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研究生(外文):Yi-ting Huang
論文名稱(外文):The Growth Mechanism of the Interface and the Crystallographic Analysis under Electromigration in Microbumps
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三維積體電路為近年來半導體製程廣為應用的製造技術,其體積輕薄、低功耗與高效能等特性,有助於突破摩爾定律所限。然而,隨著構裝尺度的縮小,直徑不到20微米的微銲點應用將有別於以往數百微米直徑的銲料球特性,其微結構的變化將改變元件內微銲點的電性與機械性質,進而影響可靠度之行為。本實驗利用微影蝕刻技術在矽晶片上製備金屬墊層,且電層之間銲料線距小於15微米的Cu/Sn3.5Ag/Cu與Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni微銲點導線,藉此模擬電子元件內微銲料球受電與熱作用的可靠度量測。本研究第一部分利用Cu/Sn3.5Ag/Cu與Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni微銲料導線在不同電流密度與溫度為100、125和150 oC的臨場分析下,觀察微銲點內介金屬化合物的厚度與微結構組織變化,其將有助於了解微銲點內,背向應力對原子擴散機制的影響。

Due to the miniaturization of electronic devices, the reliability of electromigration (EM) has become a major concern issue when shrinking the solder dimensions in flip-chip joints. Fast reaction between solders and electrodes causes intermetallic compounds (IMCs) to form, which grow rapidly and occupy entire joints when solder volumes reduced. It reveals a different failure mechanisms between the traditional large solder bumps and the microbump which occupied by IMCs, due to the distinct electrical and mechanism properties. In this study, U-grooves were fabricated on Si chips as test vehicles. An electrode-solder-electrode sandwich structure was fabricated by using lithography and electroplating. Gaps exhibiting well-defined dimensions were filled with Sn3.5Ag solders. The gaps between the copper or nickel electrodes in the test sample were limited to less than 15 μm to simulate microbumps. The samples of Cu/Sn3.5Ag/Cu and Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni were stressed at various current densities at 100, 125, and 150 oC. The morphological changes of the IMCs were observed, and the dimensions of the IMCs were measured to determine the kinetic growth of IMCs. Therefore, in the first part of this study focused on the influence of back stress caused by microstructural evolution in microbumps.
Besides, the high anisotropic diffusivity in white Sn (β-Sn) grain is particularly significant, especially in the limited Sn-based solders, which had a strong effect on the growth kinetics of the interfacial IMCs. Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD), which possess the high resolution and non-destruction, is a good candidate to monitor the evolution of grain growth under in-situ electromigration as the minute size of solder was whole occupied by IMCs. Hence, in the second part of this study succeed in analyzing the correlation between the grain orientation of Sn and Ni3Sn4 and the current flow direction in Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni solder lines. The merging effect of Ni3Sn4 grains was also investigated by the mass fluxes during electromigration to provide the reliability mode in the evaluation of electronic packaging.

Abstract (in Chinese) I
Abstract (in English) II
Acknowledgement III
Contents V
List of Figures VI
List of Tables X
1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Characterization of miniaturized mircobumps 3
1.3 Interfacial reaction in the microbumps 6
1.4 Electromigration-induced back stress in critical solder length 9
1.5 Orientation of IMCs in the critical IMC-joints 13
2. Motivation 16
3. Experiment 18
3.1 U-groove Cu/Sn3.5Ag/Cu and Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni sandwich samples 18
3.2 The analysis of material properties 20
4. Results and discussion 22
4.1 Microstructure of Cu/Sn3.5Ag/Cu and Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni 22
4.2 Kinetic analysis of the interfacial reaction after current stressing 29
4.3 Electromigration-induced back stress in critical solder length 38
4.4 Orientation of Ni/Sn3.5Ag/Ni micro solder line under electromigration 42
4.4.1 In situ orientation of grain growth 42
4.4.2 Kinetic model of Ni3Sn4 growth under electromigration 53
5. Conclusion 63
Reference 65

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