G, Fasano C, Lucchese G, Calabrò M, Kanduc D. 2015. EBV-associated cancer and autoimmunity: searching for therapies. Vaccines; 3:74-89.
Chiu HC, Chow KC, Fan YH, Chang SC, Chiou SH, Chiang SF, Chiou CH, Wu GH, Yang HC, Ho SP, Chen YK, Lee WC, Sun HS. 2013. Expression of EBV-encoded oncogenes and EBV-like virions in multiple canine tumors. Vet Microbiol; 163:79-89.
Deapen D, Escalante A, Weinrib L, Horwitz D, Bachman B, Roy-Burman P, Walker A, Mack TM. 1992. A revised estimate of twin concordance in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum; 35:311-318.
Draborg AH, Duus K, Houen G. 2013. Epstein-Barr virus in systemic autoimmune diseases. Clin Dev Immunol; 2013:535738.
Epstein MA, Achong BG & Barr YM. 1964. Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt’s lymphoma. Lancet; 1:702-703.
Epstein MA, Henle G, Achong BG & Barr YM. 1965. Morphological and biological studies on a virus in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt''s lymphoma. J Exp Med; 121:761-770.
Elkon KB, Jankowski PW. 1985. Fine specificities of autoantibodies directed against the Ro, La, Sm, RNP, and Jo-1 proteins defined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. J Immunol; 134:3819-3824.
Farrell PJ. 2001. Epstein-Barr virus. The B95-8 strain map. Methods Mol Biol; 174:3-12.
Fujinami RS, Oldstone MB, Wroblewska Z, Frankel ME, Koprowski H. 1983. Molecular mimicry in virus infection: crossreaction of measles virus phosphoprotein or of herpes simplex virus protein with human intermediate filaments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 80:2346-2350.
Fye KH, Sack KE. 1991. Rheumatic disease. In: Basic and clinical immunology. Appleton and Lange, East Norwlk, CN, USA, pp. 438-463.
Francis L, Perl A. 2009. Pharmacotherapy of systemic lupus erythematosus. Expert OpinPharmacother; 10:1481–1494.
Fournel C, Chabanne L, Caux C, Faure JR, Rigal D, Magnol JP, Monier JC. 1992. Canine systemic lupus erythematosus. I: A study of 75 cases. Lupus; 1:133-139.
Gross AJ, Hochberg D, Rand WM, Thorley-Lawson DA. 2005. EBV and systemic lupus erythematosus: a new perspective. J Immunol; 174:6599-6607.
Gioud M, Kaci MA, Monier JC. 1982. Histone antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. A possible diagnostic tool. Arthritis Rheum; 25:407-413.
González C, Garcia-Berrocal B, Herráez O, Navajo JA, González-Buitrago JM. 2004. Anti-nucleosome, anti-chromatin, anti-dsDNA and anti-histone antibody reactivity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Chem Lab Med; 42:266-272.
Gutiérrez MI, Raj A, Spangler G, Sharma A, Hussain A, Judde JG, Tsao SW, Yuen PW, Joab I, Magrath IT, Bhatia K. 1997. Sequence variations in EBNA-1 may dictate restriction of tissue distribution of Epstein-Barr virus in normal and tumour cells. J Gen Virol; 78:1663-1670.
Henle G, Henle W, & Diehl V. 1968. Relation of Burkitt''s tumor-associated herpes-type virus to infectious mononucleosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 59:94-101.
Harabuchi Y, Yamanaka N, Kataura A, Imai S, Kinoshita T, Mizuno F, Osato T. 1990. Epstein-Barr virus in nasal T-cell lymphomas in patients with lethal midline granuloma. Lancet; 335:128-130.
Hochberg MC. 1997. Updating the American College of Rheumatology revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum; 40:1725.
Harmon CE. 1985. Antinuclear antibodies in autoimmune disease. Significance and pathogenicity. Med Clin North Am; 69:547-563.
Hubert B, Teichner M, Fournel C, Monier JC. 1988. Spontaneous familial systemic lupus erythematosus in a canine breeding colony. J Comp Pathol98:81-89.
Halliwell RE. 1978. Autoimmune disease in the dog. Adv Vet Sci Comp Med; 22:221-263.
Halliwell REW, Gorman NT. 1989. Autoimmune blood disease. In: Veterinary clinical immunology. Saunders WB, Philadelphia, PA, USA, pp.308-336.
Harley JB, Scofield RH. 1991. Systemic lupus erythematosus: RNA-protein autoantigens, models of disease heterogeneity, and theories of etiology. J Clin Immunol; 11:297-316.
Hanlon P, Avenell A, Aucott L, Vickers M. 2014. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the sero-epidemiological association between Epstein-Barr virus and systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Res Ther; 16:R3.
Humme S, Reisbach G, Feederle R, Delecluse HJ, Bousset K, Hammerschmidt W, Schepers A. 2003. The EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) enhances B cell immortalization several thousandfold. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 100:10989-10994.
Harley J, Scofield RH, James JA. 2000. Peptide induction of systemiclupus autoimmunity. In: Cunningham MW, Fujinami RS,editors. Molecular mimicry, microbes and autoimmunity: ASMPress, pp. 109e26.
Harley JB, James JA. 2006. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces lupus autoimmunity. Bull NYU Hosp Jt Dis; 64:45-50.
Habets WJ, de Rooij DJ, Hoet MH, van de Putte LB, van Venrooij WJ. 1985. Quantitation of anti-RNP and anti-Sm antibodies in MCTD and SLE patients by immunoblotting. Clin Exp Immunol; 59:457-466.
Hines JJ, Danho W, Elkon KB. 1991. Detection and quantification of human anti-Sm antibodies using synthetic peptide and recombinant SmB antigens. Arthritis Rheum; 34:572-579.
Isenberg DA, Manson JJ, Ehrenstein MR, Rahman A. 2007. Fifty years of anti-ds DNA antibodies: are we approaching journey''s end? Rheumatology; 46:1052-1056.
Jones DR. 1993. Canine systemic lupus erythematosus: new insights and their implications. J Comp Pathol; 108:215-228.
James JA, Scofield RH, Harley JB. 1997. Lupus humoral autoimmunity after short peptide immunization. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 815:124-127.
James JA, Kaufman KM, Farris AD, Taylor-Albert E, Lehman TJ, Harley JB. 1997. An increased prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus infection in young patients suggests a possible etiology for systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Invest; 100:3019-3026.
Kieff E, Rickinson AB. 2001. Epstein-Barr virus and its replication. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Martin MA, Lamb RA, editors. Fields'' virology, 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott–Williams and Wilkins. pp. 2511–2573.
Kurth J, Spieker T, Wustrow J, Strickler GJ, Hansmann LM, Rajewsky K, Küppers R. 2000. EBV-infected B cells in infectious mononucleosis: viral strategies for spreading in the B cell compartment and establishing latency. Immunity; 13:485-495.
Klein G. 1989. Viral latency and transformation: the strategy of Epstein-Barr virus. Cell; 58:5-8.
Kotzin BL. 1996. Systemic lupus erythematosus. Cell; 85:303-306.
Kamal A, Khamashta M. 2014. The efficacy of novel B cell biologics as the future of SLE treatment: a review. Autoimmun Rev; 13:1094-1101.
Kuo CF, Grainge MJ, Valdes AM, See LC, Luo SF, Yu KH, Zhang W, Doherty M. 2015. Familial Aggregation of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Coaggregation of Autoimmune Diseases in Affected Families. JAMA Intern Med; 175:1518-1526.
Kulick KB, Provost TT, Reichlin M. 1982. Antibodies to single-stranded DNA in patients with discoid lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum; 25:639-646.
Kitagawa H, Iho S, Yokochi T, Hoshino T. 1988. Detection of antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens in the sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunol Lett; 17:249-252.
Liebowitz D, Kieff E. 1993. Epstein-Barr virus. In: The Human Herpesvirus. Roizman B, Whitley R J., Lopez C., editors, New York, pp. 107-172.
Lane D, Koprowski H. 1982. Molecular recognition and the future of monoclonal antibodies. Nature; 296:200-202.
Lewis RM. 1972. Animal model of human disease: canine systemic lupus erythematosus. American Journal of Pathology; 69:537-540.
Lewis RM, Schwartz R, Henry WB. 1965. Canine systemic lupus erythematosus. Blood; 25:143-160.
Lewis RM, Schwartz RS. 1971. Canine systemic lupus erythematosus. Genetic analysis of an established breeding colony. J Exp Med; 134:417-438.
Levitskaya J, Coram M, Levitsky V, Imreh S, Steigerwald-Mullen PM, Klein G, Kurilla MG, Masucci MG. 1995. Inhibition of antigen processing by the internal repeat region of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen-1. Nature; 375:685-688.
Levitskaya J, Sharipo A, Leonchiks A, Ciechanover A, Masucci MG. 1997. Inhibition of ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent protein degradation by the Gly-Ala repeat domain of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 94:12616-12621.
Lorenzetti MA, Altcheh J, Moroni S, Moscatelli G,Chabay PA, Preciado MV. 2010. EBNA1 sequences inArgentinean pediatric acute and latent Epstein-Barr virusinfection reflect circulation of novel South American variants. J Med Virol; 82:1730–1738.
Maeda E, Akahane M, Kiryu S, Kato N, Yoshikawa T, Hayashi N, Aoki S, Minami M, Uozaki H, Fukayama M, Ohtomo K. 2009. Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-related diseases: a pictorial review. Jpn J Radiol; 27:4-19.
Milman G, Smith KC, Erles K. 2011. Serological detection of Epstein-Barr virus infection in dogs and cats.Vet Microbiol; 150:15-20.
Middleton T, Sugden B. 1994. Retention of plasmid DNA in mammalian cells is enhanced by binding of the Epstein-Barr virus replication protein EBNA1. J Virol; 68:4067-4071.
Mok CC, Lau CS. 2003. Pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Pathol; 56:481-490.
Muñoz JA, Gil A, López-Dupla JM, Vázquez JJ, González-Gancedo P. 1994. Sex hormones in chronic systemic lupus erythematosus. Correlation with clinical and biological parameters. Ann Med Interne; 145:459-463.
Monier JC, Dardenne M, Rigal D, Costa O, Fournel C, Lapras M. 1980. Clinical and laboratory features of canine lupus syndromes. Arthritis Rheum; 23:294-301.
Matter L, Schopfer K, Wilhelm JA, Nyffenegger T, Parisot RF, De Robertis EM. 1982. Molecular characterization of ribonucleoprotein antigens bound by antinuclear antibodies. A diagnostic evaluation. Arthritis Rheum; 25:1278-1283.
Monestier M, Novick KE, Karam ET, Chabanne L, Monier JC, Rigal D. 1995. Autoantibodies to histone, DNA and nucleosome antigens in canine systemic lupus erythematosus.Clin Exp Immunol; 99:37-41.
Mahler M, Stinton LM, Fritzler MJ. 2005. Improved serological differentiation between systemic lupus erythematosus and mixed connective tissue disease by use of an SmD3 peptide-based immunoassay. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol; 12:107-113.
McClain MT, Heinlen LD, Dennis GJ, Roebuck J, Harley JB, James JA. 2005. Early events in lupus humoral autoimmunity suggest initiation through molecular mimicry. Nat Med; 11:85-89.
McClain MT, Poole BD, Bruner BF, Kaufman KM, Harley JB, James JA. 2006. An altered immune response to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum; 54:360-368.
Mai SJ, Xie D, Huang YF, Wang FW, Liao YJ, Deng HX, Liu WJ, Hua WF, Zeng YX. 2010. The enhanced transcriptional activity of the V-val subtype of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 in epithelial cell lines. Oncol Rep; 23:1417-1424.
Mai SJ, Zhang XS, Li DJ, Shen GP, Jiang JH, Zhang RH, Yu XJ, Chen SP and Zeng YX. 2004. The character of EBNA1 gene variation in Cantonese and its association with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chin Sci Bull; 49:2640-2643.
Mai SJ, Ooka T, Li DJ, Zeng MS, Jiang RC, Yu XJ, Zhang RH, Chen SP, Zeng YX. 2007. Functional advantage of NPC-related V-val subtype of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 compared with prototype in epithelial cell line. Oncol Rep; 17:141-146.
Nilsson K, Klein G, Henle W, Henle G. 1971. The establishment of lymphoblastoid lines from adult and fetal human lymphoid tissue and its dependence on EBV. Int J Cancer; 8:443-450.
Naleway AL, Davis ME, Greenlee RT, Wilson DA, McCarty DJ. 2005. Epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus in rural Wisconsin. Lupus; 14:862-866.
Nagata H, Numata T, Konno A, Mikata I, Kurasawa K, Hara S, Nishimura M, Yamamoto K, Shimizu N. 2001. Presence of natural killer-cell clones with variable proliferative capacity in chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. Pathol Int; 51:778-785.
Oldstone MB. 1989. Molecular mimicry as a mechanism for the cause and a probe uncovering etiologic agent(s) of autoimmune disease. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol; 145:127-135.
Oldstone MB. 1998. Molecular mimicry and immune-mediated diseases. FASEB J; 12:1255-1265.
Pons-Estel GJ, Alarcon GS, Scofield L, Reinlib L, Cooper GS. 2010. Understanding the epidemiology and progression of systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum; 39: 257-268.
Poole BD, Gross T, Maier S, Harley JB, James JA. 2008. Lupus-like autoantibody development in rabbits and mice after immunization with EBNA-1 fragments.J Autoimmun; 31:362-371.
Robertson ES, Ooka T, Kieff ED. 1996. Epstein–Barr virus vectors for gene delivery to B lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 93:11334-11340.
Rickinson AB, Kieff ED. 2013. Epstein-Barr virus In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Cohen JI, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, et al. , editors. Field virology. 6th ed Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkin; 1898-1959.
Rickinson A B, Kieff E. 1996. Epstein-Barr virus. In: Fields B N, Knipe D M, Howley P M, editors. Fields virology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven Publishers; pp. 2397-2446.
Rasmussen NS, Draborg AH, Nielsen CT, Jacobsen S, Houen G. 2015. Antibodies to early EBV, CMV, and HHV6 antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Scand J Rheumatol; 44:143-149.
Riemekasten G, Hahn BH. 2005. Key autoantigens in SLE. Rheumatology; 44:975-982.
Rokeach LA, Haselby JA, Hoch SO. 1988. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the human Sm-D autoantigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 85:4832-4836.
Sixbey JW, Nedrud JG, Raab-Traub N, Hanes RA, Pagano JS. 1984. Epstein-Barr virus replication in oropharyngeal epithelial cells. N Engl J Med; 310:1225-1230.
Sica S, Metafuni E, Bellesi S, Chiusolo P. 2009. Epstein-barr virus related lymphoproliferations after stem cell transplantation. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis; 1:e2009019.
Smith PP, Gordon C. 2010. Systemic lupus erythematosus: clinical presentations. Autoimmun Rev; 10:43-45.
Shanley KJ. 1985. Lupus erythematosus in small animals. Clinics in Dermatology; 3:131-138.
Scott DW, Walton DK, Manning TO, Smith CA, Lewis RM. 1983. Canine lupus erythematosus. I. Systemic lupus erythematosus. J Am Anim Hop Assoc; 19:461-479.
Sharp GC, Irvin WS, LaRoque RL, Velez C, Daly V, Kaiser AD, Holman HR. 1971. Association of autoantibodies to different nuclear antigens with clinical patterns of rheumatic disease and responsiveness to therapy. J Clin Invest; 50:350-359.
Shull RM, Miller HA, Chilina AR. 1983. Investigation of the nature and specificity of antinuclear antibody in dogs. Am J Vet Res; 44:2004-2008.
Stollar BD. 1971. Reactions of systemic lupus erythematosus sera with histone fractions and histone-DNA complexes. Arthritis Rheum; 14:485-492.
Sears J, Kolman J, Wahl GM, Aiyar A. 2003. Metaphase chromosome tethering is necessary for the DNA synthesis and maintenance of orip plasmids but is insufficient for transcription activation by epstein-barr nuclear antigen 1. J Virol; 77:11767-11780.
Schepers A, Ritzi M, Bousset K, Kremmer E, Yates JL, Harwood J, Diffley JF, Hammerschmidt W. 2001. Human origin recognition complex binds to the region of the latent origin of DNA replication of Epstein-Barr virus. EMBO J; 20:4588-4602.
Sugden B, Warren N. 1989. A promoter of Epstein-Barr virus that can function during latent infection can be transactivated by EBNA-1, a viral protein required for viral DNA replication during latent infection. J Virol; 63:2644-2649.
Sandvej K, Zhou XG, Hamilton-Dutoit S. 2000. EBNA-1sequence variation in Danish and Chinese EBV-associatedtumors: evidence for geographical polymorphism butnot for tumor-specific subtype restriction. J Pathol; 191: 127-131.
Snudden DK, Smith PR, Lai D, Ng MH, Griffin BE. 1995. Alterations in the structure of the EBV nuclear antigen, EBNA1, in epithelial cell tumours. Oncogene ; 10:1545-1552.
Simon KC, Yang X, Munger KL, Ascherio A. 2011. EBNA1 and LMP1 variants in multiple sclerosis cases and controls. Acta Neurol Scand; 124:53-58.
Thorley-Lawson DA, Gross A. 2004. Persistence of the Epstein-Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med; 350:1328-1337.
Thompson MP, Kurzrock R. 2004. Epstein-Barr virus and cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 10:803-821.
Tanaka A, Nonoyama M. 1975. Latent genomes of Epstein-Barr virus. IARC Sci Publ; 11:133-137.
Tan EM, Cohen AS, Fries JF, Masi AT, McShane DJ, Rothfield NF, Schaller JG, Talal N, Winchester RJ. 1982. The 1982 revised criteria for the classification of systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum; 25:1271-1277.
Tan EM, Kunkel HG. 1966. Characteristics of a soluble nuclear antigen precipitating with sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. J Immunol; 96: 464-471.
Tan EM. 1989. Antinuclear antibodies: diagnostic markers for autoimmune diseases and probes for cell biology. Adv Immunol; 44:93-151.
Tomer Y, Buskila D, Shoenfeld Y. 1993. Pathogenic significance and diagnostic value of lupus autoantibodies. Int Arch Allergy Immunol; 100:293-306.
Uramoto KM, Michet CJ, Jr, Thumboo J, Sunku J, O''Fallon WM, Gabriel SE. 1999. Trends in the incidence and mortality of systemic lupus erythematosus, 1950-1992. Arthritis Rheum; 42:46-50.
Voo KS, Fu T, Wang HY, Tellam J, Heslop HE, Brenner MK, Rooney CM, Wang RF. 2004. Evidence for the presentation of major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 peptides to CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Exp Med; 199:459-470.
Wang F, Rivailler P, Rao P, Cho Y. 2001. Simian homologues of Epstein-Barr virus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci; 356:489-497.
Ward MM, Pyun E, Studenski S. 1995. Causes of death in systemic lupus erythematosus. Long-term followup of an inception cohort. Arthritis Rheum; 38:1492-1499.
Wrightham MN, Stewart JP, Janjua NJ, Pepper SD, Sample C, Rooney CM, Arrand JR. 1995. Antigenic and sequence variation in the C-terminal unique domain of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen EBNA-1. Virology; 208:521-530.
Xiao J, Palefsky JM, Herrera R, Berline J, Tugizov SM. 2009. EBV BMRF-2 facilitates cell-to-cell spread of virus within polarized oral epithelial cells. Virology; 388:335-343.
Young LS, Rickinson AB. 2004. Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on. Nat Rev Cancer; 4:757-768.
Yeh HM, Chen JR, Tsai JJ, Tsai WJ, Yen JH, Liu HW. 1993. Prevalence of familial systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan. Gaoxiong Yi Xue Ke Xue Za Zhi; 9:664-667.
Yu SF, Wu HC, Tsai WC, Yen JH, Chiang W, Yuo CY, Lu SN, Chiang LC, Chen CJ. 2005. Detecting Epstein-Barr virus DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in adult patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in Taiwan. Med Microbiol Immunol; 194:115-120.
Yokochi T, Yanagawa A, Kimura Y, Mizushima Y. 1989. High titer of antibody to the Epstein-Barr virus membrane antigen in sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol; 16:1029-1032.
Zambiniski M, Messner R, Mandel J. 1989. Anti-DNA antibodies in technicians handling lupus blood. Cincinnati, Ohio, USA: American College of Rheumatology; S1-S25.

QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top