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研究生:洪敬惠
研究生(外文):Ching-Hui Hung
論文名稱:向量與影像特徵套合重建方位模型
指導教授:陳良健陳良健引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liang-Chien Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:107
中文關鍵詞:方位重建向量模型線控制特徵套合
外文關鍵詞:Orientation ModelingVector DataLine ControlsFeature Registration
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三維地理資訊系統因環境變遷,資料定期更新維護屬必要。考量成本及效率,相較於模型全部重建,僅針對變遷的部分做更新為較佳的策略。影像應用於變遷偵測之首要工作為方位重建,其所需之控制資料以點與線為主。未變遷的三維向量模型可用來做為線控制資料以重建方位。著眼於此,本研究使用影像及地物向量資料,經影像及模型間的套合求解影像方位。
本研究內容可分為兩個主要部分:(1) 線控制方位求解數學模式建立,考慮透鏡畸變對線控制影響,結合影像直線參數式及共線條件式比較分析從原始影像萃取特徵及從透鏡畸變校正後影像萃取特徵之空間後方交會兩種求解模式。(2) 特徵自動套合方位重建,採方位初步修正及方位精密求解兩階段式套合,先利用四邊形的幾何特徵將初始外方位修正,再利用多條直線控制精化方位。
實驗資料有模擬資料及真實資料兩種。模擬資料用於測試透鏡畸變對線控制之影響。真實資料包含近垂直攝影影像、傾斜攝影影像及近景室內攝影影像,用於分析控制特徵形式與數量對方位求解的影響及特徵自動化套合方位重建。
實驗結果顯示,使用原始影像萃取特徵模式當透鏡畸變大時,成果誤差較大,使用透鏡畸變校正後影像萃取特徵可提升方位求解精度。所提出之線特徵自動套合策略共軛特徵選擇正確率為81.4 %。近垂直攝影及近景室內攝影測試例特徵幾何配置優良且控制線長,方位求解精度較佳。幾何配置較弱,且控制線段長度差異大的傾斜攝影測試例之方位求解誤差大。

Data updating and maintenance of three-dimensional Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are necessary due to environmental changes. Instead of reconstructing entire models, the more economic and efficient way of updating is to focus on the changed parts. The preprocessing of change detection using imagery is orientation modeling, the needed control information might be categorized as point-based control and line-based control. Unchanged three-dimensional vector data in GIS can be used as control data of orientation modeling. Therefore, this study registers images and object vector data for orientation determination.
This study contains two major parts: (1) line-based orientation model construction and (2) feature registration. Considering the lens distortion effects of line controls in the first part, two space resection processes, Feature extraction from Raw Image (FRI) and Feature extraction from Compensate Image (FCI), are compared. For the second part of the study, the first step is to pull-in the initial exterior orientation parameters using the geometric information of quadrangle objects. The following process is to refine the orientation using more line controls.
Experimental data includes simulated data and real ones. Simulated data used for analyzing lens distortion effects of line controls. Real data contains vertical, oblique and close range photographs. Real data were used for analyzing effects of control configurations and orientation modeling with automatic feature registration. Experimental results showed that the large lens distortion gave large error of FRI. FCI indicated better results than FRI. The proposed automatic feature registration procedure made 81.4 % correspondence feature selections correct. In the case of good configuration, including vertical and close range photographs, orientation modeling accuracy is high. On the other hand, the oblique photograph with weak configuration and shorter control lines yield lower accuracy.

摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 xii
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究方法及內容 3
第二章 研究方法 5
2.1 方位求解數學模式 5
2.1.1 從原始影像萃取特徵(FRI) 6
2.1.2 從透鏡畸變校正後影像萃取特徵(FCI) 11
2.2 特徵自動套合方位重建 12
2.2.1 方位初步修正 14
2.2.2 方位精密求解 18
第三章 研究成果與分析 25
3.1 實驗資料介紹 25
3.1.1 模擬資料 25
3.1.2 真實資料 28
3.2 實驗結果與分析 30
3.2.1 模擬資料實驗結果 31
3.2.2 真實資料實驗結果 34
3.3 實驗結果摘述 77
3.3.1 模擬資料 77
3.3.2 真實資料 77
第四章 結論與建議 86
參考文獻 89

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