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研究生:江美娟
研究生(外文):Mei-Chuan Chiang
論文名稱:大學生對選修英語加強課程為畢業門檻的歸因研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of College Students' Attributions in Taking English Enhancing Courses as the Graduation Threshold
指導教授:顏玉雲顏玉雲引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yuh-Yun Yen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:外國語言學系研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:164
中文關鍵詞:大學生英文學習動機英語加強課程英語畢業門檻歸因理論
外文關鍵詞:college studentsEnglish learning motivationEnglish enhancing coursesEnglish graduation thresholdattribution theory
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本研究旨在調查為通過英語畢業門檻參加英語加強班的台灣一般大學的大學生,其對於在英語學習成功及英語學習失敗所作的解釋,以及在性別與高低成就者間是否存在顯著差異。研究對象為經便利抽樣的336位北部與南部的大學生。有效問卷為314份,回收率93.45%。本研究採量性研究並採用李俊賢(2011)的六點量表問卷作為研究工具,回收的有效問卷以SPSS 18的描述性統計及t檢定進行資料分析,並以歸因重要性的排序比較有無差異。研究結果簡述如下:
學生主要以英檢成績、學校英語成績、自己對自己的評價及與英語母語人士溝通表現來判斷自己的英語表現優劣。其中,較多女生勾選英檢成績而男生則較多選擇與英語母語人士溝通表現來判斷自己的英文表現。相較於高成就學生,更多低成就學生以英檢成績及學校英語成績做為判斷英文表現的依據。在英文學習的成敗歸因方面,學生傾向將成功當作外在歸因,而將失敗當作內在歸因。在成功的歸因方面,學生最重視老師的英文能力,而缺乏課後練習則是失敗最重要的因素。性別對英文學習成敗呈現顯著差異,在成功的歸因方面,男生著重老師的英文能力、勇於嘗試犯錯、對英文的喜愛,而女生則強調英文成績。在失敗的歸因方面,男生不重視英文成績,而女生則強調害怕嘗試英文犯錯。相較於男生,女生傾向將成功歸於努力而認為失敗為能力不足。高低成就者在英文學習成敗方面亦呈現顯著歸因差異。在成功的歸因方面,高成就者重視能力、策略、英文喜愛、重視成績、興趣、任務、學習經驗及學習動機。另外,在失敗的歸因方面,低成就者強調不重視英文成績、任務困難、缺乏準備及學習經驗。高成就者則比低成就者傾向將失敗歸因於能力不足。最後,根據本研究結論作者提出教學及未來研究相關建議。

The study aimed to investigate the explanations for success and failure in English learning given by Taiwan comprehensive college students who took English enhancing courses for passing the English graduation threshold. The significant differences in English attributions between genders and between high and low achievers were also examined. A total of 336 college students were surveyed in northern and southern Taiwan through a convenience sampling. Three hundred and fourteen (93.45%) participant responses were deemed valid. The six-point Likert scale questionnaire which was used in this survey was designed by Lee (2011). Descriptive statistics and independent-sample T-tests by SPSS 18 were conducted to analyze the collected data. The results of this study revealed the following conclusions.
First, language-proficiency-test scores, school test scores, self evaluation and performances of communicating with foreigners were the main sources whereby students judge their English learning performances. Females put more emphasis on language-proficiency-test scores, while males stressed the performances of communicating with foreigners. Low achievers placed emphasis on language-proficiency-tests and school scores more than high achievers.
Second, students tended to attribute their success to external causal factors, while failure to internal ones. The teacher’s English ability was the most cited factor for success, while lack of after-class practice was the most endorsed factor for failure.
Third, significant differences in attributions were found between genders. In respect of English learning success, males stressed the teacher’s English ability, risk-taking and liking English more than females. Females endorsed English grade concerns. As for English learning failure, compared to females, males stressed English grade concerns. Females put emphasis on risk-taking. In addition, females more than males tended to ascribe their success to effort, while failure to low ability.
Fourth, there were also significant differences in attributions between low and high achievers. High achievers emphasized ability, strategy, liking English, English grade concerns, interest, task, English learning experiences and motivation more than low achievers for English learning success. In respect of English learning failure, low achievers stressed English grade concerns, task difficulty, lack of preparation and bad learning experiences more than high achievers. High achievers more than low achievers tended to make failure attribution to their low ability. Finally, pedagogical implications as well as suggestions for future research were provided for reference.

Contents
Chinese Abstract ...................i
English Abstract ...................iii
Acknowledgements……………………………………….…...v
Contents...........................vi
List of Tables......................ix
List of Figures.....................xi
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION....................
1.1 Background of the Study....................................1
1.2 The Phenomena of the Graduation Threshold................................6
1.3 Significance of the Study....................................10
1.4 Purposes of the Study....................................11
1.5 Research Questions ………………………………………..........................12
1.6 Abbreviation of Terms…………………………………………13
1.7 Summary……………………………………………………………………...…14
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW...................................15
2.1 Introduction of Attribution Theory...................................15
2.2 Attribution Categories in Learning English....................................28
2.3 Gender Differences in Attributions……………………………………………..36
2.4 Differences of Language Proficiency Levels in Attributions……….…….…....40
2.5 Methodological Issues in Attributions………….………...…….44
2.6 Summary...........................................50
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY.........................................52
3.1 Participants....................................52
3.2 Instruments....................................59
3.3 Data Collection.................................64
3.4 Data Analysis...........................................65
3.5 Summary…………………………………………………………….…...……..68
CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION……………………..…….………70
4.1 The Students’ Judgment of Their English Learning Performances…….…...….71
4.2 Students’ Self-perceived Attributions in English Learning………..…….……..77
4.3 Gender Differences in Attributions…………………………………….………94
4.4 Attributions in High and Low Achievers…………………….……..104
4.5 Summary………………………………………………………………………114
CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS….......117
5.1 Conclusions…………………………………………………………….……...117
5.2 Implications…………………………………………..…...…..…………....120
5.3 Limitations………………………………………..………...….….…........124
5.4 Suggestions…………………………………………………….…………..…..125
REFERENCES ....................................128
APPENDIXES ...................................145
Appendix A: Questionnaire (Chinese Version).....................................145
Appendix B: Questionnaire (English Version).....................................149
Appendix C: The Range of English Proficient Tests on CEFR Levels ......................155

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