( 您好!臺灣時間:2023/10/03 18:49
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::


論文名稱(外文):Usability Guidelines for Designing Crowdsourcing Disaster Response Platforms
指導教授(外文):Chia-Han YangYi-Shin Deng
外文關鍵詞:crowdsourcingdisaster responseusability guidelineuser experience
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:161
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:32
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
近年來,天災發生頻率及規模漸增,其損失相當可觀,因此政府與人道團體皆亟欲尋 求合適的應變方法。隨著群眾外包 (crowdsourcing) 的應用發展,在近期數個大型災 害中皆開始應用,雖然帶來創新與改變,但現有平台多為臨時建置或非為災害應變設 計,使用者經驗並非主要考量,成效因此有限。由於目前尚未有相關準則,故本研究 希望探討目前眾包應用於災害應變所面臨的問題,並提出適合建置災害應變眾包平台 的使用性設計準則。

本研究主要包含四個步驟:ㄧ、透過文獻探討與深度訪談,蒐集並分析眾包災害應變 目前所面臨的問題與需求。二、從步驟一的發現中決定欲處理之議題,結合所彙整的 使用性設計準則,以制定切合災害應變情境的初版準則。三、分析並參考現有眾包災 害應變平台之設計,建置兩個原型 (prototype): A 版本遵照準則設計, B 版本則無參 照,並利用使用性測試 (usability test) 檢驗初版準則的成效,以獲取使用回饋。四、 根據測試結果,修改並提出終版準則,最後再利用啟發式評估 (heuristicevaluation) 測 試現有的眾包災害應變平台,以驗證終版準則。

A 版本使用者使用時相對順暢,花費較少時間且答題正確率較高,同時給予不少正面 評價;而 B 版本使用者遇到不少問題,不過其給予的回饋多與準則建議內容相符, 此結果顯示準則的確提供較優良的使用經驗。本研究貢獻為:ㄧ、探討目前眾包災害 應變的主要問題;二、提出十五項建置災害應變眾包平台的使用性設計準則。期望可以協助政府與人道團體快速掌握目前應用情況,也期許準則能協助平台建置人員設計 出符合災害應變情境的眾包平台,讓眾包功能加倍發揮。
Natural disasters are now occurring more frequently, resulting in greater loss and damage. Both governments and international organizations worldwide are therefore working to develop more effective ways to deal with this issue. One approach is to adopt crowdsourcing. Although it has brought great changes to crisis response, the existing platforms seldom consider the user experience since some are built immediately after disasters while others are not designed for this use. In addition, as yet there are no related design guidelines. This research thus examines current problems with leveraging crowdsourcing in this context, and provides a set of usability guidelines for designing better crowdsourcing disaster response platforms.

This research has four main parts. Firstly, in-depth interviews and affinity diagrams were conducted to collect and analyze existing problems. Secondly, in order to develop the guidelines, a set of related guidelines were gathered and consolidated with the findings from the previous phase. Thirdly, two prototype platforms were built, based on the features recognized from an existing platform. While Prototype A followed the guidelines, Prototype B did not. Usability tests were then adopted to evaluate the effects of the proposed guidelines. The final guidelines were revised on the basis of the obtained insights and assessed with heuristic evaluation.

The results showed that the guidelines proved to be useful. The users of Prototype B faced more difficulties while the users of Prototype A completed the tasks faster and more smoothly. In addition, the responses obtained with Prototype A were also more accurate and the feedback from the users of Prototype B mostly corresponded with the guidelines. Overall, this study makes the following, two contributions: the identification of current problems with regard to leveraging crowdsourcing in crisis response, and a set of fifteen usability guidelines for designing crowdsourcing disaster response platforms. The outcomes are expected to help governments and relief agencies to learn more about the current situation and problems of crowdsourcing disaster response, and to help developers build such platforms faster and ensure that they can provide a good user experience.
摘要 — i

1.1 Background — 1
1.2 Motivation — 2
1.3 Objective — 2
1.4 Thesis overview — 3

2.1 Disaster response — 4
2.2 Crowdsourcing in disaster relief — 5
2.3 Guidelines — 13
2.4 Summary — 15

3.1 Research procedure — 17
3.2 Problem identification — 17
3.3 Guideline development — 18

4.1 Problem identification — 21
4.2 Preliminary guidelines — 30

5.1 Prototype — 42
5.2 Evaluation — 53

6.1 Usability guidelines — 69
6.2 Heuristic evaluation — 82

7.1 Research review and contribution — 84
7.2 Limitations — 85
7.3 Future work — 85

Appendix I — 91
Appendix II — 95
Appendix III — 97
Appendix IV — 98
Appendix V — 99
Baum, A., Fleming, R., & Davidson, L. M. (1983). Natural disaster and technological catastrophe. Environment and Behavior, 15(3), 333-354 %@ 0013-9165.
Billingsley, P. A. (1995). Starting from scratch: building a usability program at Union Pacific Railroad. interactions, 2(4), 27-30 %@ 1072-5520.
Brabham, D. C. (2008). Crowdsourcing as a model for problem solving an introduction and cases. Convergence: the international journal of research into new media technologies, 14(1), 75-90 %@ 1354-8565.
Brabham, D. C. (2013). Crowdsourcing: Mit Press.
Brown, S., Son, J., Aziz, Z., & Peña-Mora, F. (2008). Supporting disaster response and recovery
through improved situation awareness. Structural Survey, 26(5), 411-425 %@
Burke, J. L., Murphy, R. R., Coovert, M. D., & Riddle, D. L. (2004). Moonlight in Miami: Field
study of human-robot interaction in the context of an urban search and rescue disaster
response training exercise. Human–Computer Interaction, 19(1-2), 85-116 %@ 0737-0024. Carr, N. (2010, 4 March). A typology of crowds. Retrieved from
Doan, A., Ramakrishnan, R., & Halevy, A. Y. (2011). Crowdsourcing systems on the World-Wide
Web. Commun. ACM, 54(4), 86-96. doi:10.1145/1924421.1924442
Dow, S., Kulkarni, A., Klemmer, S., & Hartmann, B. (2012). Shepherding the crowd yields better
Estellés-Arolas, E., & González-Ladrón-De-Guevara, F. (2012). Towards an integrated
crowdsourcing definition. J. Inf. Sci., 38(2), 189-200. doi:10.1177/0165551512437638 Gao, H., Barbier, G., & Goolsby, R. (2011). Harnessing the Crowdsourcing Power of Social Media
for Disaster Relief. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 26(3), 10-14. doi:10.1109/mis.2011.52 Garrigos-Simon, F. J., Gil-Pechuán, I., & Estelles-Miguel, S. (2015). Advances in Crowdsourcing
(pp. 149-152): Springer.
Goodchild, M. F. (2007). Citizens as sensors: the world of volunteered geography. GeoJournal,
69(4), 211-221 %@ 0343-2521.
Goodchild, M. F., & Glennon, J. A. (2010). Crowdsourcing geographic information for disaster
response: a research frontier. International Journal of Digital Earth, 3(3), 231-241 %@
Goolsby, R. (2010). Social media as crisis platform: The future of community maps/crisis maps.
ACM Trans. Intell. Syst. Technol., 1(1), 1-11. doi:10.1145/1858948.1858955 Grier, D. A. X. (2013). Crowdsourcing for dummies: John Wiley & Sons.
Hagar, C. (2010). Crisis informatics. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 36(5), 10-12.
Harvard Humanitarian, Initiative. (2010). Disaster Relief 2.0: The future of information sharing in humanitarian emergencies Disaster Relief 2.0: The future of information sharing in humanitarian emergencies: HHI; United Nations Foundation; OCHA; The Vodafone Foundation.
Heinzelman, J., & Waters, C. (2010). Crowdsourcing crisis information in disaster-affected Haiti: US Institute of Peace.
Henninger, S. (2000). A methodology and tools for applying context-specific usability guidelines to interface design. Interacting with computers, 12(3), 225-243 %@ 0953-5438.
Howe, J. (2006). The rise of crowdsourcing. Retrieved from http://www.wired.com/2006/06/crowds/
Howe, J. (2008). Crowdsourcing: How the power of the crowd is driving the future of business: Random House.
Ipeirotis, P. G., Provost, F., & Wang, J. (2010). Quality management on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD Workshop on Human Computation, Washington DC.
ISO. (2008). Ergonomics of human-system interaction. Guidance on World Wide Web user interfaces (Vol. 9241): BSI.
Kent, G. (2001). The human right to disaster mitigation and relief. Environmental Hazards, 3(3), 137-138. doi:10.3763/ehaz.2001.0315
Lasecki, W. S., Bigham, J. P., Allen, J. F., & Ferguson, G. (2012). Real-Time Collaborative Planning with the Crowd.
Leavitt, M. O., & Shneiderman, B. (2006). Research-based web design & usability guidelines. US Department of Health and Human Services.
Lu, P.-h. (2010). Online mobilization and civic engagement in youth:A case study of PTT netcizen rescuers.
Martineau, E. (2012). A typology of crowdsourcing participation styles. Concordia University. Microsoft Corporation. (2000, October). UI Guidelines vs. Usability Testing. Retrieved from
Neis, P., Singler, P., & Zipf, A. (2010). Collaborative mapping and emergency routing for disaster
logistics–case studies from the haiti earthquake and the UN Portal for Afrika: na.
Nielsen, J. (1995, 1 January). 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Retrieved from
Nielsen, J. (1997, 1 October). How Users Read on the Web. Retrieved from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/how-users-read-on-the-web/
Nielsen, J. (2000, 19 March). Why You Only Need to Test with 5 Users. Retrieved from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/why-you-only-need-to-test-with-5-users/
Olsson, T., Soronen, H., & Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, K. (2008). User needs and design guidelines for mobile services for sharing digital life memories.
Ortmann, J., Limbu, M., Wang, D., & Kauppinen, T. (2011). Crowdsourcing linked open data for disaster management.
Palen, L., Anderson, K. M., Mark, G., Martin, J., Sicker, D., Palmer, M., & Grunwald, D. (2010). A vision for technology-mediated support for public participation & assistance in mass emergencies & disasters.
Roche, S., Propeck-Zimmermann, E., & Mericskay, B. (2011). GeoWeb and crisis management: issues and perspectives of volunteered geographic information. GeoJournal, 78(1), 21-40. doi:10.1007/s10708-011-9423-9
Rousseau. (2009, August 19). The possibility of online disaster relief: the birth of Emergency network on PTT. Retrieved from http://www.bnext.com.tw/article/view/id/2244
Rutherford, W. H., & De Boer, J. (1983). The definition and classification of disasters. Injury, 15(1), 10-12 %@ 0020-1383.
Schulz, A., Paulheim, H., & Probst, F. (2012). Crisis information management in the web 3.0 age. Proceedings of ISCRAM.
Scott, H., Kyle, H., & Michael, W. R. (1995). A framework for developing experience-based usability guidelines Proceedings of the 1st conference on Designing interactive systems: processes, practices, methods, & techniques %@ 0-89791-673-5 (pp. 43-53). Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA: ACM.
Singh, P. (2014). Social Media Crowdsourcing: Supporting User-Driven Innovation by Generating Ideas. International Journal of Online Marketing, 4(2), 1-14 %@ 2156-1753.
Stocker, T. F., Qin, D., Plattner, G.-K., Tignor, M. M. B., Allen, S. K., Boschung, J., . . . Midgley, P. M. (2013). Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Retrieved from the United States of America:
Strong, G. W. (1995). New directions in human-computer interaction: education, research, and practice. interactions, 2(1), 69-81 %@ 1072-5520.
Tapir, B. (2009). The beginning of Morakot report website (Morakot in Plurk) Retrieved from http://gene.speaking.tw/2009/08/morakot-in-plurk.html
Teraguchi, M., Saito, S., Lau, T., Ohno, M., Cerruti, J. A., & Takagi, H. (2012). Crowdsourcing in Crisis Informatics for Disaster Relief.
Travis, D. (2014, 22 October). 247 web usability guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.userfocus.co.uk/resources/guidelines.html
Uxmyths. (2012, 29 April). Myths of user experience: people do not scroll. Retrieved from http://www.hpx.tw/archives/4566
Vivacqua, A. S., & Borges, M. R. S. (2010). Collective intelligence for the design of emergency response.
Weaver, A. C., Boyle, J. P., & Besaleva, L. (2012). Applications and trust issues when crowdsourcing a crisis.
Weinschenk, S., & Yeo, S. C. (1995). Guidelines for enterprise-wide GUI design: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Yang, D., Zhang, D., Frank, K., Robertson, P., Jennings, E., Roddy, M., & Lichtenstern, M. (2014). Providing real-time assistance in disaster relief by leveraging crowdsourcing power. Personal Ubiquitous Comput., 18(8), 2025-2034. doi:10.1007/s00779-014-0758-3
Yu, Z., Zhang, D., Yang, D., & Chen, G. (2012). Selecting the best solvers: toward community based crowdsourcing for disaster management.
Zook, M., Graham, M., Shelton, T., & Gorman, S. (2010). Volunteered geographic information and crowdsourcing disaster relief: a case study of the Haitian earthquake. Available at SSRN 2216649.
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top