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研究生:鄧上軒
研究生(外文):Shang-ShiuanDeng
論文名稱:SiP產品於迴焊製程中之溫度分佈及封裝後翹曲模擬
論文名稱(外文):Thermal Simulation during Reflow Process and Warpage Simulation after Encapsulation of SiP
指導教授:黃聖杰黃聖杰引用關係李輝煌李輝煌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sheng-Jye HwangHuei-Huang Lee
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:93
中文關鍵詞:系統級封裝迴焊製程P-V-T-C方程式翹曲分析可靠度分析
外文關鍵詞:System in Packagereflow processSiPP-V-T-C equationwarpage analysis
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System in Package (系統級封裝、系統構裝,SiP) 是基於SoC(System on Chip)所發展出來的一種封装技術,根據Amkor對SiP定義為「在一IC包裝體中,包含多個晶片或單一晶片,加上被動元件、電容、電阻、連接器、天線…等任一元件以上之封裝,即視為SiP」,也就是說在一個封裝內不僅可以組裝多個晶片,還可以將包含上述不同類型的器件和電路晶片疊在一起,構建成更為複雜的、完整的系統。但以目前技術來說,對系統級封裝問題還是相當多,包含迴焊不良、成品的翹曲與良率無法提升…等等,故本論文希望藉由數值模擬方式來預測目前在系統級封裝可能所遭遇的問題。
SiP產品的過程中,會有一迴焊(reflow)製程,目的為加熱表面的焊錫,使焊錫熔化再凝固後能固定主、被動元件在特定位置。迴焊溫度大致上可分為預熱、浸潤、回焊和冷卻四個部份。SiP產品在回焊製程中每一階段的溫度分佈不均,皆會產生產品缺陷而造成良率的問題。因此本文提出一種數值模擬的方式來預測迴焊過程中SiP產品的溫度分佈情況。
本文亦提出解決方案來預測於SiP產品封裝後發生的翹曲現象。以往研究中,大部分均認為造成IC構裝元件翹曲的主要原因為構成材料之熱膨脹係數不同所造成的不均勻體積收縮,卻因此忽略了環氧樹脂(EMC)本身固化收縮的材料特性,因而造成利用電腦模擬分析時,容易低估或高估成品翹曲量。本文將同時考量環氧樹脂之固化效應與溫度效應所造成的體積收縮,以建立一套分析封裝體翹曲的分析方法。在研究中用來描述環氧樹脂行為的關係式為P-V-T-C關係式(Pressure-Volume-Temperature-Cure relationship),也就是將環氧樹脂因固化效應所造成的體積收縮行為表示成壓力(pressure)、體積(volume)、溫度(temperature)、熟化率(degree of cure)相關之方程式。而溫度效應所造成的環氧樹脂體積收縮量則考慮是由於構成封裝體的材料之熱膨脹係數不同所造成。
在本文的最後則經由產線上實際的案例來加以驗證所建立之分析方法的可行度,經由比對實驗的結果與模擬分析的結果,証實本文所建立的迴焊溫度分析及翹曲分析方法不僅具有經濟效益,亦有相當不錯的準確度。
The purpose of the reflow process was to fix the components in the specific location of SiP. The reflow profile has four zones: pre-heating zone, soak zone, reflow zone and cooling zone, SiP will induce the defects in each zone with the uniform temperature distribution. A numeral calculation for computational modeling and prediction of temperature distribution of SiP during reflow process was presented in this thesis.

A methodology for computational modeling and prediction of warpage phenomena was also presented in this thesis. Warpage problems play an important role in IC encapsulation processes. Previous researchers had focused on warpage analyses with temperature changes between constituent materials and neglected the cure shrinkage effects. However, more and more studies indicate that estimation of warpage according to CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) was not able to predict the amount of warpage in IC packaging. The EMC (Epoxy molding compound) properties were obtained by various techniques: degree of cure by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), modulus by P-V-T-C testing machine. These experimental data were used to formulate P-V-T-C equation.

By comparing the experimental results and simulation results, it was shown that the analytic simulation could achieve good accurate and efficient prediction of temperature distribution and warpage phenomena.
中文摘要 I
Extended Abstract III
誌謝 XVII
目錄 XVIII
表目錄 XXI
圖目錄 XXII
符號說明 XXV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 迴焊製程簡介 2
1-2 IC封裝製程簡介 5
1-3 迴焊不良與封裝翹曲問題 10
1-3-1 迴焊不良 10
1-3-2 收縮與翹曲現象 12
1-4 研究目的 14
1-5 文獻回顧 16
1-6 本文架構 21
第二章 理論分析 22
2-1 計算流體力學 23
2-1-1 統馭方程式 25
2-1-2 紊流模式 29
2-1-3 壁面函數 (Wall Function) 31
2-1-4 壓力求解器運算法則 (Pressure-Based) 35
2-2 量測熟化反應速率之方式 36
2-3 固化反應動力方程式 38
2-4 P-V-T-C關係式 40
2-5 應力應變統馭方程式 45
2-5-1 固化收縮理論模式 46
2-5-2 應力應變關係式 48
第三章 溫度場分析 55
3-1 建立3D分析模型 56
3-2 流場及溫度場分析 61
3-2-1 穩態分析 62
3-2-2 瞬態分析 64
3-3 溫度量測設備 65
3-4 結果與討論 67
3-4-1 穩態分析 67
3-4-2 瞬態分析 70
第四章 翹曲分析 75
4-1 建立有限元素模型 76
4-2 翹曲分析流程 77
4-2-1 基本假設 78
4-2-2 設定邊界條件 79
4-2-3 考慮固化收縮效應與降溫收縮效應之翹曲分析 81
第五章 結論與展望 84
5-1 結論 84
5-2 展望 86
參考文獻 88
索引 i
自述 viii
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