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研究生:嚴之君
研究生(外文):Chih-Chun Yen
論文名稱:漁港與溪口底泥中油品污染物 生物指標化合物之研究
論文名稱(外文):Study of Biomarker Compounds of Oily Pollutants in the Sediment of Harbor and River-mouth
指導教授:蘇銘千蘇銘千引用關係
指導教授(外文):Ming-Chien Su
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:自然資源與環境學系
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:底泥生物指標化合物類萜烷及類固烷特徵比值
外文關鍵詞:SedimentsBiomarkersTerpanes and Steranes Diagnostic Ratios
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過去美國及加拿大等國家提出“底泥品質準則” (SQGs, Sediment Quality Guidelines)以瞭解並保護水生生物免於化學性之污染。然我國直至100年才有正式相關之底泥標準法規,但此類法規對目前台灣污染狀況之規範仍明顯不足,須再依據其他研究成果作為類似法規之研擬基礎。然而不論國、內外相關底泥監測污染物均以總石油碳氫化合物、多環芳香族碳氫化合物(Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs)與重金屬為主,對於能鑑定污染物之生物指標(Biomarker)且追溯至確切污染源之環境法醫鑑定程序方式尚未建制並列入相關底泥法規,因此本研究目的為建構高分子量生物指標之篩選機制,提供未來國內進行油品污染來源鑑識及底泥於政策規劃品質項目之參考。生物指標因化學結構穩定,不易受風化作用影響,可作為辨識油品來源的依據,其中又以碳數範圍C21 ~ C33,分子量大於288以上的高分子量生物指標類萜烷(Terpanes)與類固烷(Steranes)為油品的化學指紋鑑定上為廣泛使用之生物指標,本研究主要探討Terpanes及Steranes化合物特性,利用層析質譜儀(GC/MS)分析潤滑油與底泥中高分子量生物指標,並建立16種特徵比值,探討三種潤滑油之間的差異性,並比較三種潤滑油與底泥的可能油品污染源進行相關性分析,根據本研究結果顯示:(1)低碳數(C21 ~ C24)的生物指標化合物港口底泥中百分比率均比潤滑油中高,代表高分子量生物指標具有一定程度的抗風化作用;(2) 發現CG4的特徵比值與CF、R68有較明顯的差異,且底泥的特徵比值分析結果與CF與R68分布較為相似,如C27ββ/H30、C27ββ(S+R)/C29ββ(S+R)等;(3) 潤滑油生物指標有不同標準化之區別,可利用其標準化之差異性辨識不同污染來源,作為污染源鑑識有效依據之一;(4) 依據標準化及特徵比值分析顯示港口底泥受油品污染其可能主要污染來源為R68及CF潤滑油。
In the past decades, Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) were normal adopted in the USA and Canada to protect the aquatic organisms. The concept of SQGs is built on assessment which chemical contaminants enter into aquatic organisms to evaluate the adverse effects. Taiwan had not built up the related sediment regulations until year 2011. However, existed regulations are still insufficient to solve the polluted situation of Taiwan. Therefore, it is necessary to apply different research which is adopted into foundation of new regulations to improve the polluted area of Taiwan in the future. However, no matter which SQGs every country adopted, they just monitor two major compounds which are Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. Environmental forensics should be take part into these regulations and especially investigation of biomarkers which have stable structure to resistance of weathering are superior to identify the source of oil contaminants. Biomarkers include diamondoids, bicyclic seequiterpanes, terpanes, and steranes. Especially terpanes and steranes are most extensive biomarkers useful in fingerprinting of crude oil. The research objective is to build up the selected mechanism of the high molecular weight biomarkers. The Study used GC-MS to analyze terpanes and steranes compounds and built up 16 diagnostic ratios in the related lubricant oils and in the sediments to assess the difference of three lubricant oils and similarity of sediments. From the results of study found the percentage biomarkers of low carbons in sediments are higher than in lubricant oils that represent high molecular weight biomarkers have resistance of weathering. The diagnostic ratios of CG4 is obviously different from CF and R68, and the diagnostic ratios of sediments is similar with CF and R68, such as C27ββ/H30、C27ββ(S+R)/C29ββ(S+R). The results of normalization are different from CG4, CF and R68, so that can be used to identify different oil source of pollutions. According to normalization and application of diagnostic ratios, it shows the main oil source of pollutions are R68 and CF in sediment samples.
摘要 I
Abstract III
目錄 V
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 IX
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究內容與流程 2
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 底泥品質準則(Sediment Quality Guidelines, SQGs) 5
2.2 洩漏油品來源鑑定程序 7
2.3 油品生物指標分布 11
2.4 生物指標(Biomarker) 12
2.4.1 類萜烷(Terpanes) 13
2.4.2 類固烷(Steranes) 14
2.5風化作用 16
2.6特徵比值(Diagnostic Ratio) 20
2.7國內外生物指標鑑定技術探討 22
第三章 材料與方法 27
3.1 實驗樣本 27
3.2 實驗分析方法 28
3.2.1 有機萃取實驗步驟 28
3.2.2 氣項層析質譜儀(GC/MS)分析方法 32
3.2.3 本研究生物指標定性辨識步驟 35
3.2.4 本研究生物指標定量步驟 36
3.3 品保(Quality Assurance, QA)品管(Quality Control, QC) 38
第四章 結果與討論 41
4.1 高分子量生物指標定性分析 41
4.1.1 類萜烷(Terpanes) 41
4.1.2 類固烷(Steranes) 44
4.2 油品、底泥樣本濃度分析比較 47
4.2.1 油品樣本定量分析 47
4.2.2 港口底泥樣本定量分析 50
4.2.3 溪口底泥樣本定量分析 56
4.3 生物指標篩選機制之建置 60
4.4 生物指標特徵比值分析 63
第五章 結論與建議 69
5.1 結論 69
5.2 建議 70
5.3 未來研究方向 71
第六章 參考文獻 73
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