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研究生:謝晏倫
研究生(外文):Yen-Lun Hsieh
論文名稱:社區領導者人格特質與領導風格對居民社區參與程度與幸福感之影響-以中彰投社區為例
論文名稱(外文):The effect of leader Personality Traits and Leadership Style on resident of community participation and well-being: A Study of Community Development Association in Taichung, Changhua and Nantou.
指導教授:張淑君張淑君引用關係
口試委員:段兆麟陳永杰
口試日期:2016-06-23
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:生物產業管理研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:農業經濟及推廣學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:人格特質領導風格社區參與幸福感社區發展協會
外文關鍵詞:big fiveleadership stylecommunity participationwell-beingCommunity Development Association
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過去對於領導者的研究多著重於公司領導者的人格特質或是公司領導者的領導風格,然而對於非營利組織,例如社區發展協會的領導者卻鮮少著墨,對於社區的研究鮮少以量化並且以領導者與居民配對的方式呈現,因此本研究將以一個社區一個領導者配對一位居民的方式來探討社區領導者人格特質、領導風格對居民社區參與程度與幸福感之關係,並以「台中、彰化以及南投社區發展協會」為例。
本研究採取便利抽樣(convenience sampling),針對社區領導者與居民進行問卷發放。發放地點為中彰投之抽樣社區,在徵求社區領導者與居民同意後,進行問卷填答。
研究結果顯示,發現五大人格特質中開放型、親和型對於轉換型有較顯著的關係;親和型對於交易型領導有顯著影響。五大人格特質中開放型、勤勉勤以及親和型對於居民社區參與有顯著影響,領導風格中轉換型以及交易型領導都對於社區參與有顯著影響。社區參與對於幸福感有顯著影響。
在人口統計變項方面顯示,「已婚」、年齡偏「年長」,社區參與程度最高;「學生」則是社區參與程度最低的族群,在領導者部分,則是在女性的領導者領導之下,其居民的社區參與最高。
本研究結果分析,可提供台中、彰化以及南投社區發展協會之參考,亦可提供其他同性質社區在發展社區時的考量依據,了解何種社區領導者對於居民的參與以及幸福感有所相關,希冀促進社區邁向領導者以及居民共同努力為社區出一份力的目標。


The past researches on personality traits mainly placed emphasis on leaders’ personality traits or leadership style in a company, however, rarely in non-profit organizations in contrast i.e. community development association. Therefore, this research explored how leaders’ personality traits effected on leadership style, community participation and well-being which residents perceived, using quantification and paired sampling for leaders and residents, associating convenience sampling for community development associations in Taichung, Changhua and Nantou with questionnaire survey.
The results show that (1) Openness and agreeableness have positive effect on the transformational leadership. (2) Agreeableness has positive effect on the transactional leadership. (3) Openness, conscientiousness and agreeableness have positive effect on the community participation. (4) Both transformational and transactional leadership have positive effects on community participation. (5) Community participation has positive effects on well-being. In terms of demography, (6) married and elder have higher community participation, students have lower by comparison. (7) Female leaders lead to higher community participation.
The results provide reference for community development associations in Taichung, Changhua, Nantou and others site of same properties, give suggestion to community leaders approaches to build well relations with community residents and improve the performance of community participation.


第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景與動機 1
第二節 研究目的 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 社區發展 4
一、 社區發展定義 4
二、 社區發展起源與過程 7
三、 台灣社區發展現況 11
四、 社區發展之研究對象 17
第二節 人格特質 18
一、 人格特質定義 18
二、 五大人格特質 20
三、 人格特質之衡量 23
第三節 領導風格 26
一、 領導 26
二、 領導理論 27
三、 魅力型領導、交易型領導與轉換型領導 30
四、 領導風格之測量 31
第四節 社區參與 34
一、 社區參與定義 34
二、 社區參與之衡量 36
第五節 幸福感 39
一、 幸福感定義 39
二、 幸福感之衡量 40
第六節 相關研究結果 41
一、 領導者人格特質與領導風格之關係 41
二、 領導者人格特質與領導風格與社區參與之關係 42
三、 社區參與與幸福感之關係 43
第三章 研究方法 45
第一節 研究架構與假設 45
一、 研究假設 45
第二節 研究設計 47
一、 研究對象與抽樣資料蒐集 47
二、 問卷編制 49
第三節 資料分析方法 57
一、 信度分析 57
二、 效度分析 57
三、 敘述性統計分析 57
四、 卡方檢定 58
第四章 研究結果與分析 59
第一節 受測者基本資料分析 59
一、 領導者人口統計變項 60
二、 居民人口統計變項 62
第二節 信效度檢測與因素分析 66
一、 人格特質因素分析 66
二、 領導風格因素分析 69
三、 社區參與因素分析 72
四、 幸福感因素分析 74
第三節 卡方檢定 76
一、 人格特質與領導風格之卡方分析 76
二、 人格特質與社區參與之卡方分析 79
三、 領導風格與社區參與之卡方分析 82
四、 社區參與與幸福感之卡方分析 84
第四節 人口統計變項與社區參與之卡方分析 87
一、 領導者性別VS居民社區參與 87
二、 居民婚姻狀況VS居民社區參與 88
三、 居民年齡VS居民社區參與 89
四、 居民職業VS居民社區參與 90
五、 居民性別VS居民社區參與 92
六、 居民教育程度VS居民社區參與 93
七、 居民月收入VS居民社區參與 94
第五章 結論與建議 96
第一節 研究發現與討論 96
一、 學術面 96
二、 實務面 97
第二節 研究限制與建議 99
一、 樣本代表性 99
二、 時間是固定的 99
三、 研究方法 99
參考文獻 100
附錄一 領導者問卷 117
附錄二 居民問卷 120
附錄三 抽樣社區 125



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