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研究生:楊琇棻
研究生(外文):Yang Hsin Fen
論文名稱:豆渣的保健機能評估:以抗氧化、抗發炎及抗疲勞為例探討
論文名稱(外文):Health Functionality of Okara: Anti-oxidation, Anti-inflammation and Anti-fatigue
指導教授:左克強
指導教授(外文):Tim K. Tso
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:109
中文關鍵詞:黃豆渣黑豆渣豆渣蛋白水解物豆渣超臨界萃取物
外文關鍵詞:Soybean okarablack soybean okaraokara hydrolyzedokara extracts by supercritical fluid extraction
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過去研究顯示,將豆類榨汁後所剩餘的廢棄物豆渣,含有高量膳食纖維、大豆胜肽及植物固醇等機能性物質,豆渣經水解酵素分解後,發現其胜肽具有抗氧化與抑制血管收縮素與抑制發炎的能力。以往的研究表明,豆渣可具有促進健康的功能性成分。因此,本研究的目的是調查豆渣的健康功能性,尤其是在抗氧化,抗發炎和抗疲勞的各方面。
本實驗第一階段主要針對黃豆渣及黑豆渣分解後的功能性進行討論,黃豆渣及黑豆渣進行酵素水解及經超臨界萃取所獲得之水解物進行抗氧化活性測定、血管收縮素轉化酶抑制活性之檢測及 RAW 264.7 巨噬細胞抗發炎功能之評估。第二階段便針對棒球運動員為對象,探討運動訓練期間豆渣的補充對疲勞指標與肌肉損傷指標的影響。
第一階段結果顯示,黃豆渣及黑豆渣進行酵素水解方式所獲得之水解物,皆具有抗氧化及抗發炎能力,經Alcalase分解黃豆渣水解蛋白萃取物能力較佳;而降低高血壓能力部份則以黑豆渣水解蛋白萃取物較佳。另一方面,由不同壓力萃取之高壓水相及低壓油相之黃豆渣與黑豆渣超臨界萃取物,皆具有抗發炎能力,經LPS誘導RAW264.7巨噬細胞產生其發炎物質中,抑制一氧化氮產生情形,以高壓水相豆渣超臨界萃取物抑制能力較佳,抑制IL-1β能力則無顯著差異,PGE2產生情形以油相黑豆渣超臨界萃取物抑制能力較佳。整體而言代表黃豆渣及黑豆渣具有機能性成分對於發炎能力具有抑制效果。
第二階段提供23名男性18-23歲棒球隊員在夏季進行為期8週運動訓練期間,食用黑豆渣及黃豆渣成分的餅乾後,血清總膽固醇,三酸甘油三酯,低密度脂蛋白膽固醇和γ–麩胺酸轉移酶在運動訓練過程中顯著下降。相關疲勞指標血氨及游離脂肪酸、肌酸激酶、肌紅蛋白及天門冬胺酸轉移酶與未運動比較下有顯著差異,初期訓練時,肌酸激酶、肌紅蛋白, 血氨及游離脂肪酸顯著增加,說明在運動訓練時發生疲勞及肌肉損傷,然而,經補充豆渣後,相關疲勞及肌肉損傷的標誌有顯著下降,表示豆渣可顯著減少肌肉損傷,並在運動過程中延緩疲勞,豆渣餅乾具有作為運動營養補充品的潛力。
Soybean has nutritional value and health functions. Okara, the soybean residue from soy milk production, also contains micronutrients and functional components such as isoflavones and phytosterols. Previous researches demonstrated that okara could be useful as a functional ingredient with health-promoting attributes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the health functionality of okara, especially in aspects of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-fatigue.
In the first stage of this study, auther evaluated and discussed 1) the functionality of soybean okara and black soybean okara; 2) the analysis of products of okara by the hydrolytic enzymes and supercritical fluid extraction; and 3) the ACE inhibitory activity and the anti-inflammation capability of LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. In the second stage of this study, auther studied the effect of okara supplementation on fatigue and muscle damage in university athletes over an exercise training season.
The results of this study showed that the extracts of both soybean okara and black soybean okara have the capability of anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. Okara hydrolysates of soybean and black soybean okara by alcalase have a significant functionality, and hydrolysates of black soybean okara have better capability to ACE inhibitory activity. In addition, the extracts of soybean okara and black soybean okara produced by supercritical fluid extraction have better anti-inflammatory capability.
Finally, a total of 23 male university baseball players aged 18-23 years attending a summer intensive exercise training program completed an 8-week exercise training-okara intervention study. The results demonstrated significant differences in blood levels of ammonia, free fatty acids, creatine kinase, myoglobin, and aspartate transferase between baseline and exercise training, indicating that fatigue and muscle damage occurred during exercise training. However, those increased markers of fatigue and muscle damage were significantly decreased after the okara supplementation.
壹、前言 4
1.1研究動機 4
1.2研究目的 5
貳、主要材料文獻整理 6
1.黃豆文獻回顧 6
1-1黃豆簡介 6
1-2黃豆成分分析 6
2.黑豆文獻回顧 8
2-1黑豆簡介 8
2-2黑豆成分分析 9
3.豆渣文獻回顧 9
3-1豆渣簡介 9
3-2豆渣之成分分析 9
3-3豆渣之用途 10
3-4豆渣加工食品 11
3-5豆渣之功能性分析 12
參、主題一:豆渣水解蛋白抗氧化、降血壓及抗發炎功能性 15
1.實驗動機與目的 16
2.實驗材料與方法 18
2-1.實驗架構 18
2-2.實驗材料 19
2-3.試驗藥品 19
2-4.儀器設備 22
2-5.實驗方法 22
3.結果 28
4.討論 40
5.結論 42
6.參考文獻 43
肆、主題二:豆渣超臨界萃取物抗發炎功能性 46
1.實驗動機與目的 47
2.實驗材料與方法 50
2-1.實驗架構 50
2-3.實驗材料 51
2-3.試驗藥品 52
2-5.實驗方法 54
3.結果 59
3-1.豆渣超臨界萃取萃取物 成分分析 59
3-2.豆渣超臨界萃取萃取物 抗發炎功能性 60
4.討論 78
6.結論 80
7.參考文獻 81
伍、主題三:豆渣的保健機能評估:人體試驗探討抗發炎、抗疲勞情形 83
1.實驗動機與目的 84
2.實驗材料與方法 86
2-1.實驗架構 86
2-2.實驗材料 87
2-2-1.受試者與實驗設計 87
2-2-2.餅乾製作 87
2-2-3.運動訓練 88
2-2-4.實驗方法 88
2-2-5.運動員營養問卷 89
2-2-6.血液生化值(實驗樣品及方法) 89
2-2-7.統計分析 90
3.結果 90
3-1.豆渣成分分析及胺基酸分析 90
3-2.豆渣餅乾成分及品評結果 90
3-3.運動員基本資料分析 92
3-4.運動員疲勞因子檢測結果 92
4.討論 101
5.結論 106
6.參考文獻 107
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