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研究生:詹鎮毓
研究生(外文):Chen-YuChan
論文名稱:基於順應性足部與儲能裝置達成行走、轉向與跳躍之四足機器人系統
論文名稱(外文):Towards a Walking, Turning, and Jumping Quadruped Robot with Compliant and Energy Storing Mechanisms
指導教授:劉彥辰劉彥辰引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yen-Chen Liu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:機械工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:166
中文關鍵詞:四足機器人順應性機構儲能與釋放能量機構跳躍轉向
外文關鍵詞:QuadrupedCompliant MechanismEnergy Storing MechanismJumpingWalkingTurning
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  本論文設計一四足機器人,使用順應性足部、纜繩驅動、儲能與釋放能量等機構來達成行走、轉向及跳躍之功能。順應性足部機構由兩根連桿組成,每一個自由度分別由一顆直流馬達驅動。肩關節的部份直接連接馬達,膝關節則安裝有彈簧提供順應性。為了保留足部的順應性,膝關節由纜繩驅動機構控制。纜繩驅動機構在馬達上安裝一絞盤,纏繞連接於腳尖之纜繩,當纜繩收縮時,腳即縮短;纜繩放鬆時,由於膝關節彈簧之彈力作用,使腳得以伸展。為了提供跳躍之能量,機器人機身中安裝有兩具儲能彈簧,使用纜繩連接至後腳大腿;同時亦有一直流馬達帶動蝸桿蝸輪機構,蝸輪上配備一絞盤,用以纏繞連接於儲能彈簧之纜繩,拉伸儲能彈簧。此外為了避免儲能彈簧在拉伸時影響後腳肩關節馬達,在每個後腳的肩關節皆裝有棘輪與棘爪,在儲能彈簧拉伸時能固定後腳肩關節,使儲能彈簧不會影響到馬達。

  本研究為了探討機器人的運動,使用Euler-Lagrange法推導機器人動態模型,配合Simulink模擬機器人之動作。模擬中,機器人展現了行走與跳躍的能力,且模擬結果顯示儲能彈簧能夠影響機器人跳躍的高度與距離。其中行走速度可以由改變步長來進行調整,跳躍的高度與距離則隨著儲能彈簧拉伸的長度增長而增加。在轉向的部份使用商業軟體Webots進行模擬,模擬結果顯示機器人轉向能夠被提出之控制法控制。實驗中,採用機器人作業系統(Robot Operating System)來作為傳遞資料的界面。為了減少機器人端控制板的運算負擔,由電腦端來計算各腳所需要之步長,並得出期望之腳尖軌跡與位置,再由逆向運動學得到各馬達所期望之角度後,傳送至機器人端控制板,由控制板上撰寫之PID控制器控制馬達。轉向實驗顯示,機器人藉由回授機身角度調整步長的方式能夠有效的控制機身的轉向。且轉向的速度也能由最大調整之步長來改變,同時機身角度誤差能夠被控制在一定的範圍。本研究另有進行機器人跳躍實驗,雖然結果不如預期,但我們仍就實驗結果統整出了可以改進之方向。
In this thesis, we introduced a quadruped robot which has compliant legs, energy storing and releasing mechanisms. To preserve the compliance of legs, the quadruped is equipped with cable-driven mechanism which are used to control the compliant legs. The energy storing and releasing mechanisms contained the energy storing springs, worm and worm wheel, rachet and pawls. To determine the dynamics of the robot, we derived dynamic equation by using Euler-Lagrange method. The effect of compliant components were calculated by equivalent torque. The dynamic model was used to simulate the walking and jumping motion of the robot in Simulink. In simulation, the jumping height and distance can be changed by varying maximum tension length of the energy storing springs. The body orientation can be controlled by the turning method that we proposed. The turning method was based on varying the step length of each leg. In simulations and experiments, the results showed that the turning method can lead the robot to desired direction.
第一章緒論.............1
1.1 研究背景............1
1.2 研究動機與目的...........7
1.3 論文架構............8
第二章機器人設計...........11
2.1 第一代機器人..........11
2.1.1 設計問題..........11
2.2 第二代機器人..........15
2.2.1 具有順應性之雙節式腳.......15
2.2.2 纜繩機構..........15
2.2.3 儲能機構..........18
第三章動態模型............20
3.1 尤拉-拉格朗日法..........20
3.2 機器人模型...........20
3.3 彈簧等效扭力..........24
3.4 地面反作用力與摩擦力模型........26
3.4.1 非線性接觸模型[13] ........26
第四章運動控制............29
4.1 行走控制............29
4.1.1 步態...........29
4.1.2 足尖軌跡..........30
4.1.3 逆向運動學.........30
4.1.4 模擬結果..........32
4.2 轉向控制............32
4.2.1 轉向方法..........32
4.3 跳躍控制............35
4.3.1 起跳控制..........35
4.3.2 落地控制..........35
4.3.3 模擬結果..........38
第五章實驗架設與結果...........40
5.1 軟硬體簡介...........40
5.1.1 Arduino簡介..........40
5.1.2 Linux簡介..........42
5.1.3 Robot Operating System 簡介[14] ......42
5.1.4 機器人通訊架構.........44
5.1.5 足尖軌跡測量..........45
5.1.6 行走實驗架設..........45
5.1.7 轉向實驗架設..........46
5.1.8 跳躍實驗架設..........47
5.2 實驗結果............47
5.2.1 行走實驗..........47
5.2.2 轉向實驗..........53
5.2.3 跳躍實驗..........53
5.3 結果討論............58
第六章結論與未來展望...........69
6.1 結論.............69
6.2 未來展望............70
參考文獻.............72
附錄..............76
A.Matrix of Dynamic Model ........76
B.Simulink Model ..........87
C.Control Program of the Robot ........102
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