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研究生:洪上傑
研究生(外文):Shang-Chieh Hung
論文名稱:鍺薄膜堆疊於矽晶太陽能電池影響之研究
論文名稱(外文):The research of germanium thin film depositing on silicon solar cell
指導教授:張正陽張正陽引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jenq-Yang Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:照明與顯示科技研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:130
中文關鍵詞:堆疊型太陽能電池離子佈植
外文關鍵詞:Germaniumtandemsolar cellion implantation
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在眾多太陽能電池種類中,就屬三五族堆疊型太陽能電池效率最高,其轉換效率可以達到44%,而目前多數的堆疊型太陽能電池是以鍺基板來成長三五族材料,但成本卻較矽晶太陽能電池高,矽除了便宜外,發展也相對成熟,故以矽基板取代鍺基板是未來研究的一大方向。
本研究主要探討鍺薄膜於矽基堆疊型太陽能電池中的特性與影響,並使用模擬的方式來分析堆疊型太陽能電池中的各層特性,透過調變各層薄膜的厚度與濃度,研究其各層電池的電流匹配值。從模擬中發現,當磷化銦鎵厚度為1400奈米,砷化鎵厚度為290奈米,本質鍺薄膜在30奈米時,其電流匹配值為12.8mA,轉換效率為32.3%。
在矽基堆疊三五族太陽能電池之中,製作底層矽基太陽能電池有多種的方式,例如爐管擴散法、離子佈植法或化學氣相沉積法。而本實驗主要使用離子佈植方式製作底層矽基太陽能電池,並利用退火修復離子佈植造成的缺陷。實驗結果顯示,在900度2分鐘退火所量測到的X光繞射半高寬值為最佳,最後得到的太陽能電池轉換效率達到10.9%。
最後,探討鍺薄膜成長於矽基太陽能電池上的光性和電性,與底層矽基太陽能電池效率。結果顯示,在鍺薄膜厚度的增加下,X光繞射半高寬值有變低的趨勢,在電性方面,厚度增加下,其薄膜缺陷變多而使片電阻值增大;光性方面則是厚度越厚,在長波長的穿透率則越低。在成長完鍺薄膜後經過700度5分鐘的退火,X光繞射半高寬可達到358.56 arcsec,而成長完鍺薄膜後蝕刻對離子佈植矽基太陽能電池的轉換效率降低約0.6 %。

III-V compound tandem solar cells that combine low and high bandgap materials tailored to the incident solar spectrum have very high conversion efficiencies (~44%). However most of the III-V tandem solar cells are grown on Ge or GaAs substrates, both are more expensive than Silicon substrate. In spite of unmatched performance of III-V solar cells, silicon not only have lower price in the market but also have mature technique. Therefore, germanium substrate replaced by silicon substrate is the main direction of research in the future.
In this study, we focused on the characteristics and influence of germanium thin film depositing on silicon solar cell. At first, we use PC1D simulation software to analyze and modulate thickness and concentration of each layer and find the current-matching value. From the simulation results, we found that when the thickness of gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) film is 1400nm, gallium arsenide (GaAs) film is 290nm and germanium (Ge) film is 30nm, we got the current-matching value is 12.8mA, conversion efficiency is 32.3%.
There are many methods to fabricate the silicon solar cell (Bottom cell), such as diffusion, ion implantation or chemical vapor deposition. We use method of ion implantation to fabricate silicon solar cell in our experiments. After ion implantation process, we use anneal to repair defects caused by ion implantation. Experimental results show that when we anneal at 900 °C for 2 minutes, the best full width at half maximum (FWHM) we can measured. The result of silicon solar cell conversion efficiency is 10.9%.
Finally, we discuss the optical and electrical properties of germanium thin films grown on silicon solar cell. The results showed that the thickness of the germanium thin film increases, the best values of FWHM we can obtain. In terms of electrical properties, as the thickness of germanium film increases, the defects and sheet resistance value increase. In terms of optical properties, as the thickness of germanium film increases, the transmittance at long wavelength decrease. After growing the germanium film at annealing 700 °C for 5 minutes, we can obtain the value of FWHM is 358.56 arcsec. When we grow the germanium film and then etching it on silicon solar cell, we measured the conversion efficiency decreased by 0.6 %.

摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言 1
1-2 研究動機 2
1-3 研究目的 3
1-4 論文架構 4
第二章 基本原理與文獻回顧 5
2-1 太陽能電池基本運作與分析原理 5
2-2 離子佈植法原理與介紹 13
2-2.1 離子佈植原理 13
2-2.2 離子佈植矽基太陽能電池介紹 17
2-3 鍺薄膜應用於堆疊型太陽能電池原理 19
2-4 堆疊型太陽能電池運作原理與介紹 21
第三章 研究方法與實驗設備 24
3-1 PC1D & SRIM模擬程式介紹 24
3-1.1 PC1D介紹 24
3-1.2 SRIM介紹 25
3-2 矽基太陽能電池製備流程 26
3-2.1 晶圓清洗流程 26
3-2.2 太陽能電池製備流程 27
3-3 太陽能電池製程設備 28
3-3.1 中電流離子佈植設備 (The Varian Ion Implant Systems) 28
3-3.2 電漿輔助化學氣相沉積設備 (PECVD) 28
3-3.3 電子迴旋共振化學氣相沉積設備 (ECRCVD) 29
3-3.4 離子濺鍍系統 (Sputter) 30
3-3.5 電子槍蒸鍍系統 (E-gun) 31
3-3.6 快速熱退火 (ARTS-RTA/ LPT-RTA) 32
3-3.7 網版印刷機台 (Screen Print) 33
3-4 薄膜分析設備 34
3-4.1 霍爾量測系統 (Hall measurement) 34
3-4.2 二次離子質譜儀 (SIMS) 35
3-4.3 四點探針量測 (Four-point Probe) 36
3-4.4 高解析度X射線繞射分析儀 (HRXRD) 37
3-4.5 紫外光-可見光-近紅外光 光譜儀 (UV-Vis-NIR) 38
3-5 太陽能電池量測設備 39
3-5.1 光譜響應量子效率量測系統 (IPCE) 39
3-5.2 太陽光模擬器 (Solar simulator) 40
第四章 模擬與計算 41
4-1 模擬理論計算 41
4-1.1 單層結構太陽能電池計算 41
4-1.2 雙層及多層結構太陽能電池計算 42
4-2 雙層堆疊型太陽能電池之底層矽基太陽能電池模擬 45
4-2.1 調變矽基板厚度對矽基太陽能電池影響 46
4-2.2 調變摻雜層厚度對矽基太陽能電池的影響 47
4-2.3 調變摻雜層濃度對矽基太陽能電池的影響 48
4-2.4 調變背表面電場摻雜層厚度與濃度對矽基太陽能電池的影響 49
4-2.5 鍺薄膜厚度對矽基太陽能電池的影響 50
4-2.6 調變頂層砷化鎵摻雜層厚度對底層電池之影響 51
4-2.7 調變砷化鎵摻雜層濃度對底層電池之影響 52
4-3 雙層堆疊型太陽能電池之頂層砷化鎵太陽能電池模擬 53
4-3.1 調變N型砷化鎵摻雜層厚度對砷化鎵太陽能電池的影響 54
4-3.2 調變P型砷化鎵摻雜層厚度對砷化鎵太陽能電池的影響 56
4-4 Ⅲ-Ⅴ族雙層堆疊型矽基太陽能電池模擬 57
4-4.1 調變N/P型砷化鎵厚度對雙層堆疊型矽基太陽能電池影響 58
4-4.2調變P型砷化鎵濃度對雙層堆疊型矽基太陽能電池影響 60
4-4.3 調變表面復合速率對雙層堆疊型太陽能電池之影響 61
4-4.4 鍺薄膜與砷化鎵厚度對雙層堆疊型矽基太陽能電池結果 62
4-5 Ⅲ-Ⅴ族三層堆疊型矽基太陽能電池模擬 67
4-5.1 調變磷化銦鎵層厚度對堆疊型矽基太陽能電池影響 68
4-5.2 調變P型磷化銦鎵摻雜層濃度對三層堆疊型矽基太陽能電池影響 70
4-5.3 鍺薄膜與磷化銦鎵薄膜厚度對三層堆疊型矽基太陽能電池結果 71
4-6 中電流離子佈植模擬 75
4-6.1 調變硼離子入射功率對入射深度的影響 75
4-6.2 調變磷離子入射功率對入射深度的影響 80
4-6.3 調變硼離子入射功率對矽基鍺薄膜入射深度的影響 83
第五章 實驗結果與討論 85
5-1 中電流離子佈植矽基太陽能電池 85
5-1.1 離子佈植之初步測試與模擬比較 85
5-1.2 摻雜不同硼離子濃度和入射功率對矽基太陽能電池的影響 87
5-1.2.1 改變不同熱退火時間對結晶品質之影響 88
5-1.2.2 改變不同熱退火時間對轉換效率之影響 90
5-1.2.3 改變不同熱退火溫度對轉換效率之影響 92
5-1.2.4 摻雜背電場對轉換效率之影響 93
5-1.3 太陽能電池的特性分析 94
5-2 鍺薄膜應用於矽基太陽能電池的研究探討 96
5-2.1 不同厚度的矽基鍺薄膜對光性與電性探討 96
5-2.2 鍺薄膜經由不同退火溫度的比較 99
5-2.3 成長完鍺薄膜再蝕刻對於離子佈植矽基太陽能電池的影響 101
5-2.4 離子佈植在矽基鍺薄膜上對鍺薄膜的影響 102
第六章 結論與未來展望 103
6-1 結論 103
6-1.1 Ⅲ-Ⅴ族堆疊型矽基太陽能電池模擬 103
6-1.2 離子佈植之太陽能電池 104
6-1.3 鍺薄膜應用於太陽能電池 104
6-2 未來展望 105
6-2.1 Ⅲ-Ⅴ族三層堆疊型矽基太陽能電池 105
參考文獻 106


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