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研究生:黃乙翎
研究生(外文):Yi-LingHuang
論文名稱:由縣市層級空間資料基礎設施探討跨機關之互操作性應用發展
論文名稱(外文):Cross-Agency Interoperable Application Development: A Local Government SDI Perspective
指導教授:洪榮宏洪榮宏引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hung-Jung Hung
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:測量及空間資訊學系
學門:工程學門
學類:測量工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:空間資料基礎設施縣市政府層級跨機關
外文關鍵詞:spatial data infrastructurelocal governmentcross-agency
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空間資料基礎設施近十餘年來被認為是統整不同單位空間資源,以協同合作架構促進設定範疇內空間資源之分享、流通與整合之有效手段,尤其在國家層級之空間資料基礎設施上,已有許多發展實例。配合近年資訊技術之進步,整體之發展慢慢朝向以服務為主、配合發展單一入口網站及目錄服務的分享架構,使分散於不同單位之空間資源的搜尋度及取用性得以進一步提升,即令非專業之使用者,也可透過簡易之機制輕鬆取得所需之資源,彰顯空間資料基礎設施之發展效益。
國家層級之空間資料基礎設施雖具有分工之架構、單一之入口及標準之策略,但由於架構龐大,多僅著重於將其原始資料透過開放格式供應,後續之整合應用必須由使用者自行發展,應用系統之間的互動也往往侷限於有限之機關間合作,並未充分發揮空間資料基礎設施應用之成效。本研究認為縣市政府之空間資料基礎設施具有基礎於國家標準架構、應用範疇明確、行政首長權責及機關間互動頻繁等特色,理應是具體落實空間資料基礎設施跨機關應用發展之對象,但過去之發展卻並未發揮這些特色。本研究首先由空間、時間、識別及品質等觀點,分析縣市政府主要機關空間資源之具體特色,發現現行資源具有不同之時間模式、不同空間管理單元、缺乏標準化配套及識別碼串連運作等各類互操作性問題,即令首長有推動之意願,也因缺乏完整策略而不易推動。基礎於上述分析,本研究由機關專業分工架構之服務觀點,重新檢視各機關在空間資料基礎設施中應扮演之角色及供應之資料內容後,提出一個適用於縣市政府跨機關之空間資源分享與應用架構,以提供縣市政府推動策略研擬之參考,並透過整合應用之實例加以驗證,提升整體之互操作性。
相對於國家層級較為被動之分享模式,本研究針對縣市範疇提出一個主動積極的分享架構,專業分工之規劃有助於提升高品質之服務內容及具體銜接各機關整合應用之可能性,另一方面本研究之成果也顯示現行各機關之資料內容及運作模式有進一步相互配合與改善提升之需要,服務之思考也必須將使用者需求納入考量,才可能形成更為緊密之協同合作模式,共同創造高效能之縣市政府運作模式,其成果更可成為國家級空間資料基礎設施進一步發展之契機。
關鍵字:空間資料基礎設施、縣市政府層級、跨機關
Cross-Agency Interoperable Application Development: A Local Government SDI Perspective

Yi-Ling Huang
Jung-Hong Hong
Department of Geomatics, National Cheng Kung University

SUMMARY

Spatial Data Infrastructure has been viewed as a cooperative infrastructure of spatial resources for centralizing different spatial resources from different departments. There has been bundles of developed instances of national level spatial data infrastructure around the world, as the rapid progression of information technology, the developing trend of spatial data infrastructure has turned toward establishing a portal of web services, as a gathering of spatial resources which has been responsible by different departments through the working of web catalogue service. It provides an easy way for users to reach resources in need.

Three major contributions can be summarized : 1) characterizing common dataset with fixed aspects, including temporal, spatial, identifying and quality, provides an uniform way to evaluate adequacy 2) a series of common solution is proposed with respect to each characteristics, and will be carried out through web service technology by cooperation among different departments with different professional backgrounds 3) correctness and interoperability of cross-agency sharing can be ensured by categorizing data by characteristics and applying the corresponding common solutions through web services

The last but not the least, this study emphasizes the importance of a tightly coupled cooperation scenario by taking the application need of users with cross-agency affairs into consideration. And expect to activate the original developing trend of spatial data infrastructure at national level and finally to attend a brand new era of spatial data infrastructure.

Key worlds : spatial data infrastructure, local government, cross-agency

INTRODUCTION

Spatial Data Infrastructure(SDI) has been viewed as a cooperative infrastructure of spatial resources for centralizing different spatial resources from different departments. There has been bundles of developed instances of national level spatial data infrastructure around the world, as the rapid progression of information technology, the developing trend of spatial data infrastructure has turned toward establishing a portal of web services, as a gathering of spatial resources which has been responsible by different departments through the working of web catalogue service. It provides an easy way for users to reach resources in need even without any professional backgrounds.

The development of spatial data infrastructure at national level has been focused on open format, standards of data. Often leave the problem of interoperability behind due to the lack of vertical coordination among national governments and local governments and horizontal coordination among departments under local government. The goals of this research are:
1. Characterize the dataset of common need in cross-agency affairs to ensure the correctness of heterogeneous data fusion.
2. Propose common solutions correspond to characteristic types and consider the importance of professional knowledge in interactions between different agencies and take it into consideration when designing the solutions.
3. Accomplish the cooperation planning mentioned above and the coordination among departments under local government by assigning different roles and missions through public power.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

As for achieving the goal of using heterogeneous data right and interoperable, this research propose solutions by characterizing common dataset with respect to temporal, spatial, identifying and quality aspect. In the meanwhile, a standardized data analyzing procedure is accomplished and hence common solutions are proposed as well. Planning mentioned above is executed by assigning roles of departments under local government with professional backgrounds of each and is ensured to be implemented with the aid of public authority.

Among characteristic types mentioned above, temporal factor is the most important one due to every data has its own temporal record no matter what semantic meaning is, like time of data manufactured or time of data updated, and has profound influence in correctness issue of data fusion.

Common dataset is set by categorizing dataset involved in cross-agency affairs especially land related among local government apartments. Common dataset include spatial and literal data type : door-plate data, administrative maps, cadastral maps, urban plan data, household registration data, land and building registration data, legal building certification, land tax data.

Most of literal data maintained by local government apartments has indirect spatial meaning and could be assign it’s spatial meaning by geocoding. In this way, the efficiency of cross-agency data fusion would be highly enhanced through series of standard data character analyzing, take the corresponding common solution and finally applying into the working of different apartment affairs correctly.

Solutions with respect to each characteristics are outline as Table 1.

Table 1. Common solutions corresponding to each characteristics

Aspect Solution
Temporal
1.record time of dataset, include begin and end time of each historical version
2.record semantic meaning with standardized description

Spatial
1.direct spatial meaning :
(1)record spatial reference system with EPSG code set up by The International Association of Oil & Gas Producers (IOGP)(2)record semantic meaning of spatial location with standardized description contents
2.indirect spatial meaning :
(1) spatial hierarchy : record the hierarchical relationship and its contents in standardized way
(2)record each historical version with begin and end time

Identifying
1.record whether spatial location changes with different historical identifier versions

Quality
1.adopt quality elements regulated in TWSMP

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Several data characteristic types are derived after analyzing with temporal, spatial, identifying, and quality aspect. In temporal aspect, time efficiency and historical version existence are two major categories. There are last update type and (up-to-date) time efficiency types and continuous, discontinuous and non-historical version types. With the type of continuous historical, every changes of data can be traced back and data at any time stage within its life cycle can be requested. In spatial aspect, direct and indirect spatial meaning and are two major categories. Characteristic types of indirect spatial meaning can be separated into three major types due to historical version of its literal contents, semantics of spatial location and the hidden spatial hierarchy. If the hierarchy relationship of indirect spatial meaning is known and contents of data has been standardized, then data with higher scale can be generated by elaborating the hierarchy stage of data with lower scale. In identifying aspects, whether spatial location changes with different identifier versions which represent indirect spatial meaning is the major categorization rule. If spatial location never changed with alternations of identifier, then its spatial location is capable to be traced by linking different historical versions. In quality aspect, this research adopted TWSMP quality elements, which follow up ISO19113, as data quality information.

CONCLUSION

Correctness of heterogeneous data fusion within departments under local government is confirmed by analyzing characteristics with fixed aspect and corresponding common solutions. With local government SDI, cross-agency cooperation is accomplished by assigning role of data producer, data broker or data user and ensured to be taken into practice by formulating local policies. Common dataset has been analyzed with temporal, spatial, identifying and quality aspects and solutions with respect to each one have been turned into designs of data attribute and service flow. Solutions proposed provide data producers an uniform procedure when producing data with different characteristics as well as providing data users a simple and clear way when manipulating different kind of data even without complete domain knowledge.
Interaction between national and local governmental SDI should be both top-down and bottom up in order to eliminate restrictions resulted from the nature it originally designed. Top-down interaction exists in the adoption of national SDI in the development of local government SDI. And bottom-up interaction exists in the collection of common needs among different local governments as reducing duplication and strengthening connections between the two. Finally achieving the effect of sharing right and enhancing the essence of SDI.
目錄
中文摘要 I
Cross-Agency Interoperable Application Development: A Local Government SDI Perspective III
誌謝 VII
目錄 VIII
表目錄 IX
圖目錄 X
第一章 緒論 1
§1.1 研究動機 1
§1.2 研究目的 2
§1.3 研究流程 4
§1.4 論文架構 5
第二章 文獻回顧 7
§2.1 SDI簡介 7
§2.2國內外SDI發展現況 11
§2.3資料標準制度與開放式網路服務技術 17
第三章 核心資料與空間資料基礎設施分析 22
§3.1縣市政府層級空間資料基礎設施 22
§3.2空間資源相關因素分析 25
§3.3單一縣市政府型態分析 34
3.3.1地政 34
3.3.2民政主管機關 41
3.3.3戶政業務 42
3.3.4都市計畫主管機關 47
3.3.5衛生 51
3.3.6稅務 53
§3.4 整體歸納與分析 54
第四章 空間資料基礎設施規劃與建立 58
§4.1 縣市政府層級SDI架構 58
§4.2 資料特性類型與屬性設計及服務對策 60
§4.3共享機制設計與分析 69
第五章 資料流通應用情境 84
第六章 結論與建議 97
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