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研究生:Nur Azidah Binti Piakong
研究生(外文):Nur Azidah Binti Piakong
論文名稱:加工與貯藏條件對熱帶水果果醬之色澤、總酚、總花青素、總胡蘿蔔素與抗氧化活性之影響
論文名稱(外文):Effects of Processing and Storage on Color, Total Phenolics, Total Anthocyanin, Total Carotenoid and Antioxidant Activity of Some Tropical Fruit Jams
指導教授:石正中石正中引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shyr, Jeng-Jung
口試委員:許明仁陳右人
口試委員(外文):Sheu, Ming-JenIou-Zen Chen
口試日期:2016-07-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立宜蘭大學
系所名稱:園藝學系碩士班
學門:農業科學學門
學類:園藝學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:43
中文關鍵詞:熱帶水果果醬果醬貯藏總酚總花青素總胡蘿蔔素抗氧化活性
外文關鍵詞:tropical fruit jamjam storagetotal phenolicstotal anthocyanintotal carotenoidantioxidant activity
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最近因水果的抗氧化能力,所以對於其植物色素及酚類化合物的興趣增加。除此之外,消費者對於食品中添加的合成色素更為警惕,而研究人員正在尋找利用天然色素的潛在能力,如花青素,以及能更好地維持這些有利色素的方法。
熱處理是果醬製作中主要的方法,因該方法對生物活性化合物的影響很重要,以評估食品加工和貯藏時其抗氧化能力及顏色質量的變化。
本研究第一部分的目的是測定加工與貯藏條件對百香果、金柑、鳳梨及洛神花果醬的色澤、總酚、總花青素、總胡蘿蔔素及抗氧化活性之影響。
而第二部分是為了評估鳳梨及洛神花的混合果醬加工與貯藏對其色澤、總酚、總花青素、總胡蘿蔔素及抗氧化活力之影響。以洛神花為天然酸化劑加入鳳梨漿裡,是為了滿足果膠凝膠化的要求,並增加抗氧化作用。
本研究結果表明,果醬加工導致水果中的生物活性化合物顯著差異,也顯著影響它們的抗氧化能力及色澤。長期貯藏金柑及洛神花果醬使總酚、總花青素、總胡蘿蔔素及DPPH自由基清除活性顯著變化,並發現貯藏後的百香果果醬中只有總花青素顯著減少。此外,在室溫貯藏五個月的鳳梨果醬之總酚、總花青素及抗氧化活性顯著減少。與單一鳳梨果醬相比,有添加洛神花的鳳梨果醬使花青素化合物增加。而貯藏後全部混合果醬樣品的總花青素顯著減少。
在比較不同pH值果醬的生物活性化合物維持能力,pH 3.0 的鳳梨和洛神花混合果醬能維持最高的總花青素、總胡蘿蔔素及抗氧化能力的百分率。也能觀察到,貯藏於室溫五個月的果醬裡會產生褐色色素,是因花青素降解的結果,果醬也失去了鮮豔的色澤。
雖然果醬加工會將有價值的生物活性化合物減少,但能夠在貯藏過程中將它們部分維持。

Recently, there has been an increased interest in plant pigment and phenolic compounds of fruits, due to their antioxidant capacity. Other than that, as consumers are more wary of the usage of synthetic colour additives in food products, researchers are looking into the potential use of natural pigments such as anthocyanin, and also the methods to better retain this beneficial pigments. Thermal processing is the main method used in jam making, therefore the impact of this process on the bioactive compounds is important in order to assess the antioxidant capacity and colour quality changes over processing and storage of food product. The first part of this study aimed to determine the effect of processing and storage on colour, total phenolics, anthocyanin, carotenoid and antioxidant capacity of various fruit jams viz. passion fruit, kumquat, pineapple and dried roselle. While the second part of this study is to evaluate the effect of processing and storage of mix pineapple and roselle jams on their color, total phenolics, anthocyanin, carotenoid and antioxidant capacities. Roselle was added into pineapple pulp as a natural acidifier in order to meet the gelatinization requirement of pectin and increase antioxidative effect. The results of present study showed that jam processing caused significant changes in bioactive compounds of fruits, as well as their antioxidant capacity and colour properties. Long term storage of kumquat and roselle jam caused significant changes in total phenolics, total anthocyanin, total carotenoid and DPPH radical scavenging activity. While only significant reduction of total anthocyanin was found in passion fruit jam after storage. In addition, total phenolics, total anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity of pineapple showed significant reduction after 5 months of storage at room temperature. The addition of roselle pulp into pineapple jam increased the total anthocyanin compounds, when compared to only single pineapple jam. Total anthocyanins reduced significantly in all mix jam samples. In comparison of bioactive compound retention in different jam pH, pH 3.0 of pineapple and roselle mix jam was able to retain the highest percentage of total anthocyanin, total carotenoid and antioxidant capacity. It can also be observed that after storage in room temperature for 5 months, the presence of brown pigments increased as a result of anthocyanin degradation. Fruit jams also lost their bright colour. Despite the reduction in valuable bioactive compounds, jam processing is able to retain them during storage.
Content Page

CHINESE ABSTRACT ........................................................ii
ENGLISH ABSTRACT.........................................................iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..........................................................iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................v
LIST OF TABLES...........................................................vii
LIST OF FORMULAE.........................................................ix
LIST OF SYMBOLS, UNITS AND ABBREVIATION..................................x


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Introduction............................................................1

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Jam processing..................................................3
2.2 Phenolic compounds in fruits....................................3
2.3 Anthocyanin.....................................................5
2.4 Carotenoid......................................................6
2.5 Effect of processing and storage on bioactive compounds of fruits....6
2.5.1 Phenolic Compounds.................................6
2.5.2 Anthocyanin........................................7
2.5.3 Carotenoid.........................................9


CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY
3.1 Single fruit jam processing......................................10
3.1.1 Materials.........................................10
3.1.2 Fruit juice/ pulp preparation.....................10
3.1.3 Jam processing....................................11

3.2 Pineapple and dried roselle mixed jam............................11
3.2.1 Materials..........................................11
3.2.2 Fruit pulp preparation.............................12
3.2.3 Jam processing.....................................12

3.3 Jam Storage......................................................12
3.4 Jam Analysis.....................................................13
3.4.1 Materials..........................................13
3.4.2 Total anthocyanin..................................13
3.4.3 Total carotenoids..................................14
3.4.4 Total phenolics....................................15
3.4.5 Antioxidant activity...............................15
3.4.6 Colour analysis....................................16

3.5 Statistical analysis.............................................16

CHAPTER 4 RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Part I: Single Fruit Jam
4.1 Effect of jam processing on total phenolics, total anthocyanin, total carotenoid and antioxidant activity of fruits............................17

4.2 Effect of jam processing on L*, a*, b* colour value, hue and chroma of fruits...................................................................19

4.3 Effect of storage on total phenolics, total anthocyanin, total carotenoid and antioxidant activity of single fruit jam..................20
4.3.1 Passion fruit jam..................................20
4.3.2 Kumquat jam........................................21
4.3.3 Pineapple jam......................................21
4.3.4 Rehydrated roselle jam.............................22

4.4 Effects of storage on L*, a*, b* colour value, hue and chroma of single fruit jam.........................................................24
4.4.1 Passion fruit jam..................................24
4.4.2 Kumquat jam........................................25
4.4.3 Pineapple jam......................................25
4.4.4 Rehydrated roselle jam.............................26

Part II: Pineapple and roselle Mix Jam
4.5 Effects of storage on total phenolics, total anthocyanin, total carotenoid and antioxidant activity of pineapple and roselle mix jam...27
4.5.1 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 3.2.............27
4.5.2 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 3.1.............27
4.5.3 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 3.0.............28
4.5.4 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 2.9.............29
4.5.5 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 2.8.............29

4.6 Effects of storage on L*, a*, b* colour value, hue angle and chroma of pineapple and roselle mix jam............................................30
4.6.1 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 3.2.............30
4.6.2 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 3.1.............31
4.6.3 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 3.0.............31
4.6.4 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 2.9.............32
4.6.5 Pineapple and roselle mix jam at pH 2.8.............32

CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION
Conclusion...............................................................34
REFERENCES...............................................................35
APPENDIX.................................................................41

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