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研究生:王友仁
研究生(外文):You-RenWang
論文名稱:超低頻開路互補式環形共振器應用於全血凝血時間檢測之設計與實現
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of Ultra-Low Frequency Open Complementary Split-Ring Resonator for Whole Blood Coagulation Time Detection
指導教授:楊慶隆楊慶隆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chin-Lung Yang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:66
中文關鍵詞:開路互補式開口環形共振腔凝血酶原時間共振器法
外文關鍵詞:Open Complementary Split Ring ResonatorsProthrombin TimeResonator Methods
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本文提出一個開路互補式開口環形共振腔(Open Complementary Split Ring Resonator, OCSRR)微波感測器應用於全血凝血時間檢測,為至目前為止第一個首創以開路互補式開口環形共振腔量測凝血變化。藉由擷取網路分析儀S參數的訊號,並經由演算法萃取共振頻率的變化量,而得其介電常數之變化,可以偵測血液凝血時微弱的變化量並準確的量測到血液的凝固時間。不同於目前探測血液凝固的現有技術,吾人希望利用微波共振腔的優點:高靈敏度、少量待測物、容易製造、非接觸式檢測等等優點進行檢測凝血凝固。
OCSRR微波感測器應用於凝血檢測需克服三個主要問題:頻帶選擇、OCSRR微型化、和高損耗待測物。吾人利用阻抗分析儀針對血液進行實驗,藉由柯爾柯爾圖分析血液的特徵頻率,可得知全血凝血最大的變化量約在1 MHz。接著我們以電磁場分布決定最佳之外掛電容與電感被動元件位置,將諧振腔頻率降至血液的特徵頻率以獲得較大的凝血訊號變化。為了解決血液高損耗與凝血變化量不明顯的情形,需先將儀器設置在低雜訊取樣,並以Matlab演算法處理共振腔訊號中的雜訊,將擷取諧振頻以時域的方式呈現,最後藉由一階微分最大值來判斷凝血訊號變化最大的瞬間。本研究以血漿、凝血、不凝血對照實驗進行驗証,分析凝血曲線的變化與趨勢。因紅血球的聚合、紅血球形變、與沉降效應導致總體之等效介電常數改變,進而影響OCSRR諧振腔的共振頻率。最後我們還與光學法比較凝血時間,兩者之間有良好相依性且都有高度的準確性。吾人所使用的平面共振腔法量測的20管血中,手撈法PT與平面共振器量測得PT相關係數為0.862,平均誤差秒數為1.56秒。本研究成功驗証所提出之開路互補式開口環形共振腔,可以簡單使用、成本低廉、直接偵測全血之凝血時間。

This thesis presents applying microwave sensors based on open complementary split ring resonators (OCSRRs) design to measure the blood coagulation time of the whole blood, which is the first time proof that a microwave wave plane resonance method can be effectively applied to detect the blood coagulation time. The S-parameters were recorded and the frequency deviation was computed using interference-suppression algorithm to detect the slight variation of the permittivity during clotting process. Different from the current well-known methods of blood coagulation time detection, the microwave resonator method has several advantages, including high sensitivity, small amount of samples, easy processing, and non-contact measurement for the whole blood coagulation time detection.
There are three major challenges to apply OCSRR microwave sensors for blood coagulation time detection, including the frequency selection, the miniaturization of OCSRR, and highly lossy test sample. We used an impedance analyzer for blood test and analyzed the characteristic frequency of the whole blood. Based on analysis and comparison of the Cole-Cole diagram, the most significant change of the permittivity can be observed near 1 MHz during the coagulation. After analyzing the electric and magnetic field distributions of OCSRR, semi lumped components of capacitors and inductors are used to miniaturize the size of OCSRR to resonate at 1 MHz for the detection of the whole blood property. To solve slight variation of the dielectric constant of the highly lossy material blood, Matlab interference suppression algorithms was applied after a low-noise sampling by the Network Analyzer to filter out the high frequency noise. The captured resonant frequencies were traced in the time domain to observe the change time. Then the prothrombin time (PT) can be measured clearly from the frequency deviation. Finally, the experimental verification including plasma, blood clotting, non-coagulated blood samples was perform, and we can conclude that the aggregation, the shape transformation and the sedimentation of erythrocytes during the coagulation process are the three major factors to result in the permittivity change. Moreover, the resonator methods are compared with the well-established optical methods, both of methods had good accuracy. We had measured data of 20 tubes of whole blood, and the correlation coefficient between PT of resonator methods and PT of manual methods is 0.862. The resonator measuring has the average error of 1.56 sec from the standard manual method.

目錄 X
圖目錄 XII
表目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1. 研究動機 1
1.2. 文獻探討 4
1.3. 章節內容概述 5
1.4. 研究貢獻 6
第二章 共振腔及光學基礎理論 8
2.1. 微波量測基礎理論 8
2.1.1. 介電質量測介紹 8
2.1.2. 血液介電常數與等效電路特性 9
2.1.3. 凝血與介電常數關係 11
2.2. 光檢測法 13
2.2.1. 光學原理 13
2.2.2. 透光度法原理 14
2.2.3. 血液物質影響光學檢測法的原因 16
第三章 光檢測法及微波量測系統架構介紹 17
3.1. 平面共振腔介紹 17
3.1.1. 平面共振腔介紹 17
3.1.2. 平面共振腔原理 18
3.1.3. CSRR電場與介電常數關係 20
3.2. OCSRR (Open Complementary Split Rings Resonators)介紹 21
3.2.1. OCSRR共振頻帶選擇 22
3.2.2. 電極介紹 23
3.2.3. 阻抗分析儀實驗設置 24
3.2.4. OCSRR設計 30
3.2.5. Polylactic acid容具與頻偏影響 35
3.2.6. 共振腔品質因數與頻率偏移 36
3.2.7. 曲線擬合(Curve Fitting)擷取共振頻率 37
3.3. 光檢測法系統架構 39
3.3.1. 光檢測端介紹與設置 40
3.3.2. 玻片流道及PMMA流道 40
3.3.3. 光接受端與發射端 42
3.3.4. 光訊號轉電訊號前端電路及放大濾波電路 42
3.3.5. 藍芽模組介紹 44
第四章 光檢測法及電阻抗系統量測血液結果 45
4.1. 平面共振腔法量測 45
4.1.1. 實驗架設 45
4.1.2. 手撈法 47
4.1.3. 平面共振腔量測實驗設置 47
4.2. 光檢測法 52
4.2.1. 光檢測法實驗架設 52
4.2.2. PT臨床實驗分析 53
4.3. 平面共振腔與透光度凝血檢測比較 56
第五章 結論與未來展望 60
5.1. 結論 60
5.2. 未來展望 61
參考文獻 63

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