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研究生:魏麥可
研究生(外文):Michael Joe Allie
論文名稱:國際學院學生英語口說能力學習策略及因素分析
論文名稱(外文):A Study of International College Students' Language Learning Strategies and Factor Analysis in the EFL Speaking Class
指導教授:李翠玉李翠玉引用關係
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:145
中文關鍵詞:strategiesspeaking-relatedstructural equation modeling
外文關鍵詞:strategiesspeaking-relatedstructural equation modeling
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Abstract
This study examines the speaking-related language learning strategies employed by 116 freshmen from four departments in an international business college in Southern Taiwan. In addition, it explores the factors that underlie the subjects’ speaking-related language learning strategy use, and proposes a theoretical model of language learner engagement in target language speaking activities.
There are 116 participants in this study. They had at least six years of junior and senior high school English language learning experience, with 2% from all-English education grade schools and 98% from grade schools in Asian countries where the language of instruction was one of the following languages: Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Korean, or Cantonese. The participants included 41 males and 75 females who majored in four subject areas: international finance, entertainment management, tourism and hospitality, and business administration.
Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL EFL/ESL version 7.2) developed by Oxford (1990) was used to measure the intensity of students’ language-learning strategy use. As well, a general background questionnaire was used to collect demographic and other related data from students and a Semi-structured Interview Guide for Teachers was used for interviewing four EFL teachers. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, Pearson r correlation analysis, one-way ANOVA analysis, independent test, factor analysis and structural equation modeling.
Results from the descriptive and correlation analyses showed that proficiency level has a significant effect on strategy choice and use. More proficient and less proficient learners chose and used learning strategies of different levels of intensity, although overall the strategy category preferences showed similar discrete preference patterns. The more proficient learners used more learning strategies. They used metacognitive strategies and cognitive strategies the most, and affective and compensation strategies the least. The less proficient learners in this study overall made strategy choices similar to the more proficient learners in regard to strategy categories. However the level of intensity of use was lower than that of the more proficient learners. Moreover, the more proficient learners used more categories of strategies. In addition, they used metacognitive strategies to monitor, orchestrate and evaluate their strategy use. These strategy choice and use patterns distinguished the high proficiency learners from the low proficiency learners.
Factorial analysis revealed four variables: uncertainty, cognition, willingness and engagement that were tested and confirmed for validity as factors. The four factors were used to create a model of student engagement in English speaking-related activities. This model is presented as a preliminary step. Further research is needed to explore its pedagogical application in EFL curriculum design and teaching.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pages
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1
Background and Motivation 1
Purposes of the Study 9
Research Questions 11
Definition of Terms 12
Significance of the Study 15

CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 18
Introduction 18
Definition of Language Learning Strategies 18
Classification of Language Learning Strategies 19
A Comparison of Strategy Classification Systems 25
Factors Related to Language Learning Strategies 25
Theoretical Foundation 30
Summary and Conclusion 35

CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 37
Participants 37
Instruments 38
Study Procedures 43
The Pilot Study 47
Data Analysis 48
Frequency and Intensity of Strategy Use 49

CHAPTER FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 52
Demographic Information About the Sample 52
Distribution of Subjects 53
Overall Strategy Use 53
General Trends and Patterns of Strategy Use 71
Inferential Statistics 76
Exploratory Factor Analysis through Structural Equation Modeling 79
The Tested Model of Student Engagement in English
Speaking-related Activities 82
Analyses of Open-ended Questions and Teacher Interviews 88
Teachers’ Definitions of Language Learning Strategies 91
Approaches to Teaching Language Learning Strategies 91
The Meaningfulness of Teaching Language Learning Strategies 92
Difficulties Teachers Face in Teaching Language Learning Strategies 92
Teachers’ Experiences Using Language learning Strategies 93
Teachers’ Language Learning Strategy Preferences 93

CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS 95
Summary of the Research Findings 96
Research Implications 97
Limitations of the Study 99
Suggestions for further studies 99

REFERENCES 100
APPENDICES 111
Appendix A 111
Appendix B 114
Appendix C-1 117
Appendix C-2 118
Appendix D 119
Appendix E 125
Appendix F 128
Appendix G-1 129
Appendix G-2 131
Appendix G-3 137
Appendix H 143



LIST OF TABLES
Tables Pages
1. Demographic Characteristics of students 37
2. Distribution of Participants by Proficiency Level 52
3. Summary of Descriptive Statistics for Language Learning Strategy Use
for SILL 55
4. Ranked reported overall individual strategy use 56
5. Summary of Strategy Preferences by Proficiency Levels 64
6. Summary of Descriptive Statistics for Speaking-related Strategy Use 67
7. Intensity of SILL Strategy Use 68
8. Intensity of SILL strategy use for speaking-related strategies 70
9. Pearson Product-moment Correlation Coefficients for SILL 71
10. Pearson Product-moment Correlation Coefficients for SILL Speaking-related
strategies 72
11. Background differences on SILL strategy use 73
12. Background differences on speaking-related strategy use 75
13. Mean Scores on Differences in Strategy Use between Groups 77
14. Turkey Multiple Comparison Test for Cognitive Strategy Use 78



LIST OF FIGURES
Figures Pages
1. A Flow Chart of the Study Procedures 47
2. A theoretical model of engagement in English speaking-related activities 81
3. The tested model of engagement in English speaking-related activities 84

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