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研究生:吳哲銘
研究生(外文):Zhen-MingWu
論文名稱:滲流水錘現象於二維砂箱試驗之研究
論文名稱(外文):Two Dimensional Experiments on Seepage Hammer
指導教授:謝正倫謝正倫引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chjeng-Lun Shieh
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:水利及海洋工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:河海工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:101
中文關鍵詞:大規模崩塌滲流水錘二維砂箱Geo-Studio
外文關鍵詞:large-scale landslideseepage hammertwo-dimensional flameGeo-Studio
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氣候變遷影響降雨趨於極端及頻繁的地震,造成邊坡土體極度不穩定,坡地災害對於台灣影響日益嚴重,因此為了消除、降低災害生命財產損失,透過災害風險管理的掌握是政府、學界重視之課題。本研究將探究在大規模崩塌發生之水力機制,透過二維砂箱實驗及套裝軟體Geo-Studio模擬二維砂箱實驗來觀察滲流水錘現象,提供建置預警系統的學理依據。以降雨引致大規模崩塌為主,自案例收集與文獻回顧,了解邊坡內部滲流是劣化土壤強度的水力條件之一。根據前人已在一維實驗映證滲流水錘現象的發生,故本研究設計二維砂箱實驗來觀察滲流水錘現象在二維邊坡上的變化,以提供未來研究數據資料,來觀察入滲過程所產生的現象。
實驗成果呈現非飽和降雨入滲,可發現滲流水錘的作用,在不同的地下水條件下,其差異在於強度大小和作用時間長短,透過實驗中地下水條件的不同,可發現孔隙水壓力之變化有所不同,因此土壤有效應力將產生變化。透過模擬了解,使用Geo-Studio來模擬邊坡上孔隙水壓力變化歷程,其方法合理,未來可以使用現有邊坡模型分析其運動、變形過程與穩定性,同時修正前人提及之多相流理論應用於二維中,試以完整地描述水力條件於邊坡內部的作用,作為大規模崩塌預警機制之前期研究。
In Taiwan, the effect of climate change on extreme rainfall and the frequent earthquakes causing highly unstable slope lead to severe landslide disaster especially large-scale landsildes. As we all know that rainfall is the main reason to cause large-scale landslides. Also, many cases and papers indicate that the internal pore water pressure is a reason to decrease strength (of slope?) and exacerbate the landslides. To further explore the occurrence mechanism of large-scale landslides, this study aims to design the two-dimensional flame experiments and compare with simulation by Geo-Studio software and observe the phenomenon of seepage hammer on the slope.
The results of experiment in this study discovered the seepage hammer of unsaturated infiltration under different physical conditions (i.e., the different intensity of pore water pressure and the length of time) and revealed soil effective stress changed by the different pore water pressure. Furthermore, by using Geo-Studio software, the changes of pore water pressure on the slope can be simulated suitably. In the future, the constructed slope model can be applied to analyze the movement, deformation and stability in two-dimensions landslides and describes the influence of hydraulic conditions inside the slope, which can be a previous study of large-scale landslides for building early warning system.

摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 VIII
目錄 IX
圖目錄 XII
表目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的與方法 2
1.3 研究架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 4
2.1 台灣歷史坡地災害 4
2.2 大規模崩塌監測 8
2.2.1 雨量計監測 10
2.2.2 地下水水位計監測 11
2.2.3 側傾管監測 12
2.2.4 小結 14
2.3 入滲過程之理論 15
2.3.1 Darcy定律與Ricard方程式之推演 16
2.3.2 兩相流理論的發展 18
2.3.3 滲流水錘之現象 22
2.4 砂箱試驗 24
2.4.1 國外砂箱試驗 24
2.4.2 國內砂箱試驗 26
第三章研究方法 28
3.1 實驗設計 28
3.1.1 實驗目的 28
3.1.2 實驗配置 29
3.1.3 實驗材料與設備 33
3.1.3.a 實驗材料 33
3.1.3.b 實驗儀器 40
3.1.4 實驗流程說明 47
3.2 數值方法 49
3.2.1 數值目的 49
3.2.2 模組介紹 49
3.2.3 數值模型的建置 50
3.2.4邊界條件設定 53
3.2.5 數值模擬流程說明 55
第四章 實驗及模擬成果 56
4.1實驗結果 56
4.1.1 0度之實驗結果 58
4.1.2 25度之實驗結果 59
4.1.3 實驗結果說明 65
4.2 入滲模擬結果 70
4.2.1 0度之模擬結果 70
4.2.2 25度之模擬結果 71
4.2.3 模擬結果說明 76
4.3 有效應力模擬結果 77
第五章 理論與實驗成果討論、比較 79
5.1 實驗與模擬結果比較 79
5.2 滲流水錘現象觀察 85
第六章 結論與建議 90
6.1 結論 90
6.2 建議 91
參考文獻 92
附件一 臨界水深理論與推導 100


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