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研究生:陳聖哲
研究生(外文):Sheng-CheChen
論文名稱:積層陶瓷電容力量感測系統於咬合力量測
論文名稱(外文):Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors-based Force Sensor Array For Occlusal Force Measurement
指導教授:張志涵張志涵引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chih-Han Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:生物醫學工程學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物化學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:63
中文關鍵詞:咬合力積層式陶瓷電容壓力感測系統最佳化
外文關鍵詞:occlusal forcemultilayer ceramic capacitors force sensoroptimization
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牙齒是維持生命系統的基本組織,供給人體所需的營養及能量。然而對實際人體咬合咀嚼的力量,主要量化的資訊大多以最大咬合力的形式呈現,許多牙科治療多以最大咬合力作為評估標準,但是,根據近年的牙科生物力學分析,牙齒受力時不僅力量大小重要,若能夠提供力量在齒冠面的方向及分佈狀況,對於臨床治療上那能帶來莫大的幫助。
本研究根據先前本實驗室之研究結果,將工業級之積層式陶瓷電容作為力量感測元件使用,但是,由於本實驗室過去積層陶瓷電容感測器於咬合力量測的研究上主要以正向壓力探討積層陶瓷電容應用於咬合力量測的可行性,並未對積層陶瓷電容量測牙冠表面咬合力之剪力分量探討,故本研究延續過去的本實驗室之研究,開發能完整探討咬合力資訊之系統。
本次研究第一部分為重現過去本實驗室對於積層式陶瓷電容之力學感測性質、再極化過程及微機電製造技術製作軟性電極等研究,並且以直接測量積層式陶瓷電容的電壓響應的方式簡化實驗架設,並且發現積層式陶瓷電容經過長時間的預熱可以提高積層式陶瓷電容對於壓力的感測能力。
本研究第二部份利用積層式陶瓷電容開發出三軸壓力感測系統獲得不同方向的力量趨勢,不過,於牙冠模型上的實驗結果與電腦模擬結果趨勢有些許差異,牙冠面上測量出來的水平力分量難以被證明其正確性,現階段無法評估三軸壓力感測系統之咬合力測量結果正確性。
最後,本研究以雙層壓力感測器結合有限元素法作為最佳化演算之基礎,利用數值計算來獲得完整的咬合力資訊。此雙層壓力感測器將嵌入人造假牙上,分別是咬合面層與底層的感測陣列,咬合面層的壓力感測陣列用來獲得施力之位置,底層感測陣列用來計算施加力量的大小及方向。本研究最後以有限元素分析中底層感測陣列之垂直反作用力以最佳化演算找出每個感測元件的對於表面施力權重,計算出咬合面上的施力大小及方向。結果顯示此方法能準確的計算出一點及兩點的施力負載,而三點施力時會出現最大約10%計算誤差。未來,需要找出可能忽略之力學條件,使計算條件更加完整,將這些物理關係導入演算過程中,使此數值方式更加完整,藉此提供量測完整的咬合力資訊之方法。
SUMMARY
The aim of this study is to obtain occlusal force on crown surface though a home-made force sensor array. The force sensor array is composed by industrial-grade piezoelectric-based multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) force sensor for large force measuring. The MLCC was treated to enhance the piezoelectric property by using a re-poling process. A flexible PI electrode was developed to detect the force distribution on crown surface by using MEMS fabrication.
A 3D MLCC force sensor system was fabricated in this study. The results indicated the 3D MLCC force sensor system was able to detect the force either a normal or a combined force. In additional, the 3D force measurement system with 3X3 array type was embedded against the crown surface of an artificial tooth to detect the occlusal force. However, the measured force distribution outcomes depended heavily on the position of the sensor location. The MLCC used to measure the shear force could be interference by the direct contact of the above crown. It was difficult to justify the correctness of the shear force measurement outcomes.
Therefore, a numerical model was developed in this study. A sensor array system containing occlusal layer and bottom layer embedded artificial crown was fabricated with flexible PI-based electrode. The occlusal layer sensor array used to detect the contact point of the applied force. The bottom layer sensor array used to calculate the direction and magnitude of the applied force, and the results of bottom layer sensor array were compared to the results of finite element analysis. The difference between the applied force and the calculated force though optimization was lesser than 1% under the one and two point loading. However, in 3-point loading, the excessive unknown in calculation resulted in higher error up to 10% error.
Keywords: occlusal force, multilayer ceramic capacitors force sensor, optimization

INTRODUCTION
Teeth play an important role in providing essential nutrition for our life. One of the most important functions of teeth is to provide force for the chewing of food. A sufficient chewing process can break down the particle size of food and increase the surface area, allowing the digestive juices and enzymes to efficiently digest food in the digestive system. In biomechanical point of view, the masticatory system can be consider a force generation and absorption biomechanical structure. With advance in science, various materials are now used for dental applications, such as metal, ceramic, and polymer. These design require precise evaluation results for function optimization, especially simulation with real oral loading condition. Incomplete loading conditions might lead to poor design and potential damage to patients. However, most of research in implant designing are still considering a vector total force on a single tooth crown. The result could be affected by the irregular geometry and specific contact point of the dental crown. Therefore, to provide an appropriate loading condition, it is important to investigate not only the magnitude, but also the direction and distribution. In this study, the aim is to obtain the detail information occlusal force on the crown surface, such as the magnitude, the direction and distribution of the occlusal force through synergy between numerical calculation method and developed Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC) based sensing system.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In this study, the industrial-grade multilayer ceramic capacitor was used to be a force sensing element. The MLCC is typical electric components composed of the capacitive material Barium titanate (BaTiO3), which is also a piezoelectric material. The piezoelectricity is electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and the electrical state that develop an electric charge proportional to a mechanical strain. This study reproduced the previous research of our lab, including sensing ability of MLCC, re-poling process and flexible electrode. In additional, this study also simplified the re-poling process and improved the sensing ability of MLCC with new pre-heating process.
To obtain the direction and magnitude of occlusal force directly, this study used five MLCCs with a bump structure, as the force transfer median, to develop the 3D force measurement system. Four MLCCs were place around the bump to measure the horizontal (shear) force. The other one MLCC was place under the bump to detect the vertical (normal) force. In additional, a 3D force measurement systems with 3×3 array were embedded against the crown surface of an artificial tooth. These nine output of the MLCCs were mapped to a response pattern as force fingerprints to evaluate the feasibility.
However, the MLCC used to measure the shear force could be interference by the direct contact of the above crown, it was difficult to justify the correctness of the shear force measurement outcomes. This study developed a numerical model work with two layer sensor arrays and embedded into an artificial crown. The crown surface sensor array used to detect the loading position. The bottom layer sensor array was used to calculate the direction and magnitude of applied force by finite element analysis. Moreover, the results of finite element analysis were used in building a preliminary calculation model in order to obtain the direction and magnitude of applied force on crown. The z-axis reaction force of the finite element model was used to calculate the condition of applied force on crown surface by using optimization algorithm, and compare with the real applied force to evaluate the feasibility of two-layer sensor array for occlusal force measurement.

RESULTS ANS DISCUSSION
This study reproduced the previous research, including sensing ability of MLCCs, re-poling process and flexible electrode. The MLCCs as a force sensor was able to provide a good force response. The re-poling method was used to improve and normalize the sensing property of the MLCC force sensor. Results indicated the MLCC could sustain an axial loading of up to 800 N and that there was a significant and linear output voltage in the applied force range of interest. The treated MLCC elements could obtain a low variation of 4.8% and high sensing ability about 1 mV/N, and the sensing ability of MLCC sensors became saturated after 60 minutes of re-poling. This study also reproduced a flexible copper-coated PI films that fabricated as flexible electrodes by using MEMS technology.
To obtain the direction and magnitude of occlusal force, a 3D MLCC force sensor system was fabricated in this study. The results indicated the 3D MLCC force sensor system was able to detect the force either a normal or a combined force. The stress distribution of finite element analysis presented the higher stress values concentrated at the distobuccal groove (central area near the distal cusp ridge). The experiment normal responses pattern showed the higher normal response at the center. The measured force distribution outcomes depended heavily on the position of the sensor location. The response pattern of shear force was also mapped in this study. The high value of response of lingual and mesial shear force was observed at mesial side of molar model which was not contact with maxillary molar. The MLCCs used to measure the shear force could be interference by the direct contact of the above crown. It was difficult to justify the correctness of the shear force measurement outcomes.
The two-layer force sensor array was embedded into artificial crown for measuring force pattern which was evaluated with finite element analysis. The high value of response pattern on occlusal surface was considered as the loading point of the applied forces. The sensor array of bottom layer sensor array was used to calculate the magnitude and direction of the load force. The result indicated same tendency between experiment result of bottom layer and finite element analysis. The error of calculated loading force can be as low as 1% under one or two loading points. When the applied loading points up to three, the excessive unknown number in calculation resulted in higher error with maximum 10%.

CONCLUSIONS
This study employed MLCC to be force sensing element for occlusal force measurement. The MLCC sensors are treated to improve and normalize the sensing-force properties using a simple re-poling process. A flexible sensor array based the treated MLCCs is fabricated by using standard MEMS process. The tow-layer sensor array is used to evaluate loading condition on the occlusal surface. The summary of achievements of this present study as follow:
In this study, force sensing array with Industrial grade-MLCCs as force sensing components were improved to measure occlusal force.
A 3D MLCC force-sensing structure, using bumper, were developed to measure the 3 components of the occlusal force. However, due to its complexity, it still can’t be used to measure the shear components of occlusal force with acceptable accuracy.
Using numerical approach, it is demonstrated that it is possible to identify three loading force at a time .One-point load and two-point load were justified in this study. In case of three-point load, the error is larger than 10%.

中文摘要 I
Long Abstract III
致謝 X
目錄 XII
圖目錄 XV
表目錄 XVII
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 研究背景 2
1.2.1咬合力於牙科生物力學 3
1.2.2積層陶瓷電容器 4
1.3 文獻回顧 6
1.3.1咬合力感測器回顧 6
1.3.2積層陶瓷電容壓力感測器文獻回顧 9
1.4 研究動機及目的 10
1.4.1研究之目的 10
第二章 材料與方法 12
2.1 重現與改良 12
2.1.1 單顆積層式陶瓷電容量測系統 12
2.1.2 積層式陶瓷電容之再極化過程 14
2.1.3微機電製程(MEMS)-軟式電極 18
3.2 三軸壓力感測系統-硬體系統 22
3.2.1 三軸壓力感測系統感測能力測試 22
3.2.2 三軸壓力感測系統於咬合力量測評估 23
2.3 三軸壓力感測系統-數值計算方式 27
2.3.1 牙冠模型製作 27
2.3.2實驗架設與有限元素分析 28
2.3.3有限元素分析法之數值推導 31
第三章 結果 33
3.1 積層式陶瓷電容的力感測特性再現 33
3.1.1 單顆積層式陶瓷電容之力感測特性 33
3.1.2 積層式陶瓷電容再極化結果 36
3.1.3軟式電極 41
3.2 三軸壓力感測系統-硬體系統 42
3.2.1 三軸力感測系統於不同方向之量測 42
3.2.2 三軸力感測系統於人造牙冠面之量測 43
3.3 三軸壓力感測系統-數值計算方式 45
3.3.1 陣列式感測器初初步量測結果 45
3.3.2有限元素模擬與實驗評估 45
3.3.3 以有限元素法反推計算之結果 50
第四章 討論 54
4.1 積層陶瓷電容力感測能力的重現 54
4.2 積層陶瓷電容三軸壓力感測器於咬合力量測 56
4.3 雙層感測陣列結合電腦數值計算於咬合力量測 58
第五章 結論 61
參考文獻 62
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2.Bakke, M., Bite Force and Occlusion. Seminars in Orthodontics, 2006. 12(2): p. 120-126.
3.Miyaura, K., et al., Rehabilitation of biting abilities in patients with different types of dental prostheses. (0305-182X ).
4.Shinkai, R.S., et al., Oral function and diet quality in a community-based sample. (0022-0345).
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6.Rutt, T. and J. Stynes, Fabrication of Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors by Metal Impregnation. IEEE Transactions on Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, 1973. 9(3): p. 144-147.
7.Hiroshi, K., M. Youichi, and C. Hirokazu, Base-Metal Electrode-Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors: Past, Present and Future Perspectives. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 2003. 42(1R): p. 1.
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12.Kerstein, R.B., P. Thumati, and S. Padmaja, Force Finishing and Centering to Balance a Removable Complete Denture Prosthesis Using the T-Scan III Computerized Occlusal Analysis System. The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society, 2013. 13(3): p. 184-188.
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