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研究生:曾御軒
研究生(外文):Yu-Syuan Zeng
論文名稱:墾丁珊瑚礁生態保育經濟價值評估
論文名稱(外文):Economic value of conserving coral reef ecosystems in Kenting
指導教授:李俊鴻李俊鴻引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chun-Hung Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立東華大學
系所名稱:自然資源與環境學系
學門:環境保護學門
學類:環境資源學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
論文頁數:106
中文關鍵詞:珊瑚礁經營管理國家公園海洋保護區選擇試驗法非市場價值
外文關鍵詞:Coral reef managementNational parkMarine protected areaChoice modelling experimentNon-market valuation
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近年來墾丁珊瑚礁生態白化情形在過多觀光遊憩人潮湧入及氣候變遷等因素影響下日趨嚴重,政府、國家公園及相關單位與應加強保育與復育珊瑚生態工作。本研究首先探討墾丁地區珊瑚生態現況、珊瑚與珊瑚礁生態生存的條件、生態系統服務及人為活動干擾的因子,再者探究保育珊瑚礁生態之海洋保護區劃設與面臨的管理困境,並以在墾丁地區從事浮潛(水)、垂釣及遊憩之遊客為研究對象,探討其對於墾丁珊瑚礁生態系保育的偏好與願付價值(Willingness to pay,WTP)。本研究利用選擇試驗法(Choice experiments,CE)將「活珊瑚覆蓋率」、「生物多樣性」、「海域生態保護區面積比例」、「海域水質」、「遊客人數管制」及「珊瑚礁保育基金」等六項屬性納入評估模型,用以評估珊瑚礁生態保育政策的屬性效用,並使用條件羅吉特(Conditional logit, CL)、隨機參數羅吉特(Random parameter logit, RPL)以及潛在類別分析(Latent class model, LCM)模型估計各屬性之邊際效益與方案經濟價值。
研究結果發現:1.建構墾丁珊瑚生態保育選擇模型之整體配適度良好,五項方案均會對該區珊瑚生態保育效用產生影響。2.受訪者之社會經濟背景及旅遊行為在珊瑚生態保育之願付價值具有顯著差異。3.受訪者對於各項非價格屬性之願付價值由高致低分別為:「活珊瑚覆蓋率提升至健康等級」、「水質狀況改善至未受(稍受)汙染」、「設定每日遊客總量管制為現況的75%」、「增加物種數量」及「海域生態保護區面積比率增加至6%」,而維持目前現況將會降低願付價值。4.估計不同對象之總願付價值,垂釣客總願付價值(新台幣213.2元/次/人)高於浮潛(水)客(新台幣196.2元/次/人)與一般遊客(新台幣182.7元/次/人)。5.不同偏好之群體在屬性之偏好具有異質性,其中以女性、從事潛水或一般遊憩活動、平均月收入大於三萬、一年內前往墾丁次數小於兩次者願付價值較高(新台幣257.9元/次/人)。

Coral reefs, the “rain forests of the sea” are among the most biologically rich and productive ecosystems on earth. They also provide valuable ecosystem benefits to millions of coastal people. Despite the provision of multiple valuable services, coral reefs face a number of anthropogenic threats, including destructive and non-sustainable fishing practices; sedimentation; pollution and waste; mining and dredging; non-sustainable tourism practices; and climate change related increases in temperature and sea-level.
This study analyzes the tourist’s preferences for the conservation of coral reef ecosystem in Kenting, and related activities as well as their marginal willingness to pay for six attributes, namely Living coral coverage(%),biodiversity, marine ecological protective area (%), water quality levels, number of visitors and coral reefs welfare foundation. These attributes had been identified by a choice experiments process with (scuba) divers,fishmen and visitors, and applied to determine tourists’ preferences and their willingness to pay. About analysis model,we used the conditional logit and random parameter logit model to calculate the marginal willingness to pay value of each respondent for the attributes, and used latent class model to test the issue of heterogeneous preferences for the conservation of coral reef ecosystem in Kenting.
According to the valuation results: (1) Divers, fishmen and visitors would support the implementation of coral reefs conservation policy. The most important attributes were increased in populations of species and improved water quality. (2) Increased living coral coverage to 50%-70%(GOOD) was the most preferred scenario (confidence interval of welfare change at 95% of NT$51/person/trip) followed by improved water quality (confidence interval of welfare change at 95% of NT$38.7/person/trip) and set the 75% total capacity control (confidence interval of welfare change at 95% of NT$33.0/person/trip). (3) About tourists’ willingness to pay,we estimated that fishmen total willingness to pay (NT$213.2/person/trip) higher than divers (NT$196.2/person/trip) and visitors (NT$182.7/person/trip) to support coral reef management. (4) Used latent class model found that different preferences between the tourist groups, therefore raised the preference’s heterogeneity for the conservation of coral reef ecosystem in Kenting.

第一章 研究動機與目的 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
第一節 墾丁珊瑚生態與遊憩現況探討 3
第二節 珊瑚簡介與生態系統服務 9
第三節 海洋保護區之探討 15
第四節 珊瑚礁生態系保育經濟效益評估 23
第三章 研究方法 29
第一節 墾丁珊瑚礁保育經濟價值之屬性設計 33
第二節 研究設計與調查 37
第四章 實證分析與結果 41
第一節 敘述性統計資料 43
第二節 墾丁珊瑚保育方案屬性定義及不相關替代方案之獨立檢定 55
第三節 墾丁珊瑚保育方案多重屬性效用函數估計結果 61
第五章 結論與建議 79
第一節 結論 79
第二節 建議 81
第六章 參考文獻 85
附錄一 墾丁珊瑚保育經濟價值評估正式問卷(潛水客) 95
附錄二 墾丁珊瑚保育經濟價值評估正式問卷(一般遊客) 99
附錄三 墾丁珊瑚保育經濟價值評估正式問卷(垂釣客) 103

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