跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.200.194.255) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/07/18 13:32
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:趙紹宣
研究生(外文):Shao Syuan Jhao
論文名稱:以改良之方法萃取葉綠素及辣椒紅色素並探討色素之安定性
論文名稱(外文):以改良之方法萃取葉綠素及辣椒紅色素並探討色素之安定性
指導教授:翁義銘翁義銘引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yih Ming Weng
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立嘉義大學
系所名稱:食品科學系研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:74
中文關鍵詞:溶劑萃取管柱層析菠菜葉綠素紅辣椒紅色色素
外文關鍵詞:solvent extractioncolumn separationspinachchlorophyllred pepperred pigment
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:1024
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
葉綠素是一種存在於植物與藻類中的綠色光合色素。它普遍存在於許多的植物當中,是一種易於取得的天然色素。植物的色素,除原有的生物功能,也適合應用在食物染色。雖然以往將菠菜汁加入食材中,可迅速將食材染成綠色,但缺點是顔色偏暗,且呈現菠菜味,並不適用於以顏色、味道取勝的食物。
由於紅辣椒具有鮮豔的紅色及辣椒素,因此它不僅被作為蔬菜食用,也被廣泛應用在食品及醫藥工業上。紅辣椒的鮮艷紅色,在去除其中辛辣成分後,可用以製作紅色食品。
. 以往分離葉綠素需要用到dioxane、dimethylformamide等毒性高而且去除不易的有機溶劑。在本研究中,將萃取葉綠素之溶劑簡化爲己烷及甲醇兩種。接著將萃取液分別以五種不同充填材料(編號:A、B、C、D及E)進行管柱層析,比較管柱充填材料之分離效果。而紅辣椒中之色素則利用甲醇溶液萃取,並利用相同的五種充填材料進行管柱層析。
利用己烷-甲醇混合溶液(4:3, v/v)萃取出菠菜中之葉綠素,並且在萃取液中加入去離子水,混合均勻後色素移入己烷層。接著將己烷層之萃取液進行管柱層析,而五種充填材料中以B材料分離效果最佳。紅辣椒利用50 %甲醇水溶液移去辣椒素,然後以甲醇溶液萃取紅色色素。將所得萃取液進行管柱層析,五種充填材料中以E材料分離效果最佳。
Chlorophylls are green photosynthetic pigments. They are found in the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Since chlorophylls are widely distributed in various plants, they are the most abundant natural pigments. While possessing biological functions, plant pigments can also be used coloring agents in foods. Although, spinach juice has being added into foods and expressing green color quickly, the disadvantages of direct use of spinach juice include dim coloration and strong spinach odor that limit the use in foods requiring bright color and plain flavor.
Ripened fruits of red pepper are used widely not only as vegetables, but also important raw material of food industry, pharmaceutical industry because of the existence of red colorant and capsaicinoids. Usually, red pigments of red pepper, after the removal of spicy ingredients, can be used for a food coloring.
Traditionally, chlorophyll is separated by organic solvents such as dioxane and dimethylformamide both being toxic and hard to remove. In the study, the extraction of chlorophyll was limited by the use of hexane and methanol. The extraction fluid was further loaded into separation column with five different packing materials (coded as A, B, C, D and E) to investigate the separation efficacy. As for the pigments in red pepper, the extraction was conducted only by methanol. The methanolic extraction fluid was also loaded into the column packed with the same different materials.
The mixture of hexane and methanol (4:3, v/v) was successfully used to extract chlorophylls from spinach. After addition of water, the coloring ingredients moved into hexane layer which was then loaded into the separation columns. It was found that packing material B exerted the best separation. Red pepper was treated with 50% methanol to remove capsaicinoids. Then, the red pigments of red pepper were extracted with methanol. The separation results showed that packing material E exerted the best separating efficiency.
摘要 I
Abstract II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 VII
目錄
第一章、前言 1
第二章、文獻回顧 2
一、食品著色劑 2
(一)法定之著色劑 2
(二)免除認證之著色劑 2
二、葉綠素 4
(一)葉綠素的結構特性 5
(二)葉綠素的生成與降解 5
(三)葉綠素之萃取 9
(四)葉綠素之管柱層析 10
三、類胡蘿蔔素 10
(一)類胡蘿蔔素的基本結構 10
(二)類胡蘿蔔素的基本特性 12
(三)類胡蘿蔔素之萃取 12
(四)類胡蘿蔔素之管柱層析 14
第三章、材料與方法 16
一、藥品及儀器設備 16
(一)實驗藥品 16
(二)儀器設備 16
(三)實驗材料 17
二、儀器簡介 17
(一)高效能液相層析儀 17
(二)核磁共振光譜儀 19
(一)菠菜色素萃取分離 26
(二)辣椒色素萃取分離 27
四、實驗方法 28
(一)選擇管柱充填物質 28
(二)色素萃取及分離 28
(三)HPLC分析 30
(四)NMR結構分析 31
(五)UV-Vis吸收波長測定 31
第四章、結果與討論 32
一、菠菜色素分離結果 33
(一)菠菜色素管柱充填材料選擇 33
(二)菠菜色素極性分佈 35
(三)色素萃取 36
(四)DMF-乙醚溶劑萃取及管柱分離效果比較 42
(五)鹼對葉綠素之影響 50
(六)色素穩定性測定 54
二、辣椒色素分離結果 60
(一)紅辣椒色素管柱充填材料選擇 61
(二)辣椒色素吸收光譜分析及結果 63
(三)辣椒色素穩定性實驗結果 65
第五章、結論 68
第六章、參考文獻 70
圖目錄
圖2-1葉綠素之基本結構及IUPAC原子標識系統 6
圖2-2葉綠素生合成之途徑。 7
圖2-3高等植物葉綠素裂解之途徑 8
圖2-4常見的類胡蘿蔔素之化學結構 11
圖3-1 HPLC 偵測示意圖 18
圖3-2 自旋進行Larmor 運動示意圖 21
圖3-3 自旋可能佔據之能階示意圖 21
圖3-4 2D核磁共振光譜脈衝序列 22
圖3-5 2D NOESY 光譜脈衝序列圖 24
圖3-6 IS 自旋量子系統能階圖 25
圖4-1菠菜色素在不同管柱充填材料上的分離情形 34
圖4-2 黃色及綠色色素在己烷-甲醇溶液(1:1)中之分佈 35
圖4-3 黃色及綠色色素在己烷-90 %甲醇水溶液(1:1)中之分佈 35
圖4-4萃取液二(甲醇-己烷)色素分佈 37
圖4-5萃取液三(甲醇-己烷-水)色素分佈 37
圖4-6 兩種黃色色素顏色比較 38
圖4-7「萃取液一」之NMR圖譜 39
圖4-8 「萃取液三」再經管柱分離所得黃色色素NMR圖譜 39
圖4-9 「萃取液一」之HPLC圖譜 40
圖4-11 「萃取液一」HPLC 3D圖譜(偵測波長300~700 nm) 41
圖4-12「萃取液三」再經管柱分離所得黃色色素HPLC 3D圖譜(偵測波長300~700 nm) 41
圖4-13「萃取液三」之NMR圖譜 43
圖4-15「萃取液三」再以管柱分離所得綠色色素NMR圖譜 44
圖4-14「萃取液三」再以DMF-乙醚分離所得綠色色素NMR圖譜 44
圖4-16植物中常見色素之吸收波長 45
圖4-17「萃取液三」之HPLC圖譜(偵測波長300~700 nm) 47
圖4-18「萃取液三」之HPLC 3D圖譜(偵測波長300~700 nm) 47
圖4-20「萃取液三」再經管柱分離所得綠色色素3D HPLC圖譜(偵測波長300~700 nm) 48
圖4-19「萃取液三」再經管柱分離所得綠色色素HPLC圖譜(偵測波長300~700 nm) 48
圖4-21「萃取液三」再經DMF-乙醚分離所得綠色色素之HPLC圖譜(偵測波長300~700 nm) 49
圖4-22「萃取液三」再經DMF-乙醚分離所得綠色色素之HPLC 3D圖譜(偵測波長300~700 nm) 49
圖4-23「萃取液三」管柱分離所得之綠色色素再經NaHCO3處理之NMR圖譜 51
圖4-24「萃取液三」管柱分離所得之綠色色素經NaOH處理後之NMR圖譜 52
圖4-25「萃取液三」HPLC圖譜(偵測波長440 nm) 52
圖4-27「萃取液三」再經管柱分離所得綠色色素(經NaOH處理)HPLC圖譜(偵測波長440 nm) 53
圖4-26「萃取液三」再經管柱分離所得綠色色素(經NaHCO3處理)HPLC圖譜(偵測波長440 nm) 53
圖4-28綠色色素儲存過程顏色變化 55
圖4-29葉綠素經鹼性溶液作用後之吸收波長變化 56
圖4-30「萃取液三」再經管柱分離所得綠色色素在儲存過程中吸收光譜變化 57
圖4-31「萃取液三」再經管柱分離所得綠色色素(經NaHCO3處理)在儲存過程中吸收波長變化 57
圖4-32「萃取液三」經管柱分離所得綠色色素(經NaOH處理)在儲存過程中吸收波長變化 58
圖4-33「萃取液三」經管柱分離所得黃色色素在儲存過程中吸收光譜變化 58
圖4-34管柱分離黃色色素儲存過程顏色變化 59
圖4-35辣椒素NMR圖譜 60
圖4-36辣椒紅色色素NMR圖譜 60
圖4-37辣椒色素在不同充填管柱之分布情形 62
圖4-38辣椒萃取物經管柱分離所得兩種色素 63
圖4-39辣椒萃取物經管柱分離所得色素(己烷沖提)NMR圖譜 64
圖4-40辣椒萃取物經管柱分離所得色素(甲醇沖提)NMR圖譜 64
圖4-41辣椒色素儲存過程中的顔色變化 65
圖4-42辣椒萃取所得色素儲存過程吸收光譜變化 66
圖4-43辣椒萃取物經管柱分離所得色素(以己烷沖提)儲存過程吸收光譜變化 67
圖4-44辣椒萃取物管柱分離所得色素(以甲醇沖提)儲存過程吸收光譜變化 67
表目錄
表2-1免除認證之著色劑 3
表4-1 可見光之吸收光譜與試樣顏色之關係 43
王應瓊等,1997,儀器分析, P165-167,中央圖書出版社,台北。
王嘉麒,2008,枸杞中類黃酮素、多醣體與類胡蘿蔔素的製備及抗氧化活性評估,輔仁大學食品科學系碩士論文,台北。
黃上銘,2013,HPLC-DAD、 LC-ESI-MS/MS 及 FT-Raman對蜂膠及其產品之成分分析,國立嘉義大學應用化學研究所碩士論文,嘉義。
楊鈞恆,2009,蔬果中類胡蘿蔔素在饅頭製作之應用及貯藏過程中之變化,屏東科技大學熱帶農業暨國際合作系所碩士論文,屏東。
曾鎔塏,2007,以螢光光譜和二維NOE 核磁共振光譜探討聚N-乙烯甲醯胺與離子型/非離子型界面活性劑之交互作用,國 立 成 功 大 學化 學 工 程 學研究所碩 士 論 文,台南。
梁哲豪等,2008,儀器分析,P4-1,華格那企業,台中。
錢信,2002,類胡蘿蔔素對倉鼠誘發性口腔腫瘤之預防與作用機制之探討,台北醫學大學藥學研究所食品化學組博士論文,台北。
闞健全,2006,食品化學,P324,新文京開發出版股份有限公司,台北。
顏國欽等,2007,食品化學,P8-16,華格那企業,台中。
Aruna G., Baskaran V. 2010. Comparative study on the levels of carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene in Indian spices of nutritional and medicinal importance. Food Chem. 123: 404-409.
Carnevale J., Cole E.R., Crank G. 1997. Fluorescent light catalyzed autoxidation of β-carotene. J Agric Food Chem. 27: 462-463.
Chen B.H., Yang S.H., Han L.H. 1991. Characterization of major carotenoids in water convolvulus (Ipomoea aquatica) by open-column, thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatography A. 543: 147-155.
Chen J.P., Taib C.Y., Chen B.H. 2004. Improved liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in Taiwanese mango (Mangifera indica L.). J Chromatography A. 1054: 261-268.
Clydesdale F.M., Francis F.J. 1968. Chlorophyll changes in thermally processed spinach as influenced by enzyme conversion and pH adjustment. Food Technol. 22:793.
David L. Nelson. 2008. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, fifth Edition. Fig. 48. W.H. Freeman & Company.
Deli J., Molnar P., Matus Z., Toth G. 2001. Carotenoid composition in the fruits of red paprika (Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme rubrum) during ripening; biosynthesis of carotenoids in red paprika. J Agric Food Chem. 49: 1517-1523.
Deming D.M., Teixeira S.R., Erdman J.W. 2002. All-trans-β-carotene appears to be more bioavailable than 9-cis or 13-cis-β-carotene in gerbils given single oral doses of each isomer. J Nutr.132: 2700-2708.
Dong X.R., Li X., Ding L., Cui F., Tang Z.J., Liu Z.G. 2014. Stage extraction of capsaicinoids and red pigments from fresh red pepper (Capsicum) fruits with ethanol as solvent. Food Sci Tech. 59:396-402.
Ramírez E., Gandul R.B., Romero C., Brenes M., Gallardo G.L. 2014. Composition of pigments and colour changes in green table olives related to processing type. Food Chem. 166: 115-124
Gama J.J.T., Sylos C.M. 2005. Major carotenoid composition of Brazilian Valencia orange juice: Identification and quantification by HPLC. Food Res Int. 38: 899-903.
Gandul R.B., Cepero M.R.L., Minguez M.I. 1999. Chlorophyll and carotenoid patterns in olive fruits, Olea europaea Cv. arbequina. J Agric Food Chem. 47: 2207-2212.
Granelli K., Helmersson S. 1996. Rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of β-carotene in milk. J Chromatography A. 721: 355-358.
Hadden W.L., Watkins R.H., Levy L.W., Regalado E., Rivadeneira D.M., Schwartz S.J. 1999. Carotenoid composition of marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower extract used as nutritional supplement. J Agric Food Chem. 47: 4189–4194.
Hart D.J., Scott K.J. 1995. Development and evaluation of an HPLC method for the analysis of carotenoids in foods, and the measurements of the carotenoid content of vegetables and fruits commonly consumed in the UK. Food Chem. 54: 101-111.
Heyes D.J., Kruk J., Hunter C.N. 2006. Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates. J Biochem. 394: 243-248.
Hung P.V., Hatcher D.W. 2011. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) quantification of carotenoids in durum wheat: Influence of genotype and environment in relation to the colour of yellow alkaline noodles (YAN). Food Chem. 125: 1510-1516.
Minguez M.I., Gandul-Rojas B., Gallardo-Guerrero L. 1992. Rapid method of quantification of chlorophylls and carotenoids in virgin olive oil by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Agric Food Chem. 40: 60-63.
IttahY., Kanner J., Granit R. 1993. Hydrolysis study of carotenoid pigments of paprika (Capsicum annuum L. variety Lehava) by HPLC/photodiodearray detection. J Agric Food Chem. 41: 899-901.
Jaime L., Rodríguez M.I., Cifuentes A., Santoyo S., Suarez S., Ibáñez E., Señorans F.J. 2010. Pressurized liquids as an alternative process to antioxidant carotenoids’ extraction from Haematococcus pluvialismicroalgae. Food Sci Tech. 43: 105-112.
Jubert C., Bailey G. 2007. Isolation of chlorophylls a and b from spinach by counter-current chromatography. J Chromatography A. 114: 95-100.
Khachik F., Beecher G.R., Goli M.B., Lusby W.R. 1992. Separation and quantitation of carotenoids in foods. Method Enzymol. 213: 347-359.
Kimura M., Rodrigue B.D. 2002. A scheme for obtaining standards and HPLC quantification of leafy vegetable carotenoids. Food Chem. 78: 389-398.
Koca N., Karadeniz F., Burdurlu H.S. 2006. Effect of pH on chlorophyll degradation and colour loss in blanched green peas. Food Chem. 100:609-615.
Kräutler B. 2008. Chlorophyll breakdown and chlorophyll catabolites in leaves and fruit. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 7: 1114-1120.
Lee H.S. 2001. Characterization of carotenoids in juice of red navel orange (Cara Cara). J Agric Food Chem. 49: 2563-2568.
Mendes M.M., Ferreira C.S., Caris V.C. 2005. Carotenoid, chlorophyll, and chlorophyll-derived compounds in grapes and port wines. J Agric Food Chem. 53: 10034-10041.
Mertz C., Brat P., Caris V.C., Gunata Z. 2010. Characterization and thermal lability of carotenoids and vitamin C of tamarillo fruit (Solanum betaceum Cav.). Food Chem. 119: 653-659.
Mouly P.P., Gaydou E.M., Corsetti J. 1999. Characterization of paprika (Capsicum annuum) extract on orange juices by liquid chromatography of carotenoid profiles. J Agric Food Chem. 47: 968-976.
Olson J.A., Krinsky N.I. 1995. Introduction: the colorful fascinating world of the carotenoids: important physiologic modulators. FASEB J 9:1547-1550.
Prasad K.N., Chew L.Y., Khoo H.E., Yang B., Azlan A., Ismail A. 2011.Carotenoids and antioxidant capacities from Canarium odontophyllum Miq. fruit. Food Chem. 124: 1549-1555.
Rodriguez D.B., Tavares C.A. 1992. Importance of cis-isomerseparation in determining provitamin A in tomato and tomato products. Food Chem. 45: 297-302.
Rodriguez D.B., Kimura M., Godoy H.T., Amaya F.J. 2008. Updated Brazilian database on food carotenoids: Factors affecting carotenoid composition. J Food Compos Anal. 21: 445-463.
Sander L.C., Sharpless K.E., Craft N.E., Wlse S.A., Stahl W., Sies H. 2003. Antioxidant activity of carotenoids. Mol Aspects Med. 24: 345-351.
Schwarz S.J., Lorenzo T.V. 1991. Chlorophyll stability during continuous aseptic processing and storage. J Food Sci. 56:1059.
Scita G. 1992. Stability of β-caretene under different laboratory conditions. Meth Enzymol. 213: 175-185.
Shi J., Yi C., Ye X.Q., Xue S., Jiang Y.M., Ma Y., Liu D.H. 2010. Effects of supercritical CO2 fluid parameters on chemical composition and yield of carotenoids extracted from pumpkin. Food Sci Tech. 43:39-44.
Stahl W., Sundquist A.R., Hanusch M., Schwarz W., Sies H. 1993. Separation of β-carotene and lycopene geometrical isomers in biological samples. Clin Chem. 39: 810-814.
Stephen I.B., Chien J.T., Chen B.H. 2006. Improved high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of carotenoids in the microalga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. J Chromatography A. 1102: 193-199.
Strain D.J., Cope B.T., Svec W.A. 1971. Analytical procedures for the isolation, identification, estimation, and identification of the chlorophylls. Method Enzymol. 23A: 452-476.
Sun M., Temelli F. 2006. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoids from carrot using canola oil as a continuous co-solvent. J Supercritical Fluids. 37: 397-408.
Swain T.1986. The evolution of flavonoids. In: Liss AR, editors. Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine: Biochemical, Pharmacological, and Structure-Activity Relationships. New York, NY. Pp. 1-14.
Tan C.T., Francis F.J. 1962. Effect of processing temperature on pigments and color of spinach. J Food Sci. 27:232.
Tomás F.A., Clifford M.N. 2000. Flavanones, chalcones and dihydrochalcones¬-nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric. 80: 1073- 80.
Van den B.H., Faulks H., Granado H.F., Hirschberg J., Olmedilla B., Sandmann G., Southon S., Stahl W. 2000. The potential for the improvement of carotenoid levels in foods and the likely systemic effects. J Sci Food Agric. 80: 880–912.
連結至畢業學校之論文網頁點我開啟連結
註: 此連結為研究生畢業學校所提供,不一定有電子全文可供下載,若連結有誤,請點選上方之〝勘誤回報〞功能,我們會盡快修正,謝謝!
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊