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研究生:王怡婷
研究生(外文):Wang, Yi-Ting
論文名稱:矇閉中的看見——從詭異基礎命題延伸至攝影影像的思考
論文名稱(外文):Insight in Blindness – Rethinking Photographic Images from the Perspectives of Uncanny
指導教授:賴雯淑賴雯淑引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lai, Wen-Shu
口試委員:周英雄陳文玲陳儒修龔卓軍賴雯淑
口試委員(外文):Chou, Ying-HsiungChen, Wen-lingChen, Ru-shouGong, Jow-JiunLai, Wen-Shu
口試日期:2016-07-15
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:應用藝術研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:應用藝術學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:187
中文關鍵詞:攝影詭異佛洛伊德沙人盲目湯姆米歇爾
外文關鍵詞:PhotographyUncannySigmund FreudThe SandmanBlindnessW. J. T. Mitchell
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本論文從詭異基礎命題出發,首先以重新閱讀和理解Sigmund Freud的〈論詭異〉、H. T. A. Hoffmann的〈沙人〉、Ernst Jentsch的〈詭異心理學〉等相關重要文獻,從Jentsch與Freud關於「詭異」內涵的個別論述中,凝聚出以心理學背景與精神分析理論為解釋基礎的見解。然後,從Jentsch與Freud身上所獲得的啟發,轉向對於W. J. T. Mitchell的圖像理論閱讀。在《圖像想要什麼》(What Do Pictures Want)中,Mitchell扼要地談到圖像的欲求,與形成圖像詭異的感覺條件,這部份是本論文將要延伸至攝影影像的思考的重點,討論攝影影像的詭異要的是什麼?從Heimlich到與Unheimlich的混合、並存,初步思考圖像詭異的新語義方格,然後進一步從「攝影影像的身體」、「攝影影像的生命形式」與「攝影影像的棲息地」三個面向,思考攝影影像如何藉由物件、影像與媒體三種要素的混合過程,成為一種可實際被感知的生命體,從而使我們產生「詭異」的感覺。最後,本論文對攝影影像重新思考做出以下四點結論:(1) 攝影詭異是矇上眼睛去「看見」的過程;(2) 攝影詭異要的是「給出遮蔽」;(3)〈沙人〉中Nathanel的三種失明形式「你用不屬於你的眼睛在看」(透過機械裝置的觀看)、「你看不見自己的沒有眼睛」(盲者的凝視)、「你看見自己的眼睛在看你」(分身的回視)可視為攝影詭異中的視覺悖論;(4) 攝影詭異來自一種混合交織的認知、感知狀態,是接近於對「家」的渴望和「非家」的焦慮不安之間的擺盪與來回過渡狀態。
This dissertation starts from the perspectives of the Uncanny. To start, the first part re-reads and re-thinks three iconic theses: Sigmund Freud’s ‘The Uncanny’, H. T. A. Hoffman’s ’The Sandman’, and Ernst Jentsch’s ‘On the Psychology of the Uncanny’. Based on and inspired by Jentsch and Freud's separate discussion on the immanence of the uncanny, the author’s perspective is formed serving as the later interpretational basis which is grounded in the aspects of psychology and psychoanalysis. To extend, the discussion turns to the re-reading of W. J. T. Mitchell’s pictorial theory. In “What Do Pictures Want”, Mitchell denotes concisely what the picture wants and what the sensual condition of the Pictorial Uncanny is. This dissertation extends on the critical consideration of the photographic image, discussing the question, “What do photographic images want?” From the viewpoint of the blending and co-existence of Heimlich and Unheimlich, the author contemplates on the new semantics square of pictorial uncanny as the initial step. Secondly, from the following three dimensions: the body of photographic image, the life form of photographic image, and the photographic ecosystem, the author illustrates how the photographic image is cognizes as an actual life form that therefore makes people feel uncanny via three essential elements: object, image and media. To conclude, this dissertation re-thinks on the photographic image and concludes the following four opinions: 1. The uncanny of photographic is the process to see when blindfolded. 2. What the photographic uncanny wants is to uncover the concealed. 3. Nathanel’s three forms of the blind in the ‘Sandman’ are as follows: “You see through the eyes not belonging to you.”, “You cannot see that you don’t have eyes. (the gaze of the blind)” , and “You see your own eyes are watching you. (the double looks back on you)”, which can be considered as the paradox of the photographic uncanny. 4. The uncanny of photography is mingled and woven with the cognitional and sensual status, which is close to the in-between status of the longing for Heimlich and the anxiety of Unheimlich.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1、 研究背景 1
1-2、 研究對象 4
1-3、 研究目的與方法 7
第二章 詭異經典文獻回顧與重新詮釋 8
2-1、 Sigmund Freud的詭異理論 8
2-2、 「詭異」定義:從Heimlich延伸成為與Unheimlich的混合 12
2-2.1. Unheimlich與Heimlich 12
2-2.2. 莫比烏斯環上的螞蟻 18
2-2.3. 特定的恐怖類型:壓抑之物的復返 24
2-3、 「詭異」心理動機與來源一:嬰兒期壓抑的復返 26
2-3.1. 嬰兒期壓抑的復返:情感本能 26
2-3.2. E. T. A. Hoffmann的〈沙人〉 29
2-3.3. 〈論詭異〉與〈沙人〉的交叉閱讀與重新詮釋 33
2-3.4. 讓Nathaneal目不轉睛的對象:三個階段的質變 43
2-3.5. 分身 62
2-4、 「詭異」心理動機與來源二:泛靈信仰的復返 65
2-4.1. 泛靈信仰的復返:思維模式 65
2-4.2. 意念的全能 69
2-4.3. 隱藏的有害力量 71
2-4.4. 強迫性重複 75
第三章 詭異與美學的連結 84
3-1、 「詭異」如何成為一個美學的問題 84
3-2、 重讀Ernst Jentsch〈詭異心理學〉的必要 91
3-2.1、 詭異的核心要素:來自厭新傾向的心理不確定 93
3-2.2、 詭異的美學特徵 95
第四章 攝影影像的詭異要的是什麼? 101
4-1、 圖像的詩學:慾望交錯的場域 103
4-1.1、 圖像、生命存有的狀態與詩 103
4-1.2、 影像的生命體系 106
4-2、 思考圖像詭異的新語義方格 110
4-2.1、 W. J. Mitchell:思考圖像詭異的語義辯證方格 110
4-2.2、 從Heimlich到與Unheimlich的混合:思考圖像詭異的新語義方格 112
4-3、 攝影影像的身體:物件 118
4-4、 攝影影像的生命形式:影像 135
4-5、 攝影影像的棲息地:媒體 140
4-6、 會見黑暗 147
第五章 結論 164
5-1. 攝影影像的「詭異」1:不是擷取,而是創造 164
5-2. 攝影影像的「詭異」2:照片是死胎的誕生 167
5-3. 攝影影像的「詭異」3:攝影過程中的全能觀看與盲目形式 171
5-4. 攝影影像的「詭異」4:給出遮蔽 177
參考文獻 184
一、中文書目
Bachelard, Gaston(巴舍拉)著,龔卓軍、王靜慧譯。2007。《空間詩學》(The Poetic of Space)。台北:張老師文化。
Badger, Gerry(貝傑)著,施昀佑、黃一凱譯。2012。《攝影的精神》(The Genius of Photography)。新北市:大家出版。
Baecque, Antoine de(貝克)著,方爾平譯。2011。《安德烈‧塔可夫斯基》(Andrei Tarkovski)。北京:北京大學出版社。
Barthes, Roland(巴特)著,許綺玲譯。1997。《明室》(La chamber claire)。台北:台灣攝影工作室。
Benjamin, Walter(班雅明)著,許綺玲譯。1999。《迎向靈光消逝的年代》(Walter Benjamin Essais)。台北:台灣攝影工作室。
——,王涌譯,宋淑明審譯,2012。《柏林童年》(Berliner Kindheit um neunzehundert)。台北:麥田。
Berger, John(柏格)著,吳莉君譯。2005。《觀看的方式》(Ways of Seeing)。台北:麥田。
Cotton Charlotte著,張世倫譯。2011。《這就是當代攝影》〈The Photograph as Contemporary Art〉,新北市: 大家出版社。
De Baecque, Antoine著,方爾平譯。2011。《安德烈‧塔可夫斯基》(Andrei Tarkovski),北京:北京大學出版社。
Dyer, Geoff(代爾)著,吳莉君譯。2013。《持續進行的瞬間》(The Ongoing Moment)。台北:麥田。
Eco, Umberto(艾可)著,彭淮棟譯。2008。《醜的歷史》(History of Ugliness)。台北:聯經。
Hoffmann E. T. A. 著,朱燕顰、曾夏清、夏本玉譯。1998。《睡魔》(The Sandman),台北: 萬象圖書。
McLuhan, Marshall(麥克魯漢)著,鄭明萱譯。2006。《認識媒體:人的延伸》(Understanding Media: the Extensions of Man)。台北:貓頭鷹。
Nagaaki Shaw & Summer Huang著,楊晴譯。2011。《當代攝影新銳二十》(20 Now: Contemporary Photographers),台北:城邦文化出版。
Sokolowski, Robert(索科羅斯基)著,李維倫譯。2004。《現象學十四
講》(Introduction to Phenomenology)。台北:心靈工坊。
Sontag, Susan(宋坦)著,黃翰荻譯。1997。《論攝影》(On Photography)。台北:唐山。
Tarkovsky, Andrei(塔可夫斯基)著,陳麗貴、李泳泉譯。1993。《雕刻時光》(Sculpting in Time: Reflections on the Cinema)。台北:萬象圖書。
林志明。2013。《複多與張力:論攝影史與攝影肖像》。台北:田園城市。
劉瑞琪。2004。《陰性顯影:女性攝影家的扮裝自拍像》。台北:遠流。
荒木經惟,黃亞紀譯。2012。《荒木經惟‧寫真=愛;直到生命盡頭,我依然相信寫真》,台北: 原點出版。
筱山紀信 &中平卓馬,黃亞紀譯。2013。《決鬥寫真論》. 黃亞紀譯,台北: 臉譜出版。
志賀理江子。2013。《螺旋海岸|Album》。東京都: AKAAKA Art。

二、英文書目
Arbus, Diane.
——. 1972. Diane Arbus: An Aperture Monograph. Edited by Doon Arbus and Marvin Israel. New York: Aperture Foundation.
——. 1984. Diane Arbus: Magazine Work. Essay by Thomas Southall. New York: Aperture Foundation.
——. 1995. Diane Arbus: Untitled. Edited byDoon Arbus and Yolanta Cuomo. New York: Aperture Foundation.
——. 2003. Diane Arbus: Revelations.In collaboration with San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. New York: Random House.
Barnes, Martin and Best, Kate. 2001. Twilight: Photography in the Magic Hour. New York: Merrell Publishers.
Bausch, Richard and Cassill, R. V. (eds.). 1978. The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction. New York: W. W. Norton.
Bazin, Andre. 2005. What is Cinema? Volumes 1 & 2. [1967]. Translated by Hugh Gray. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Benjamin, Walter. 1969. Illuminations: Essays and Reflections. Translated by Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken Books.
Bosworth, Patricia. 1984. Diane Arbus: A Biography. New York: W.W. Norton.
Brassai. 2001. The Secret Paris of The 30’s. New York: Thames & Hudson.
Burke, Edmund. 2001. “On the Sublime and Beautiful”, Harvard Classics, Vol. 24. New York: Bartleby.com.
Cadava, Eduardo. 1997. Words of Light: Theses on the Photography of History. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
Cartier-Bresson, Henri. 1999. The Mind's Eye: Writings on Photography and Photographers. New York: Aperture.
Castle, Terry.1995. The Female Thermometer: Eighteen-century Culture and the Invention of the Uncanny, New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Colman, Andrew M. 2012, A Dictionary of Psychology, (3 ed.)London: Oxford University Press.
Dixon, Steve.2007. Digital Performance: A History Media in Theater Dance, Performance Art, and Installation. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Dyer, Geoff. 2007. The Ongoing Moment, London: Vintage.
Freud, Sigmund.
——.1918. Totem and Taboo. New York: Moffat Yard and Company.
——.1922. Beyond the Pleasure Principle, translated by c. J. M. Hubback, London, Vienna: intl. Psycho-analytical, 1922, New York: Bartleby.com, 2010.
——.1939. Moses And Monotheism, Translated by Katherine Jones, London: The Hogarth Press.
——.1955. ”The Uncanny”, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 17. Edited by James Strachey. London: Hogarth Press.
——. 1973. Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Vol. 5. Translated and edited by James Strachey. London: Hogarth Press.
Gunning, Tom. 1995. ‘Phantom Images and Modern Manifestations: Spirits Photography, Magic Theater, Trick Films, and Photography's Uncanny,’ Fugitive Images: From Photography to Video. Edited by Patrice Petro, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Heidegger, Martin. 1977.“The Age of World Picture,” The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, translated by William Lovitt, New York; Harper and Row, pp.115-54.
Hoffman, E. T. A. 1885. ‘The Sandman,’ Weird Tales, Vol. 1 Translated by J. T. Bealby. London: John C. Nimmo.
Jentsch, Ernst. 1997. “On the Psychology of the Uncanny,” Translated by Roy Sellars. Angelaki: Journal of the Theoretical Humanitites, 2(1):7–16.
Kant, Immanuel. 1914. The Critique of Judgement. Translated by J. T. Bealby. London: Macmillan.
Lacan, Jacques. 2006. Écrits: The First Complete Edition in English. Translated by Bruce Fink in collaboration with Héloïse Fink and Russell Grigg. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.
Lee, Anthony W. 2003. Diane Arbus: Family Albums. CT: Yale University Press.
Liu, Lydia H. 2010. ‘The Cybernetic Unconscious: Rethinking Lacan, Poe, and French Theory’, Critical Inquiry, 36(2):288-302.
MacDorman, K. F. and Ishiguro, H. 2006. ‘The Uncanny Advantage of Using Androids in Cognitive and Social Science Research,’ Interaction Studies.7(3): 297–337.
Mitchell, W. J. T.
——.1980. The Language of Images. Chicago: U of Chicago Press.
——.1985. Against Theory: Literary Studies and the New Pragmatism. Chicago: U of Chicago Press.
——. 1986. Iconology: Image, Text, Ideology. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
——.1994. Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation,University of Chicago Press.
——. 2005. What Do Pictures Want? The Lives and Loves of Images. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Mavor, Carol. 1999. Becoming: the photographs of Clementina, Viscountess Hawarden. Durham: Duke University Press.
McGarry, Molly. 2008. Ghosts of Futures Past: Spiritualism and the Cultural Politics of Nineteeth-Century America. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: The Regents of the University of California.
Nemerov, Howard. 1981. Journals of Fictive Life. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Petro, Patrice. 1995. Fugitive Images: From Photography to Video, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Rank, Otto. 1989. The Double. Harry Tucker translated and Edited, London: Maresfield Library.
Ricoeur, Paul. 1984. Time and Narrative, Vol.1. Translated by Kathleen McLaughlin and David Pellauer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Royle, Nicholas. 2003. The Uncanny. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Schultz, W. T. 1981. An Emergency in Slow Motion: The Inner Life of Diane Arbus. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Tiphaigne de La Roche, Charles-François. 2012. Amilec(Giphantie). Translated by Brain Stableford. Tarzana: Black Coat Press.
Weber, Samuel. 1973. 'The Sideshow, or: Remarks on a Canny Moment', MLN, Vol. 88, No. 6, Comparative Literature, pp.1102-1133.

三、影片
Kent, Conn.. 1989. [video edition] Going Where I've Never Been: The Photography of Diane Arbus. Camera Three Productions.(原片發行於1972年)
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