( 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/23 04:32
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


論文名稱(外文):Augmented Reality Based Training System with Three-Dimensional Holography to Promote the Mental Rotation Ability for Older Adults
指導教授(外文):Chien-Hsu Chen
外文關鍵詞:mental rotationaugmented reality3D holographyolder adults
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:217
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
幫助高齡者維持獨立自主的生活在高臨化社會中是一項重要的議題,而在高 齡者常活動的社區鄰里中心內多半只提供肢體訓練的器材,鮮少擁有針對認知能力 的訓練設施。然而,隨著個體年齡增長和慢性疾病的影響,不僅生理功能,人類的 認知能力也會逐漸衰退,其中,屬於空間認知與視覺化能力的心智旋轉能力之衰退 會影響高齡者對於方向感和環境的認知,導致較差的尋路、地圖判讀等空間能力; 此外,現有缺乏多感官互動的空間認知訓練方式容易讓高齡者在訓練過程中產生大 量的認知負荷,造成高齡者感到困難,因而降低學習興趣和訓練沉浸感。有鑒於此, 本研究致力於開發一應用浮空擴增原理之心智旋轉能力訓練系統:開啟好運,並安 置在社區活動中心。浮空擴增原理為擴增實境的一項實際應用方式,擴增實境可以 有效幫助高齡者快速進行資訊的整合並助於建立正確的空間資訊和三維概念,此外, 透過設計一以直覺手勢操作與富含遊戲情節的訓練內容,讓本訓練系統為一適合置 於社區中心提供高齡者進行心智訓練的認知器材。最後透過相依樣本 t 檢定的結果 顯示,高齡者在經過本訓練系統的訓練後,無論在學習興趣、認知負荷和心智旋轉 能力的訓練效果上都有顯著提升,因此本研究之心智旋轉認知能力訓練裝置為一可 以提供高齡者除了一般肢體訓練外的「腦適能」訓練器材,此外亦期望透過本裝置 的訓練強化中心內高齡者之間的社交互動,藉由長期訓練下讓高齡者可以降低生活 中遇到的空間問題,以提升他們的生活福祉。
When one gets older, both the physical condition and the cognitive ability will decline. Among all cognitive abilities, the decline of mental rotation ability results into the poor performance of spatial and environmental concepts. In fact, the goal of delaying the degradation time of mental rotation ability can be achieved by practicing cognitive training tasks considerably. However, current training tasks are performed in two-dimensional medium which generates cognitive load, reducing the training effect and interests. Hence, an innovative mental rotation training system, GOOD LOCK in augmented reality (AR) based 3D holography, is developed in this project. AR can effectively reduce the cognitive load and enhance the learning interests as well as spatial concepts in training. 3D holography is favorable to be implemented as a training device in public spaces and be attractive enough to draw the attention in the public due to its visual display effect. Besides, the new training content which focuses on gesture manipulation and interesting game plot is integrated as well. Finally, the paired-samples t-tests results of significant difference on the learning interest, cognitive load and training effect on error rate and reaction time show that GOOD LOCK in AR based 3D holography is beneficial to older adults' mental rotation ability. Therefore, it is expected that with GOOD LOCK in AR based 3D holography, older adults are able to conduct cognition training in public centers as well, gradually reducing the spatial problems occurring in life and improving their living quality.

摘要 ................ i
SUMMARY ..............ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............. iv
LIST OF TABLES ..............vii
LIST OF FIGURES............viii
1.1 Background.............. 1
1.1.1 The Decline of Cognitive Ability in Older Adults ..... 1
1.1.2 The Significance of Mental Rotation Ability ....... 2
1.2 Motivation ............. 2
1.2.1 Cognitive training ........... 2
1.2.2 Augmented Reality in Three-Dimensional Holography..... 3
1.3 Objective.............. 4
1.4 Overview of this Study ............ 5
2.1 Introduction of Mental Rotation .......... 7
2.1.1 Real Life Application of Mental Rotation Ability...... 9
2.1.2 Mental Rotation Ability of Older Adults...... 11
2.2 Current Training Ways of Mental Rotation....... 12
2.2.1 Conventional paper and pencil tasks ........ 12
2.2.2 Computer and Technology ......... 13
2.2.3 Sensory Interaction ........... 14
2.2.4 Brief Review of Current Training Way ...... 17
2.3 Application of AR and 3D holography ......... 18
2.3.1 Advantages and Applications of AR ........ 18
2.3.2 3D Holography Application ......... 19
3.1 Defining Gesture ........... 26
3.1.1 Gesture Collecting .......... 26
3.1.2 Gesture Analysis........... 29
3.1.3 Outcome ............. 30
3.2 Design of the Training Content ......... 32
3.2.1 Mental Strategies Collecting ........ 33
3.2.2 Mental Strategies Analysis ......... 33
3.2.3 Idea Generation........... 34
3.2.4 Outcome ............. 37
4.1 Software............. 39
4.1.1 Game Design Engine .......... 39
4.1.2 Creating Game Objects......... 40
4.1.3 Gesture Control .......... 43
4.1.4 Other Interaction........... 46
4.1.5 Spilt Screen........... 47
4.2 Hardware ............. 48
4.2.1 Projecting Equipment of 3D holography......48
4.2.2 Supporting Equipment of 3D holography ...... 51
4.3 Integration.............. 53
5.1 Experiment Design ............ 55
5.2 Result ............. 62
5.2.1 Relationship between Reaction Time and Angular Disparity .... 63
5.2.2 Relationship between Error Rate and Angular Disparity ... 64
5.2.3 Training Effect............ 65
5.2.4 Subjective Feelings........... 67
CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION ........... 69
6.1 Implementation of GOOD LOCK in 3D holography ...... 69
6.2 Implication of Reaction Time, Error Rate and Angular Disparity .... 70
6.3 Training Performance of GOOD LOCK ....... 72
6.4 Subjective Feelings of GOOD LOCK ......... 74
6.5 How to Conduct Experiment on Older Adults ...... 75
CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION ........... 77
REFERENCES .............. 78
Appendix A MENTAL ROTATION PRETEST......... 88
Alitalia. (2010). Dreamoc for AMEX & ALITALIA. from http://www.alitalia.com/
Allaire, J. C., McLaughlin, A. C., Trujillo, A., Whitlock, L. A., LaPorte, L., & Gandy, M. (2013). Successful aging through digital games: Socioemotional differences
between older adult gamers and Non-gamers. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4),
Aretz, A. J., & Wickens, C. D. (1992). The mental rotation of map displays. Human
Performance, 5(4), 303-328.
Azuma, R. T. (1997). A Survey of Augmented Reality. 355-385.
Ball, K., Berch, D. B., Helmer, K. F., Jobe, J. B., Leveck, M. D., Marsiske, M., . . . Willis,
S. L. (2002). Effects of Cognitive Training Interventions with Older Adults.
Band, G. P., & Kok, A. (2000). Age effects on response monitoring in a mental-rotation
task. Biological psychology, 51(2), 201-221.
Banich, M. T., & Heller, W. (1998). Evolving perspectives on lateralization of function.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7(1), 1-2.
Beni, R. d., Pazzaglia, F., & Gardini, S. (2006). The Role of Mental Rotation and Age in
Spatial Perspective-Taking Tasks: When Age does not Impair Perspective-Taking
Performance. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 807-821.
Bimber, O., & Raskar, R. (2003). Alternative augmented reality approaches: Concepts,
techniques, and applications. Eurographics (Tutorial Notes).
Bird, C. M., & Burgess, N. (2008). The hippocampus and memory: insights from spatial
processing. Nat Rev Neurosci, 9(3), 182-194. doi: 10.1038/nrn2335
Bodner, G. M., & Guay, R. B. (1997). The Purdue visualization of rotations test. The
Chemical Educator, 2(4), 1-17.
Buckner, R. L. (2004). Memory and executive function in aging and AD: multiple factors
that cause decline and reserve factors that compensate. Neuron, 44(1), 195-208. Caissie, A. F., Vigneau, F. o., & Bors, D. A. (2009). What does the Mental Rotation Test measure? An analysis of item difficulty and item characteristics. Open Psychology
Journal, 2(1), 94-102.
Chandler, P., & Sweller, J. (1991). Cognitive load theory and the format of instruction. Cognition and instruction, 8(4), 293-332.
Chang, C-W. (2012). Exploring the Source of Gender Difference in Mental Rotation and Assessment Validation of a virtual 3D mental rotation. Department of Computer Science & Information Engineering, NCUIR.
Chen, K-C. (2011). Mental rotation ability and topographical disorientation in patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease. Institute of Behavioral Medicine, NCKUR.
Chu, M., & Kita, S. (2008). Spontaneous gestures during mental rotation tasks: insights into the microdevelopment of the motor strategy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 137(4), 706.
Chu, M., & Kita, S. (2011). The nature of gestures' beneficial role in spatial problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology(1939-2222 (Electronic)).
Chu, M., & Kita, S. (2012). The role of spontaneous gestures in spatial problem solving
Gesture and Sign Language in Human-Computer Interaction and Embodied
Communication (pp. 57-68): Springer.
Chun, W. H., & Hollerer, T. (2013). Real-time hand interaction for augmented reality on
mobile phones. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2013 international
conference on Intelligent user interfaces.
Coca-Cola. (2013). COCA-COLA Hologram.
Cook, S. W., & Tanenhaus, M. K. (2009). Embodied communication: SpeakersБ─≥
gestures affect listenersБ─≥ actions. Cognition, 113(1), 98-104.
Cooper, L. A. (1975). Mental rotation of random two-dimensional shapes. Cognitive
Psychology, 7(1), 20-43.
De Beni, R., Pazzaglia, F., & Gardini, S. (2006). The role of mental rotation and age in
spatial perspectiveБ─░taking tasks: when age does not impair
perspectiveБ─░taking performance. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20(6), 807-821. Dror, I. E., & Kosslyn, S. M. (1994). Mental imagery and aging. Psychology and Aging,
9(1), 90.
Drzezga, A., Riemenschneider, M., Strassner, B., Grimmer, T., Peller, M., Knoll, A., . . .
Kurz, A. (2005). Cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with AD and different APOE genotypes. Neurology, 64(1), 102-107.
Dцnser, A., Walker, L., Horner, H., & Bentall, D. (2012). Creating interactive physics education books with augmented reality. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 24th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference.
Ehrlich, S. B., Levine, S. C., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2006). The importance of gesture in children's spatial reasoning. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), 1259.
Elmorshidy, A. (2010). Holographic Projection Technology: The World is Changing. arXiv preprint arXiv:1006.0846.
Estes, D. (1998). Young children's awareness of their mental activity: The case of mental rotation. Child development, 69(5), 1345-1360.
Franssen, T. K. (2010). Using Augmented Reality for Real Life Applications.
Frick, A., Daum, M. M., Walser, S., & Mast, F. W. (2005). Developmental changes in the interference of motor processes with mental rotation. Paper presented at the
Proceedings of the 27th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society.
Funk, M., Brugger, P., & Wilkening, F. (2005a). Motor processes in children's imagery:
The case of mental rotation of hands. Developmental Science, 8(5), 402-408.
Funk, M., Brugger, P., & Wilkening, F. (2005b). Motor processes in children’s imagery :
the case of mental rotation of hands. Developmental Science, 402-408.
Furht, B. (2011). Handbook of augmented reality (Vol. 71): Springer.
Gardony, A. L., Taylor, H. A., & Brunye, T. T. (2014). What does physical rotation reveal
about mental rotation? Psychological science, 25(2), 605-612.
Gerven, P. W., Paas, F., Van, Merrie ̈nboer, J. J., Hendriks, M., & Schmidt, H. G. (2003). The efficiency of multimedia learning into old age. British Journal of Educational
Psychology, 73(4), 489-505.
Goksun, T., Goldin-Meadow, S., Newcombe, N., & Shipley, T. (2013). Individual
differences in mental rotation: what does gesture tell us? Cognitive processing,
14(2), 153-162.
Goldin-Meadow, S., & Beilock, S. L. (2010). Action's influence on thought: The case of
gesture. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(6), 664-674.
Goldin-Meadow, S., Nusbaum, H., Kelly, S. D., & Wagner, S. (2001). Explaining math:
Gesturing lightens the load. Psychological science, 12(6), 516-522.
Han, C-C. (2008). The Mental Representation during the Mental Rotation Task. Graduate
Institute of Science Education, NTNUETD
Hedden, T., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2004). Insights into the ageing mind: a view from cognitive neuroscience. Nat Rev Neurosci, 5(2), 87-96.
Hedley, N. R. (2003). Empirical Evidence of Advanced Geographic Visualization Interface Use.
Hegarty, M., Mayer, S., Kriz, S., & Keehner, M. (2005). The role of gestures in mental animation. Spatial Cognition and Computation, 5(4), 333-356.
Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., Wilson, R. S., & Lindenberger, U. (2008). Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development: Can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(1), 1-65.
Hostetter, A. B., & Alibali, M. W. (2008). Visible embodiment: Gestures as simulated action. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15(3), 495-514.
Hostetter, A. B., Alibali, M. W., & Bartholomew, A. E. (2011). Gesture during mental rotation. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 33rd annual conference of cognitive science society. Cognitive Science Society, Austin, TX.
Hoyek, N., Champely, S. p., Collet, C., Fargier, P., & Guillot, A. (2014). Is Mental Rotation Ability a Predictor of Success for Motor Performance? Journal of Cognition and Development(ahead-of-print), 1-11.
Hwang, G.-J., & Chang, H.-F. (2011). A formative assessment-based mobile learning approach to improving the learning attitudes and achievements of students. Computers & Education, 56(4), 1023-1031.
Hwang, G.-J., Wu, P.-H., & Ke, H.-R. (2011). An interactive concept map approach to supporting mobile learning activities for natural science courses. Computers & Education, 57(4), 2272-2280.
Jacewicz, M. M., & Hartley, A. A. (1979). Rotation of mental images by young and old college students: The effects of familiarity. Journal of Gerontology, 34(3), 396-403.
Jansen, P., & Heil, M. (2010). Gender differences in mental rotation across adulthood. Exp Aging Res, 36(1), 94-104. doi: 10.1080/03610730903422762
Jansen, P., Schmelter, A., Quaiser-Pohl, C., Neuburger, S., & Heil, M. (2013). Mental rotation performance in primary school age children: Are there gender differences in chronometric tests? Cognitive Development, 28(1), 51-62.
Jausovec, N., & Jausovec, K. (2012). Sex differences in mental rotation and cortical activation patterns: Can training change them? Intelligence, 40(2), 151-162.
Jenkins, L., Myerson, J., Joerding, J. A., & Hale, S. (2000). Converging evidence that visuospatial cognition is more age-sensitive than verbal cognition. (0882-7974 (Print)).
Johnson, A. M. (1990). Speed of mental rotation as a function of problem-solving strategies. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71(3), 803-806.
Jorge, M. n.-G. r., Jose ́, L. s. S. n., Manuel, C., Mariano, A. i., David C, P. r.-L. p., & Mario, O. (2010). Design and validation of an augmented book for spatial abilities development in engineering students. Computers & Graphics, 34(1), 77-91.
Kail, R., Pellegrino, J., & Carter, P. (1980). Developmental changes in mental rotation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 29(1), 102-116.
Kaufmann, H., & Schmalstieg, D. (2003). Mathematics And Geometry Education With Collaborative Augmented Reality. Computers & Graphics, 37(3), 339-345.
Kerawalla, L., Luckin, R., Seljeflot, S., & Woolard, A. (2006). Making it real: exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science. Virtual Reality, 10(3-4), 163-174.
Klatzky, R. L., Wu, B., Shelton, D., & Stetten, G. (2008). Effectiveness of augmented- reality visualization versus cognitive mediation for learning actions in near space. ACM Trans. Appl. Percept., 5(1), 1-23. doi: 10.1145/1279640.1279641
Kolb, B. (2013). Brain plasticity and behavior: Psychology Press.
Kramer, A. F., & Willis, S. L. (2002). Enhancing the Cognitive Vitality of Older Adults.
Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11(5), 173-177. doi: 10.1111/1467-
Lawton, C. A. (1994). Gender differences in way-finding strategies: Relationship to spatial
ability and spatial anxiety. Sex roles, 30(11-12), 765-779.
Leapmotion. (2008). Leap motion. from https://www.leapmotion.com/
Lee, S., & Kline, R. (2011). Wayfinding Study in Virtual Environments: The Elderly vs.
the Younger-aged Groups. International Journal of Architectural Research, 5(2),
Lohman, D. F. (1988). Spatial abilities as traits, processes, and knowledge.
Lu, B-J., Zhao, X-F., & Lee, J-R. (2013). A Profile of Recreation Centers for Older Adults
and Its Innovative Development in Taiwan: Transforming from Recreation Centers for Seniro Clubs to Mulipurpose. Taiwan Association of Gerontology Annual Conference.
Mahncke, H. W., Bronstone, A., & Merzenich, M. M. (2006). Brain plasticity and functional losses in the aged: scientific bases for a novel intervention. In R. M. l. Aage (Ed.), Progress in Brain Research (Vol. Volume 157, pp. 81-109): Elsevier.
Maitland, S. B., Intrieri, R. C., Schaie, W. K., & Willis, S. L. (2000). Gender differences and changes in cognitive abilities across the adult life span. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7(1), 32-53.
Malinowski, J. C. (2001). Mental rotation and real-world wayfinding. Perceptual and Motor Skills(0031-5125 (Print)).
Martı ́n-Gutie ́rrez, J., Saorı ́n, J. L. s., ManuelContero, iz, M., pez, D. C. P. r.-L., & MarioOrtega. (2010). Design and validation of an augmented book for spatial abilities development in engineering students. Computers & Graphics, 34(1), 77-91.
McCarthy, A. L. (2010). Improving older adults' mental rotation skills through computer training. University of Akron.
Mosconi, L., Sorbi, S., de Leon, M. J., Li, Y., Nacmias, B., Myoung, P. S., . . . Fayyazz, M. (2006). Hypometabolism exceeds atrophy in presymptomatic early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 47(11), 1778-1786.
Mowszowski, L., Batchelor, J., & Naismith, S. L. (2010). Early intervention for cognitive decline: can cognitive training be used as a selective prevention technique? Int Psychogeriatr, 22(4), 537-548. doi: 10.1017/s1041610209991748
Myers, B., Hudson, S. E., & Pausch, R. (2000). Past, present, and future of user interface software tools. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 7(1), 3-28.
National Development Council. (2013). Current Situations and Trends of Global Ageing Population.
Park, D. C., & Gutchess, A. H. (2002). Aging, cognition, and culture: a neuroscientific perspective. 859-867.
Park, H. (2010). The effect of activities in virtual worlds as a communication environment to understand each other. Journal of Cyber Therapy and Rehabilitation, 3(1), 71-82.
Parsons, T. D., Courtney, C. G., Dawson, M. E., Rizzo, A. A., & Arizmendi, B. J. (2013). Visuospatial processing and learning effects in virtual reality based mental rotation and navigational tasks Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics. Understanding Human Cognition (pp. 75-83): Springer.
Pazzaglia, F., & Moe, A. (2013). Cognitive styles and mental rotation ability in map learning. Cognitive processing, 14(4), 391-399.
Peich, M.-C., Husain, M., & Bays, P. M. (2013). Age-related decline of precision and binding in visual working memory. (1939-1498 (Electronic)).
Petra, J., & Stefanie, P. (2010). Physical activity improves mental rotation performance. Creative Education, 1, 58.
Piumsomboon, T., Clark, A., Billinghurst, M., & Cockburn, A. (2013). User-defined gestures for augmented reality Human-Computer InteractionБ─⌠INTERACT 2013 (pp. 282-299): Springer.
Podzebenko, K., Egan, G. F., & Watson, J. D. (2005). Real and imaginary rotary motion processing: functional parcellation of the human parietal lobe revealed by fMRI. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(1), 24-36.
Rafi, A., & Samsudin, K. (2009). Practising mental rotation using interactive desktop mental rotation trainer (iDeMRT). British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(5), 889-900.
Rizzo, A., Buckwalter, J., Larson, P., Van Rooyen, A., Kratz, K., Neumann, U., . . . Thiebeaux, M. (1998). Preliminary findings on a virtual environment targeting human mental rotation/spatial abilities. Paper presented at the European Conference on Disability, Virtual Reality and Associated Technologies.
Roberts, J. E., & Ann Bell, M. (2003). Two-and three-dimensional mental rotation tasks lead to different parietal laterality for men and women. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 50(3), 235-246.
Rose, F. D., Brooks, B. M., & Rizzo, A. A. (2005). Virtual reality in brain damage rehabilitation: review. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 8(3), 241-262.
Salthouse, T. A. (1996). The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychological review, 103(3), 403.
Salthouse, T. A., Babcock, R. L., Skovronek, E., Mitchell, D. R., & Palmon, R. (1990). Age and experience effects in spatial visualization. Developmental Psychology, 26(1), 128.
Shah, J. J., Woodward, J., & Smith, S. M. (2013). Applied Tests of Design Skills-Part II: Visual Thinking. Journal of Mechanical Design, 135(7), 071004.
Shelton, B. E., & Hedley, N. R. (2002). Using Augmented Reality for Teaching Earth-Sun Relationships to Undergraduate Geography Students. IEEE.
Shelton, B. E., & Hedley, N. R. (2004). Exploring a cognitive basis for learning spatial relationships with augmented reality. Technology Instruction Cognition and Learning, 1, 323-357.
Shepard, R. N., & Cooper, L. A. (1986). Mental images and their transformations: The MIT Press.
Shepard, R. N., & Metzler, J. (1971). Mental Rotation of Three-Dimensional Objects. Science, 171, pp. 701-703.
Sjolie, D., Bodin, K., Elgh, E., Eriksson, J., Janlert, L.-E., & Nyberg, L. (2010). Effects of interactivity and 3D-motion on mental rotation brain activity in an immersive virtual environment. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.
Slijepcevic, N. (2013). The Effect of Augmented Reality Treatment on Learning, Cognitive Load, and Spatial Visualization Abilities.
Sternberg, R. (2008). Cognitive psychology: Cengage Learning.
Sweller, J. (1988). Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive
Science, 12(2), 257-285.
Sweller, J. (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty, and instructional design.
Learning and Instruction, 4(4), 295-312.
Sweller, J., Ayres, P., & Kalyuga, S. (2011). Cognitive load theory (Vol. 1): Springer. Sweller, J., Van Merrienboer, J. J., & Paas, F. G. (1998). Cognitive architecture and
instructional design. Educational psychology review, 10(3), 251-296.
Tsai, L. S. (1988). Insightful Solution of a Geometery Problem with Instructional Cues: I. group experiments. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67(3), 699-705. doi:
Unity3D (Producer). (2014). Unity3D. Retrieved from http://unity3d.com/
Vandenberg, S. G., & Kuse, A. R. (1978). Mental rotations, a group test of three-
dimensional spatial visualization. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 47(2), 599-604. Vingerhoets, G., De Lange, F. P., Vandemaele, P., Deblaere, K., & Achten, E. (2002).
Motor imagery in mental rotation: an fMRI study. Neuroimage, 17(3), 1623-1633. Wagner, S. M., Nusbaum, H., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (2004). Probing the mental
representation of gesture: Is handwaving spatial? Journal of Memory and Language, 50(4), 395-407.
Wang, C.-Y., & Barrow, L. H. (2011). Characteristics and levels of sophistication: An analysis of chemistry studentsБ─≥ ability to think with mental models. Research in Science Education, 41(4), 561-586.
Wexler, M., Kosslyn, S. M., & Berthoza, A. (1998). Motor processes in mental rotation. Cognition, 77-94.
WHO. (2002). Avtive Ageing : a policy framework.
Wiedenbauer, G., & Jansen-Osmann, P. (2008). Manual training of mental rotation in
children. Learning and Instruction, 18(1), 30-41. doi:
Wiedenbauer, G., Schmid, J., & Jansen-Osmann, P. (2007). Manual training of mental
rotation. European Journal of cognitive psychology, 19(1), 17-36.
Willems, R. M., Toni, I., Hagoort, P., & Casasanto, D. (2010). Neural dissociations between action verb understanding and motor imagery. Journal of Cognitive
Neuroscience, 22(10), 2387-2400.
Wingfield, A., Stine, E. A., Lahar, C. J., & Aberdeen, J. S. (1988). Does the capacity of
working memory change with age? Exp Aging Res, 14(2), 103-107.
Wobbrock, J. O., Aung, H. H., Rothrock, B., & Myers, B. A. (2005). Maximizing the guessability of symbolic input. Paper presented at the CHI'05 extended abstracts on
Human Factors in Computing Systems.
Wobbrock, J. O., Morris, M. R., & Wilson, A. D. (2009). User-defined gestures for surface
computing. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on
Human Factors in Computing Systems.
Wohlschlager, A., & Wohlschlager, A. (1998). Mental and Manual Rotation. Journal of
Experimental Psychology : Human Perception and Performance, 24(2), 397-412. Wraga, M., Thompson, W. L., Alpert, N. M., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2003). Implicit transfer of motor strategies in mental rotation. Brain and Cognition, 52(2), 135-143. doi:
Wright, R., Thompson, W. L., Ganis, G., Newcombe, N. S., & Kosslyn, S. M. (2008).
Training generalized spatial skills. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 15(4), 763-771.
doi: 10.3758/pbr.15.4.763
Yeh, C-W. (2013). The Effect of Visuospatial Working Memory Training in Elders.
Graduate Institute of Psychology, NCKUR.
Yeh, S.-C., Wang, J.-L., Wang, C.-Y., Lin, P.-H., Chen, G.-D., & Rizzo, A. (2013). Motion controllers for learners to manipulate and interact with 3D objects for mental rotation training. British Journal of Educational Technology, n/a-n/a. doi: 10.1111/bjet.12059
Yurt, E., & Sunbul, A. M. (2012). Effect of Modeling-Based Activities Developed Using Virtual Environments and Concrete Objects on Spatial Thinking and Mental Rotation Skills. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(3), 1987-1992.
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top