跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(34.204.198.73) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/19 14:17
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:詹于霈
研究生(外文):Yu-PeiChan
論文名稱:奈米鋁粉高能點火器最低閃光點燃能量之分析:二維粒子間距的效應
論文名稱(外文):On Minimum Flash Ignition Energy of Energetic Igniter Using Aluminum NanoParticles: Effects of 2D Interparticle Distances
指導教授:趙怡欽
指導教授(外文):Yei-Chin Chao
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:航空太空工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:78
中文關鍵詞:奈米鋁粉閃光點燃機制火箭點火系統
外文關鍵詞:Aluminum NanoparticleFlash-ignition mechanismRocket Ignition System
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:179
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:10
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
近年來,奈米材料受到各界許多的關注,因為其與眾不同的特性,奈米材料將為各工程領域帶來重大的突破與進步。其中,奈米材料可以相機閃光燈點燃的特性引起了許多研究單位的興趣,尤其是航太工業。奈米材料體積小、重量輕的特性,使其特別適用於太空推進系統,同時,相較於微米粒子,奈米粒子應用於燃燒還有其他的優點,如較低的點燃溫度等。此外,若是能將閃光點燃(flash-ignition)機制應用於火箭點火系統,使用閃光燈的便捷將會為點火系統帶來嶄新的突破。
過去,已有許多研究機構對於奈米材料的閃光點燃機制進行了不同的研究,並發現了很多會影響到閃光點燃效率的因素,包括光吸收率、閃光燈的持續時間(pulse duration)、粒子分布的單位密度等。對於航太科技的發展,若是能降低點火系統的成本,將有助於太空技術的進展。本研究主要是使用硝化纖維搭配不同量的奈米鋁粉去製作成可以閃光燈點燃的高能點火器,為了減少奈米鋁粉的使用量以降低點火系統的成本,本研究的目的在於找出奈米鋁粉最佳的使用比例。隨著奈米鋁粉的使用比例不同,奈米鋁粉間的間距會有所差異,而奈米粒子的間距將會對整體的特性造成一些影響,進而影響到點燃所需的能量。
本研究以奈米鋁粉混合硝化纖維的方式去製作以閃光點燃的高能點火器,製程中使用了超音波細胞粉碎儀去幫助奈米鋁粉的分散,且為了簡化問題的複雜性,讓我們可以更清楚地對粒子間距與閃光點燃機制進行瞭解與分析,在研究中,我們以二維的方式去製作實驗樣品與進行理論分析,同時搭許多不同儀器的使用去瞭解實驗材料與樣品的特性。
由實驗與理論分析的結果我們得到了奈米鋁粉最佳的使用比例,也就是當奈米鋁粉間距為4到5倍粒子半徑時,所需的點燃能量是最低的。同時,我們也瞭解到奈米鋁粉間距對整體閃光點燃所需能量的影響在於奈米鋁粉的光吸收率、粒子間的熱傳與硝化纖維燃燒時所釋放出的熱量。
SUMMARY

Recently, the unique flash ignition phenomenon occurring in nanoparticles has also received more interests during last years. Because of its convenience, it could bring ignition mechanism of rocket a potentially infinite improvement.
In this study, energetic igniter composed of nitrocellulose with distinct amount of aluminum nanoparticles has been developed. To save the cost, the amount of aluminum nanoparticles being related to interparticle distance should be lowered. According to relevant literatures, nanoparticle interaction influenced by interparticle distance would make the particle properties different. As a result, the minimum ignition energy (MIE) would change as well. Hence, the relationship of interparticle distance and minimum ignition energy would be investigated in this study. Moreover, the 2D model has been established to perform theoretical analysis in a clearer way than contemporary 3D model within lots of uncontrollable factors. Furthermore, kinds of equipment are used to provide the properties of material and igniter. The result from experiment and theoretical analysis demonstrate the lowest MIE from igniter with interparticle distance being four to five times the particle radius.
Key words: Aluminum Nanoparticle, Flash-ignition mechanism, Rocket Ignition System




Introduction

Over the past several years, carbon nanotube has received wide attention because of its potential in engineering. It was a startling discovery by Ajayan et al. that dry and fluffy single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be ignited through camera flash light. Ajayan et al. concluded that it is light absorption causing the flash-ignition of SWCNT [2]. From that moment onwards, there were groups of scientists carrying out further researches on the flash-ignition of SWCNT.
The unique property of nanoparticles, ignition by optical illumination, holds lots advantages and brings rocket ignition system wider possibilities [2]. First, the light weight and tiny volume are beneficial in propulsion system used in space. Then, compared with micro scale particles, lower ignition temperature and higher combustion speed of nanoparticles could bring the propulsion system great improvement [3]. Moreover, with flash-ignition mechanism, remote ignition can be achieved. Furthermore, flash-ignition is less sensitive for the environment factors. Certainly, some people might mention that laser-ignition technology for nanoparticles has been developed in recent years. However, it required higher energy and more complex equipment to provide laser beam, which would bring the rocket system greater load. Nevertheless, with flash-ignition mechanism, the rocket ignition system could be simplified considerably. [4]
The aim of this study is to understand the flash-ignition mechanism of nanoparticles and provide knowledge for further applications in rocket ignition system. For application, saving cost has always been the primary reason. In this study, energetic igniter triggered by flash light has been developed. However, the cost would be influenced by the amount of nanoparticles and energy needed for ignition. As a result, the experiment design in this study would emphasise on the effects of interparticle distances on minimum ignition energy of energetic igniter. Furthermore, distinct equipment would be used to investigate the properties of aluminum nanoparticles and the energy required for ignition would be recorded to provide the evidences of effects of nanoparticle interactions on minimum ignition energy.

Material and methods

Manufacture
In energetic igniter manufacture process, nitrocellulose is dissolved in acetone firstly. Then, adding aluminum nanoparticles of distinct amount to solvent would produce igniters with different interparticle distances. After that, Up Series Ultrasonic Processors provides particle separation physically, which is followed by vacuum oven drying process.
Apparatus and experiment
Figure 25 displays the apparatus for flash-ignition experiment. For observation, DV camera and high speed camera are used. The former records the ignition process, whilst the latter provides images for point of ignition happening. Then, the minimum ignition energy of igniter with different interparticle distances would be recorded for the comparison with the following theoretical analysis. Moreover, measurements from kinds of equipment offer evidence of properties on flash light, aluminum nanoparticles, and nitrocellulose


Theoretical analysis
Through the TGA analysis, the flash-ignition process of energetic igniter has been understood. At first, aluminum nanoparticles would be heated up from flash light. The numerous increase in temperature of aluminum nanoparticle is due to the great light absorption and photo-thermal conversion efficiency in nanomaterial. Then, thermal conduction would occur because of the temperature difference between aluminum nanoparticle and nitrocellulose. Hence, temperature climb of aluminum nanoparticles as well as nitrocellulose would be seen within flash light pulse duration. As soon as nitrocellulose meets its ignition temperature, nitrocellulose would burns accompanying exothermic reaction. At this moment, aluminum nanoparticles would experience significant temperature increase because of the exothermic heat from nitrocellulose burning. And then, ignition of aluminum nanoparticles would happen.
According to reaction process mentioned above, the 2D thermal transfer analysis for the ignition process could be done theoretically. The first is its intuitive assumptions: (1) aluminum nanoparticles would be well-distributed in nitrocellulose; (2) there is no thermal conduction between aluminum nanoparticles since all particles are heated up simultaneously; (3) for aluminum nanoparticles, the thermal radiation from each other would be zero as the temperature of nitrocellulose higher than aluminum nanoparticles. Then, according to heat transfer theory, the variation in nitrocellulose as well as aluminum nanoparticles would be yield for the following discussion.
Result and discussion

From the comparison between experiment result and theoretical analysis, there are three main results: (1) the relationship between minimum ignition energy and aluminum interparticle distance; (2) the collective effect on the minimum ignition energy.
1. The relationship between minimum ignition energy and aluminum interparticle distance
Figure 44 renders the theoretical result from thermal analysis. To achieve the combustion of nitrocellulose and aluminum nanoparticles, the higher the temperatures of them, the greater the likelihood for both of them to ignite. In other words, the point where both temperatures reaching higher value is the condition where the material could be ignited by supplying lowest flash light energy. The optimum point of interparticle distance being four times the particle radius could be seen in figure 44. Furthermore, the results from experiment in figure 48-a and b provide evidence to support the result from theoretical analysis.
2 The collective effect on the minimum ignition energy
For collective condition, a slight difference of minimum ignition energy could be seen from figure 48-a and b with different homogeneity. Besides, since the nitrocellulose used in figure 48-a and b are manufacturing in different date, a subtle difference in quality might happen. However, the experiment results reveal no significant influence on the trend. As a result, it has been proved that the homogeneity of aluminum nanoparticles and subtle nitrocellulose quality variation provide slight variation in minimum ignition energy without changing the overall trend.


Cloclusion

The results from experiment and theory analysis provide the optimum point for flash-ignition of the igniter is the interparticle distance being four or five times the particle radius. Moreover, it has been found that the homogeneity of aluminum nanoparticle in nitrocellulose could slightly influence the minimum ignition energy without changing the overall trend. And the experiment result suggest the ignorable effect of little nitrocellulose quality. In conclusion, the experiment and theory show the effect of interparticle distance on minimum ignition energy for three parts as following: (1) the light absorption of nanoparticle; (2) thermal transfer effect; (3) the exothermic heat from nitrocellulose combustion.
摘要 i
Extended Abstract iii
誌謝 ix
表目錄 xiii
圖目錄 xiii
符號說明 xv
第一章 緒論 1
第二章 文獻回顧與研究目的 5
2-1 文獻回顧 5
2-1-1 閃光點燃機制 5
2-1-2 光吸收率 8
2-1-3 奈米鋁粉反應機制 9
2-1-4 光熱轉換機制 11
2-1-5 粒子間交互作用與瑞利散射理論 12
2-1-6 最低閃光點燃能量 14
2-2 研究目的 14
第三章實驗方法與點燃特性分析 16
3-1硝化纖維製備 16
3-2 樣品製備 17
3-3 特性分析 19
3-3-1 TEM氧化層分析 19
3-3-2 TGA熱重分析 20
3-3-3 SEM粒子分布 20
3-3-4 分光光譜儀光吸收率分析 22
3-4 照光實驗設備架設 22
3-4-1 閃光燈光緣選用及能量量測 22
3-4-2 高速攝影機 24
3-5 整體操作步驟 25
3-6 閃光點燃特性與反應機制 29
3-6-1 氧化層分析 29
3-6-2 熱重分析結果 29
3-6-3 SEM分析結果 31
3-6-4 光吸收率分析 32
3-6-5 閃光點燃反應機制 32
第四章 理論分析 34
4-1 距離與比例關係 34
4-2 反應過程 35
4-3 光吸收率 36
4-4 熱傳理論 36
4-5 熱傳分析 38
第五章 結果比較與討論 41
5-1 理論分析結果 41
5-1-1 均勻分散狀況分析 41
5-1-2 團聚影響分析 42
5-2 實驗結果比較 43
5-3 粒子間距與升溫速度影響分析 44
5-4 整體反應機制與粒子間距關係 46
第六章 結論 47
第七章 未來工作 48
參考文獻 49
表格 52
圖 53
[1] M.J. Turner, Rocket and spacecraft propulsion: principles, practice and new developments, Springer Science & Business Media, 2008.
[2] P. Ajayan, M. Terrones, A. De la Guardia, V. Huc, N. Grobert, B. Wei, H. Lezec, G. Ramanath, T. Ebbesen, Nanotubes in a flash--ignition and reconstruction, Science, 296, 705, 2002.
[3] B. Chehroudi, Minimum ignition energy of the light-activated ignition of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), Combustion and Flame, 159, 753-756, 2012.
[4] Y. Ohkura, P.M. Rao, X. Zheng, Flash ignition of Al nanoparticles: Mechanism and applications, Combustion and Flame, 158, 2544-2548, 2011.
[5] J.H. Kim, J.Y. Ahn, H.S. Park, S.H. Kim, Optical ignition of nanoenergetic materials: The role of single-walled carbon nanotubes as potential optical igniters, Combustion and Flame, 160, 830-834,2013.
[6] N. Braidy, G.A. Botton, A. Adronov, Oxidation of Fe nanoparticles embedded in single-walled carbon nanotubes by exposure to a bright flash of white light, Nano Letters, 2, 1277-1280, 2002.
[7] J. Smits, B. Wincheski, M. Namkung, R. Crooks, R. Louie, Response of Fe powder, purified and as-produced HiPco single-walled carbon nanotubes to flash exposure, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 358, 384-389, 2003.
[8] H.H. Richardson, M.T. Carlson, P.J. Tandler, P. Hernandez, A.O. Govorov, Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Light-to-Heat Conversion and Collective Heating Effects in Metal Nanoparticle Solutions, Nano Letters, 9, 1139-1146, 2009.
[9] A.O. Govorov, H.H. Richardson, Generating heat with metal nanoparticles, Nano Today, 2, 30-38, 2007.
[10] Z. Nan, B.M. Anthony, Heat generation by optically and thermally interacting aggregates of gold nanoparticles under illumination, Nanotechnology, 20, 375702, 2009.
[11] M. Rashidi-Huyeh, B. Palpant, Thermal response of nanocomposite materials under pulsed laser excitation, Journal of Applied Physics, 96, 4475-4482, 2004.
[12] S.H. Tseng, N.H. Tai, W.K. Hsu, L.J. Chen, J.H. Wang, C.C. Chiu, C.Y. Lee, L.J. Chou, K.C. Leou, Ignition of carbon nanotubes using a photoflash, Carbon, 45, 958-964, 2007.
[13] P. Nikolaev, A. Thess, A.G. Rinzler, D.T. Colbert, R.E. Smalley, Diameter doubling of single-wall nanotubes, Chemical Physics Letters, 266, 422-426, 1997.
[14] K. Metenier, S. Bonnamy, F. Beguin, C. Journet, P. Bernier, M.L. de La Chapelle, O. Chauvet, S. Lefrant, Coalescence of single-walled carbon nanotubes and formation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes under high-temperature treatments, Carbon, 40, 1765-1773, 2002.
[15] U. Kim, H. Gutierrez, J. Kim, P. Eklund, Effect of the tube diameter distribution on the high-temperature structural modification of bundled single-walled carbon nanotubes, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 109, 23358-23365, 2005.
[16] M. Yudasaka, T. Ichihashi, D. Kasuya, H. Kataura, S. Iijima, Structure changes of single-wall carbon nanotubes and single-wall carbon nanohorns caused by heat treatment, Carbon, 41, 1273-1280, 2003.
[17] L. Castronuovo, D. Dunn-Rankin, J. Garman, Photoignited aluminum nanopowder combustion in air.
[18] J.R. Howell, R. Siegel, M.P. Menguc, Thermal radiation heat transfer, CRC press, 2010.
[19] M. Kaviany, B. Singh, Radiative heat transfer in porous media, Advances in Heat Transfer, 23, 133-186, 1993.
[20] Y. Yang, S. Wang, Z. Sun, D.D. Dlott, Near‐Infrared and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy of Nano‐Energetic Materials Containing Aluminum and Boron, Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, 30, 171-177, 2005.
[21] S. Wang, Y. Yang, Z. Sun, D.D. Dlott, Fast spectroscopy of energy release in nanometric explosives, Chemical physics letters, 368, 189-194, 2003.
[22] Y. Yang, Z. Sun, S. Wang, D.D. Dlott, Fast spectroscopy of laser-initiated nanoenergetic materials, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 107, 4485-4493, 2003.
[23] S. Chowdhury, K. Sullivan, N. Piekiel, L. Zhou, M.R. Zachariah, Diffusive vs explosive reaction at the nanoscale, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 114, 9191-9195, 2010.
[24] A. Rai, K. Park, L. Zhou, M. Zachariah, Understanding the mechanism of aluminium nanoparticle oxidation, Combustion Theory and Modelling, 10, 843-859, 2006.
[25] V.I. Levitas, Burn time of aluminum nanoparticles: Strong effect of the heating rate and melt-dispersion mechanism, Combustion and Flame, 156, 543-546, 2009.
[26] V.I. Levitas, B.W. Asay, S.F. Son, M. Pantoya, Mechanochemical mechanism for fast reaction of metastable intermolecular composites based on dispersion of liquid metal, Journal of Applied Physics, 101, 083524, 2007.
[27] V.I. Levitas, B.W. Asay, S.F. Son, M. Pantoya, Melt dispersion mechanism for fast reaction of nanothermites, in, DTIC Document, 2006.
[28] V.I. Levitas, M.L. Pantoya, K.W. Watson, Melt-dispersion mechanism for fast reaction of aluminum particles: Extension for micron scale particles and fluorination, Applied Physics Letters, 92, 201917-201911-201917-201913, 2008.
[29] G.A. Risha, T.L. Connell Jr, R.A. Yetter, D.S. Sundaram, V. Yang, Combustion of frozen nanoaluminum and water mixtures, Journal of Propulsion and Power, 30, 133-142, 2013.
[30] D. Pissuwan, S.M. Valenzuela, M.B. Cortie, Therapeutic possibilities of plasmonically heated gold nanoparticles, Trends in Biotechnology, 24, 62-67, 2006.
[31] K. Jiang, D.A. Smith, A. Pinchuk, Size-Dependent Photothermal Conversion Efficiencies of Plasmonically Heated Gold Nanoparticles, The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117, 27073-27080, 2013.
[32] S. Kumar, C.L. Tien, Dependent Absorption and Extinction of Radiation by Small Particles, Journal of Heat Transfer, 112, 178-185, 1990.
[33] Y. Ma, V.K. Varadan, V.V. Varadan, Enhanced Absorption Due to Dependent Scattering, Journal of Heat Transfer, 112, 402-407, 1990.
[34] S.R. Turns, An introduction to combustion, McGraw-hill New York, 1996.
[35] R. Zalosh, Dust explosion fundamentals: Ignition criteria and pressure development, in, Wellesley, ME, 2011.
[36] F. Norman, J. Berghmans, F. Verplaetsen, The Dust Explosion Characteristics of Coal Dust in an Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere, Procedia Engineering, 45, 399-402, 2012.
[37] 陳明德, 過氧化氫鋁冰火箭藥柱性能分析:過氧化氫/水比例與奈米/微米鋁粉比例對退縮率之影響, in: 航空太空工程學系, 國立成功大學, 2015.
[38]醫用脫脂棉標準要求, available from website: http://www.twword.com/wiki/%E9%86%AB%E7%94%A8%E8%84%AB%E8%84%82%E6%A3%89
[39] UP系列超音波細胞粉碎儀/勻質儀操作說明書
[40] Mie Theory Calculator, nanoComposix, available from website: http://nanocomposix.com/pages/tools
[41] 紫外光可見光/進紅外光分光光譜儀使用手冊,國立成功大學微奈米中心
[42] 蔡明忠教授,行政院國家科學委員會補助專題研究計畫成果報告 彩色 LED 模組之色彩品質及照明色溫自動化檢測與改善研究, in: 自動化及控制研究所, 國立台灣科技大學,2010
[43] Sigma Corporation, Customer support Division in Janpan
[44] Mie Scattering Calaulator, Oregon Medical Laser Center, available from website: http://omlc.ogi.edu/calc/mie_calc.html
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top