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研究生:吳琬琪
研究生(外文):wan-chi wu
論文名稱:伯恩斯坦的音樂生涯與創作特色- 以西城故事為例
論文名稱(外文):The Music Life And Creation Characteristic of Bernstein: in West Side Story
指導教授:曾瀚霈曾瀚霈引用關係
指導教授(外文):Prof. Dr. Hannpey Jeeng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:藝術學研究所
學門:藝術學門
學類:綜合藝術學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:179
中文關鍵詞:音樂生涯創作特色伯恩斯坦
外文關鍵詞:Music LifeCreation CharacteristicBernstein
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摘要

雷納德.伯恩斯坦(Leonard Bernstein, 1918–1990)是國際聞名的美國指揮家、作品多樣化的作曲家、在電視節目演說古典音樂專題的音樂教學者,這些多方面的發展使伯恩斯坦的地位重要且特殊。他的成長歷練與創新思想,形塑了他優越的成就,足以做為二十世紀美國音樂家的代表。
《西城故事》是一齣非常成功的音樂劇,並且在伯恩斯坦的作品中代表性十足,其中包含了伯恩斯坦常見的作手法,如,戲劇性對比、爵士元素、動機發展。他將嚴肅音樂、爵士元素兩者融合使用,廣泛地使用折衷主義作曲手法,形成他獨具魅力的作曲風格,尤以《西城故事》為重要創作。此研究針對《西城故事》中戲劇性音樂手法以及折衷手法做出分析,並且與伯恩斯坦的音樂主張、思想做連結,釐清伯恩斯坦的在音樂創作上的獨特性,以及他在美國音樂上的貢獻。

Abstract

Leonard Bernstein(1918–1990)was a American conductor international renowned, a composer of diversification works, and a musical educator through television lectures on classical music. All this various development marks Bernstein as an unusually versatile figure. His musical personal development and innovative thought form the magnificent achievement. Bernstein has a representative position in American music of the twentieth century.
West Side Story is a significant successfully musical, also an effective introduction to Bernstein’s output. There are numbers of his common stylistic traits in West Side Story, such as dramatic contrast, jazz elements, motivic development. The work includes both art music and jazz element. By a combination of art music and jazz element, he made a appealing music style through wide-ranging eclecticism in all of his works, especially West Side Story. This study focused on analysis of theatricality and eclecticism in West Side Story. Also make connection between Bernstein’s musical thoughts and works, presenting his unique creation and the contribution in American music.

目 錄
緒言 1
第一章 伯恩斯坦的音樂人生與多元發展 7
第一節 成長與求學 7
一、 雙親 7
二、 幼年時期 8
三、 青少年時期 10
四、 就讀哈佛大學 12
五、 學習指揮 16
六、 婚姻與性別取向 18
第二節 多元音樂發展 20
一、 多樣化的音樂創作 21
二、 輝煌的指揮事業 27
三、 奉獻於音樂教育 33
第二章 伯恩斯坦的音樂思想與創作體現 39
第一節 伯恩斯坦的音樂思想 39
一、 熱愛戲劇音樂 39
二、 追尋美國音樂特色 40
三、 關懷社會政治 44
第二節 音樂思想的創作體現——以代表作《西城故事》為例 53
一、 作品之成就與貢獻 53
二、 三位合夥創作者之背景 58
三、 創作歷程 65
四、 內容概述 68
第三章 《西城故事》的音樂特色 73
第一節 《西城故事》中的戲劇音樂手法 76
一、 音樂對劇中角色的刻劃:以東尼為例 76
二、 音樂對愛情的表達 83
三、 音樂對劇情發展的輔助 95
第二節 《西城故事》中的折衷音樂手法 102
一、 音樂中的美國本土元素 106
二、 音樂中的古典音樂元素 123
結 論 147
參 考 資 料 151
伯 恩 斯 坦 作 品 表 159
伯 恩 斯 坦 年 表 165

參 考 資 料

一、 外文參考資料
 Arewa, Olufunmilayo B.: “From J. C. Bach to Hip Hop: Musical Borrowing, Copyright and Cultural Contex”, in: North Carolina Law Review, Vol. 84, p. 547, 2006.

 Baker, David J.: “Song at Twilight”, in: Opera News. 65 (July 2000): 32-36, 70.

 Bañagale, R.P.: “Each Man Kills the Thing He Loves: Bernstein’s Formative Relationship with Rhapsody in Blue”, in: Journal of the Society for American Music. iii/1 (2009), 47–66.

 Bekeny, Amanda Kriska: The trumpet as a voice of Americana in the Americanist music of Gershwin, Copland, and Bernstein. D.M.A. diss., Ohio State University, 2005.

 Berg, Gregory: “The Archive of American Television Presents: Leonard Bernstein Omnibus”, in: Journal of Singing, 68 no 3, 2012.

 Bernstein, Burton & Haws, Barbara B: Leonard Bernstein: American Original: How a Modern Renaissance Man Transformed Music and the World during his New York Philharmonic Years, 1943–1976. New York: Collins, 2008.

 Bernstein, Leonard: The Joy of Music. New York: Amadeus Press, 1959. (此書有中譯本,詳中文參考資料)

 : The Infinite Variety of Music. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1966.

 : “The Principle of Hope “, in: Music Educators Journal. Vol. 59, No. 6 (Feb., 1973), pp. 32-37.

 : The Unanswered Question - Six Talks at Harvard . New York: Harvard University press, 1981.

 : Findings. New York: Anchor Press, 1982.(其中收錄伯恩斯坦哈佛大學畢業論文)

 Blasffield , Jean : Leonard Bernstein: Conductor and Composer. Chicago: Ferguson Publishing Ccompany, 2000.

 Block, Geoffrey: ” The Broadway Canon from Show Boat to West Side Story and the European Operatic Ideal,” in: The Journal of Musicology Volume XI. Regents of University California: November 4 (Fall, 1993): 531.

 :Enchanted Evenings: The Broadway Musical from Show Boat to Sondheim and Lloyd Webber. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997..

 : “Bernstein's Senior Thesis At Harvard: The Roots of a Lifelong Search to Discover an American Identity”, in: College Music Symposium. Vol. 48, (2008), pp. 52-68.

 Botstein, L.: ”The Tragedy of Leonard Bernstein”, in: Harper’s, cclxvi/May (1983), 38–40, 57–62.

 Burkat, Leonard & Henry Cowell & Karl H. Wörner: “Current Chronicle”, in: The Musical Quarterly. Vol. 39, No. 1, 1953, pp. 94-106.

 Burton, H.: Leonard Bernstein. New York: Doubleday, 1994.

 Burton, William Westbrook : Conversations About Bernstein. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.

 Bushard, Anthony: “From On the Waterfront to West Side Story, or There’s Nowhere Like Somewhere”, in: Studies in Musical Theatre. iii/1 (2009), 61–75.

 Butterworth, Neil: The American Symphony. Farnham, UK:Ashgate Publishing Company, 1998.

 Carnahan, Cheryl: Leonard Bernstein: The Age of Anxiety. D.M.A. diss., Eastman School of Music of the University of Rochester, 1968.

 Chapin, Schuyler: “Leonard Bernstein—The Television Journey”, in: Television Quarterly. Fall 99, Vol.30 Issue 2, p.66-72.

 Cockrell, Dale & Miller, Hugh M.:History of Western music , New York:Harper Collins, 1991.

 Copeland, Philip Larue: The Role of Drama and Spirituality in the Music of Leonard Bernstein. D.M.A. diss., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1998.

 Cott , Jonathan: Dinner with Lenny: The Last Long Interview with Leonard Bernstein. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013.

 Crist, Elizabeth B.: ”Mutual Responses in the Midst of an Era: Aaron Copland's The Tender Land and Leonard Bernstein's Candide”, in: The Journal of Musicology. Vol. 23 No. 4, Fall 2006, pp. 485-527.

 : “The best of all possible worlds: The Eldorado episode in Leonard Bernstein’s Candide”, in: Cambridge Opera Journal. Volume 19, Issue 03, November 2007, pp 223-248.

 Everett, W. A.: ”Candide and the tradition of American operetta”, in: Studies in Musical Theatre. 3 no 1, 2009. pp. 53-59(7).

 Finch, Scott Matthew: The Prominence of Hebrew Syntax in Leonard Bernstein's "Chichester Psalms". D.M.A. diss., The University of Arizona, 2011.

 Gargrave , Wayne Eric: The use of the saxophone in the dramatic music of Leonard Bernstein a guide for informed performance. D.M.A. diss., University of North Carolina, 2006.

 Gelleny, S.A.: ”Leonard Bernstein on Television: Bridging the Gap between Classical Music and Popular Culture”, in: Journal of Popular Music Studies. xi–xii (1999–2000), 48–67.

 Gentry, Philip: ”Leonard Bernstein's The Age of Anxiety: A Great American Symphony during McCarthyism”, in: American Music. Vol. 29, No. 3 (Fall 2011), pp. 308-331.

 Giger, Andreas: ”Bernstein's The Joy of Music as Aesthetic Credo”, in: Music Journal of the Society for American Music. Volume 3 , Issue 03(2009), pp 311-339.

 Gottlieb, Jack: The Music of Leonard Bernstein: A Study in Melodic Manipulations . Ph.D. diss., University of Illinois, 1964.

 : ”Symbols of Faith in the Music of Leonard Bernstein”, in: The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 66, No. 2 (Apr., 1980), pp. 287-295.

 Gow, David: “Leonard Bernstein: Musician of Many Talents”, in: The Musical Times. Vol. 101, No. 1409 (Jul., 1960), pp. 427-429.

 Helgert, Lars Erik.: Jazz Elements in Selected Concert Works of Leonard Bernstein: Sources, Reception, and Analysis. Ph.D. diss., Catholic U. of America, 2008.

 Hubbs, N.: “Bernstein: Homophobia, Historiography,” in: Women and Music. xiii (2009), 24–42.

 Ikach, Yugo Sava: Study of selected songs by Leonard Bernstein which reflect his contribution to the evolution of art song in America. D.M.A. diss., West Virginia University, 2003.

 Keathley, Elizabeth L.: Postwar Modernity and the Wife's Subjectivity: Bernstein's Trouble in Tahiti”, in: American Music. Vol. 23, No. 2 (Summer, 2005), pp. 220-256.

 Keiler, Allan: ”Bernstein's "The Unanswered Question" and the Problem of Musical Competence”, in: The Musical Quarterly. Vol. 64, No. 2 (Apr., 1978), pp. 195-222.

 Kirk, Erin P.: Aaron Copland & Leonard Bernstein: Twentieth-Century Music through the Eyes of Masters. Ph.D. diss., The Claremont Graduate University, 2010.

 Laird, Paul: “Leonard Bernstein: Eclecticism and Vernacular Elements in Chichester Psalms,” in: Bulletin of the Sonneck Society for American Music . v.25(1999), no.1.

 : Leonard Bernstein’s Chichester Psalms. Ph.D. diss., Hillsdale, NY. 2010.

 Lazo , Caroline Evensen : Leonard Bernstein: In Love With Music. New York : Baker & Taylor Books, 2002.

 Lin, Hsun: Convergences Between Leonard Bernstein's On the Town (1944) and Wonderful Town (1953) and His Contemporary Concert Music. Ph.D. diss., University of Kansas, 2013.

 McNally, Terrence: ”Landmark Symposium: West Side Story”, in: Dramatist, 2008,p20-32.

 Moura, Eli-Eri: ”Bernstein’s Kaddish Symphony: genesis and purpose”, in: Per Musi. (Belo Horizonte, 2002), v5/6. 2002, p141-150.

 Myers , Paul : Leonard Bernstein. London: Phaidon Press, 1998.

 Nash, Ethan: ”Understanding and Performing Bernstein’s Chichester Psalms”, in: Choral Journal.(2009).

 Oja, Carol J.: ”West Side Story and The Music Man: Whiteness, Immigration, and Race in the US during the late 1950s”, in: Studies in Musical Theatre. iii/1 (2009), 13–30

 Pearlmutter, Alan :“Bernstein's Mass Revisited”, in: Music Educators Journal, Vol. 61, No. 1 (Sep., 1974), pp. 35-3

 Peyser, Joan: ”The Bernstein Legacy”, in: Opera News. 65/1 (July 2000): 22–27, 71.

 Rapf, Joanna E.: On the waterfront. New York : Cambridge University Press, 2003.

 Ratner, Leonard G.: Classic Music.Expression, Form, and Style. New York: Schirmer, 1980.

 Rorem, Ned: “Leonard Bernstein (An Appreciation)”, in: Tempo, New Series, No. 175 (Dec., 1990), pp. 6-9.

 : A Ned Rorem Reader. New York : Yale University Press, 2001.

 Ross , Alex:The rest is noise : listening to the twentieth century. New York: 2008.

 Schiff, D.: ”Re-hearing Bernstein”, in: Atlantic. cclxxi/6 (1993), p.55–68.

 :“Leonard Bernstein”, The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Ed.by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan Press Limited, 2001. Vol. 3, p.444.

 Schuman and Ned Rorem and Jerome Robbins and Adolph Green and Midori: “Leonard Bernstein Remembered by His Friends,” in: The New York Times(1990), section 2, p45.

 Seldes, Barry: Leonard Bernstein: The Political Life of an American Musician. New York : University of California Press, 2009.

 Sheppard, W. Anthony:”Bitter Rituals for a Lost Nation: Partch's "Revelation in the Courthouse Park" and Bernstein's "Mass"”, in: The Musical Quarterly. Vol. 80, No. 3 (Autumn, 1996), pp. 461-499.

 Simeone, Nigel: Leonard Bernstein, West Side Story. UK: University of Sheffield, 2009.

 Smith, Helen: ”Peter Grimes and Leonard Bernstein: An English Fisherman and His Influence on An American Eclectic”, in: Tempo. Volume 60, Issue 235(2006), pp 22-30.

 : There’s A Place for Us: the Musical Theatre Works of Leonard Bernstein. New York : Ashgate, 2011.

 Stempel, Larry: Showtime: A History of the Broadway Musical Theater. New York : W.W. Norton & Company, 2010.

 Stith, Nathan: Creating "West Side Story": An Investigation of the Sociopolitical Backgrounds and Collaborative Relationships of Jerome Robbins, Arthur Laurents, Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim in the Creation of the Original Broadway roduction of "West Side Story" . B.F.A. diss., University of Colorado at Boulder, 2011.

 Sullivan, Jack: Words on music: from Addison to Barzun. New York : Ohio University Press, 1990.

 Swain, Joseph P.: The Broadway Musical. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

 Talberg, Jonathan A.: A Conductor’s Guide to Leonard Bernstein’s Chirchester Psalms and an Introduction to and Analysis of Leonard Bernstein’s Missa Brevis. D.M.A. diss., University of Cincinnati, 2004.

 Teachout, Terry: “How Good Was Leonard Bernstein?”, in: Commentary. 98/4 (October 1994): 49–54.

 Venezia, Mike: Leonard Bernstein, New York : Children's Press, 1997.

 Wells , Elizabeth A.: West Side Story: Cultural Perspectives on an American Musical. UK: Scarecrow Press, 2011.

 Woller, Megan Bolander : A place for West Side Story (1961): Gender, race, and tragedy in Hollywood's adaptation. M.Mus. Thesis, 2011

 Wörner, Karl H.: “Leonard Bernstein”, Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Kassel Barenreiter-Verlag, Bd.1. 1989.


二、 中文參考資料
 Bernstein, Leonard.:《音樂欣賞》(The Joy of Music),林聲翕譯。台北:新亞出版社,1968。

 :《伯恩斯坦創見集》(Findings),林元譯。臺北市:智庫,1996。

 :伯恩斯坦哈佛大學畢業論文《美國音樂汲取種族元素》(The Absorption of Race Elements into American Music)(收錄於《伯恩斯坦創見集》)

 Burton, Humphrey:《伯恩斯坦傳上、下》(Leonard Bernstein)。黃星亮、魏慶龍、何勁松譯。台北:世界文物,1997。

 Kamien, Roger:《音樂認識與欣賞》(Music: An Appreciation, 8th ed), 王美珠、陳美鸞等人譯。台北:麥格羅希爾(Mc Graw Hill),2002。

 Kernfeld, B.:《新格羅夫爵士樂辭典》(The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz),任達敏譯。廣州:花城出版社,2009。

 Michels, Ulrich :《音樂圖驥》(dtv - Atlas Musik),劉岠渭等譯。台北 : 小雅音樂,2006。

 Szwed, John F.:《美國爵士樂全攻略》(Jazz 101),陳志宇譯。台北:左耳文化出版社,2007。

 Tirro, Frank:《爵士音樂史》(Jazz: A History),顧連理譯,台北 : 世界文物 , 1998。

 劉岠渭:《簡明音樂辭典》。台北市:世界文物出版社,2005。

 蘇玟慧:《伯恩斯坦的音樂思想與成就》。台北:國立臺灣師範大學音樂學研究所碩士論文,1982年。

 薛雅琦:《伯恩斯坦輕歌劇「憨第德」之音樂素材運用》。台北:國立臺灣師範大學音樂研究所碩士論文,2006年。

 吳佳澐:《伯恩斯坦《西城故事》中的體育館場景舞蹈音樂探討》。台北:東吳大學音樂研究所碩士論文,2014年。


三、 網路資源
 《西城故事》網站: www.westsidestory.com

 伯恩斯坦網站: http://www.leonardbernstein.com/

 免費樂譜網站http://www.free-scores.com/download-sheet-music.php?pdf=23862

 由伯恩斯坦官方網站經營的臉書動態時報相片https://www.facebook.com/140646765284/photos/a.10150211953950285.455647.140646765284/10154873493140285/?type=1&theater

 追學網: http://www.zhuixue.net/lunwen/yinyue/35914.html

 百老匯音樂劇之家http://broadwaymusicalhome.com/shows/westside.htm

 古典筆記網站: http://www.classicalnotes.net/features/bernstein.html

 再創造網站: http://www.paulj.myzen.co.uk/blog/teaching/reinventions/lectures/1-musical-borrowing/

 精選作品網站: http://works.bepress.com/o_arewa/5/

 一個音樂劇的誕生:https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/westsidestory/westsidestory-exhibit.html

 音樂劇演出“Prologue”---west side story: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxvchTm3RFk

 音樂劇演出 "The Rumble"---west side story
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S00aZzCBcY8&list=PLJdOJo8NhT52pwkWqYZKEdzzIOywNQZrQ&index=5

 "Cool" from the musical West Side Story.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f8dMZz4KkK8&list=PLJdOJo8NhT52pwkWqYZKEdzzIOywNQZrQ&index=9



四、 樂譜
 Bernstein, Leonard.: West Side Story. Full Score. U.S.A.: Leonard Bernstein Music Publishing Co, 1994.


五、 影音資料(僅限《西城故事》)
《西城故事》 CD:卡列拉斯、卡娜娃主唱,發行出版: Deutsche Grammophon,廠號:4152532。

《西城故事》 DVD:娜妲麗.華、理查.貝瑪主演,導演:勞勃.懷斯、傑若米.羅賓斯,發行出版:新動國際多媒體有限公司。發行日期:2012 年 01 月 18 日。條碼:4714150251057。

《西城故事》 錄音過程DVD:卡列拉斯、卡娜娃主唱,發行出版:Deutsche Grammophon,發行日期:2005 年 08 月 01 日。廠號:DVDG1003072206-2



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