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研究生:賈建麟
研究生(外文):Chia, Chien-Lin
論文名稱:不同品系台灣藜殼甜菜鹼含量之比較及果膠酵素處理對甜菜鹼萃取之影響
論文名稱(外文):The comparison of betaine in the djulis hull with different lines and the effect of pectinase treatment on its extraction.
指導教授:蔡碧仁
指導教授(外文):Tsai, Pi-Jen
口試委員:黃卓治翁義銘蔡碧仁
口試委員(外文):Huang, Zhuo-ZhiWeng, Yi-mingTsai, Pi-Jen
口試日期:2016-06-07
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:食品科學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:90
中文關鍵詞:台灣藜殼甜菜鹼多酚化合物抗氧化力
外文關鍵詞:djulis hullbetainepolyphenol compoundsantioxidant ability.
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:2
  • 點閱點閱:851
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  • 下載下載:32
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:2
甜菜鹼 (Betaine; Glycine betaine)生產自植物中的葉綠體,在生物中參與轉甲基作用,幫助具有甲基之成分諸如甲硫胺酸、肉毒鹼 (carnitine)、肌氨酸 (creatine)、磷脂類、腎上腺激素、RNA及
DNA…等合成。在有些國家,人們亦利用甜菜鹼藥物以治療高胱胺酸尿症。台灣藜於楊 (2014)的研究中已證實含甜菜鹼,但未有人對台灣藜種子之殼做研究。果膠酵素時常用作澄清果汁之製作,同時有研究發現在蘋果果渣中添加果膠酵素可以幫助多酚類化合物之釋出。
本研究對不同品系台灣藜殼 (3DM、98T001、98T004、98T005、98T016-1、98T018-1及98T018-2)之甜菜鹼及多酚化合物含量做比較,及探討台灣藜殼經果膠酵素處理後對於甜菜鹼及多酚化合物含量的
影響。
在最適果膠酵素處理條件的探討中,分別以不同果膠酵素濃度、溫度、pH值及時間等條件對台灣藜殼 (3DM)進行處理,並以HPLC-ELSD分析甜菜鹼含量,作為判斷最適果膠酵素處理條件的依據,研究結果顯示,以果膠酵素於溫度50℃的情況下,對台灣藜殼處理2小時為最佳處理條件。七個不同品系的台灣藜殼經果膠酵素處理前,甜菜鹼萃取量最高者為98T004品系的1902.26 mg/100g,次高者為98T018-1品系的1713.96 mg/100g,而最低者則是98T001品系的784.78 mg/100g,在經過果膠酵素處理後,所有品系的甜菜鹼萃取含量顯著提升至未經果膠酵素處理前的1.19倍到1.56倍。在總酚方面,未經酵素處理前含量最高的為3DM、98T004及98T018-1等三品系,最低的為98T001及98T005兩品系,經果膠酵素處理後,所有品系的台灣藜殼總酚皆有顯著的提升。而在處理前之FRAP還原能力以品系98T004的3582.67 μmole/L為最佳,經果膠酵素處理後仍以98T004為最佳,但其FRAP還原能力的提升未達顯著,而其餘六品系樣品則有顯著的提升。部分酚酸如香豆酸、咖啡酸、阿魏酸、香草酸、綠原酸及七葉樹苷等,在經過果膠酵素處理後含量顯著增加。
在色素、色澤及抗氧化能力相關性分析中,與Hunter a值最相關的成分為甜菜紅素,與b值最相關為甜菜黃素,相關係數分別達0.939及0.801 (p < 0.001),而在酚類化合物與抗氧化力的相關性分析中,總酚及酚酸中之香草酸、咖啡酸、香豆酸及阿魏酸以及類黃酮的芸香
苷,皆與FRAP還原能力具正相關且達顯著。
在主成分分析方面,不論在果膠酵素處理前或後,第一主成分中影響最大的因子皆為色相角,也就是以顏色為主要的區隔因子,第二主成分中影響最大的因子則分別為七葉樹苷及香豆酸,但尚未把經果膠酵素處理之樣品區隔開。去除掉顏色的影響後,便可依多酚化合物的變化將樣品依果膠酵素處理與否區隔開來,在第一主成分中,最主要的影響因子為兒茶素,其次為咖啡酸,影響第二主成分分布的最主
要因子則為沒食子酸。

Betaine (glycine betaine) produced by chloroplast in plants. In living creature, it join the transmethylation to help the synthesis of methionine, carnitine, creatine, phospholipid, norepinephrine, RNA and DNA…etc. In some country, betaine was used as medicine to cure homocystinuria. Betaine was found in djulis in Yang’s research (2014), yet no study was found in djulis hull. Pectinase, usually used to produce clear juice, may increase extraxt of the polyphenol compounds in apple pomance
In this study, we compare the betaine and polyphenol content of djulis hull of different lines (3DM, 98T001, 98T004, 98T005, 98T016-1, 98T018-1 and 98T018-2) and the effect of pectinase treatment on them.
Firstly, the optima pectinase treatment condition was found through pectinase conc., temperature, pH value and treating time, on the basis of betaine content by HPLC-ELSD analysis. As the result, the optimal condition of pectinase treatment was 2 hours treatment at 50℃. The betaine content of different lines showed that the highest in 98T004 (1902.26 mg/100g), followed by 98TT018-1 (1713.96 mg/100g). And the lowest one is the line of 98T001 with 784.78 mg/100g. After pectinase treatment, betaine content increased 1.19 to 1.56 times in all lines of djulis hull. As to the total phenol, samples of 3DM, 98T004 and 98T018-1 showed the highest content. The lowest two lines are 98T001 and 98T005. After pectinase treatment, the content of total phenol in all lines of djulis hull increased significantly. For the FRAP reducing capacity 98T004 exhibited the highest value (3582.67μmole/L). , Pectinase treatment, incease the FRAP reducing capacity of all the lines significantly except 98T004. In addition, some phenolic acid, such as coumaric acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, chlorogenic acid and esculetin also increased
significantly after pectinase treatment.
In correlation analysis of pigment, color and antioxidant capacity, betanin showed the positive correlation with hunter a, while betaxanthins showed the positive correlation with hunter b. The correlation coefficient were 0.939 and 0.801 (p < 0.001), separately. In the correlation analysis of phenolic compunds and antioxidant capacity, total phenol, phenolic acid such as vanillic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric aicd and ferulic acid and rutin
showed positive correlation with FRAP.
In the principal component analysis, the most effective component in classifying djulis hull of PC1 is Hue angle which distinguish the djulis hull of different lines, but not the samples treated by pectinase or not. The most effective component in classifying djulis hull of PC2 were esculetin and coumaric acid. After the effect of color was excluded, we can distinguish the different djulis hull treated with or without pectinase based on the change of polyphenol compounds. And the most effective component in classifying djulis hull of PC1 is catechin, and PC2 is gallic acid.

第1章 前言 1
第2章 文獻回顧 2
2.1 甜菜鹼 (Betain) 2
2.1.1 甜菜鹼於植物中的合成機制 2
2.1.2 甜菜鹼 (Betaine)的保健機制 3
2.1.3 甜菜鹼之安全性 4
2.2 酵素處理對多酚萃取的影響 8
2.2.1 果膠酵素 8
2.2.2 纖維素酶對多酚萃取的影響 14
2.3.3 樣品表面積對多酚萃取之影響 14
2.3 台灣藜 14
2.3.1 台灣藜一般營養成分 17
2.3.2 台灣藜機能性成分分析 17
2.4 自由基 (Free radical)與其致病機制 21
第3章 材料與方法 24
3.1 試驗材料 24
3.2 試驗藥品 24
3.3 試驗儀器 26
3.4 試驗設計 27
3.4.1 ELSD偵測最適甲醇比例探討 27
3.4.2台灣藜殼甜菜鹼萃取之最適酵素處理條件探討 27
3.4.3 不同品系台灣藜殼經酵素處理前後之品質分析 27
3.5 品質分析項目 31
3.5.1 抗氧化能力分析 31
3.5.2甜菜色素、色澤品質分析 31
3.5.3 抗氧化成分分析 32
3.5.4 HPLC分析 33
3.5.5 統計分析 35
第4章 結果與討論 36
4.1 萃取台灣藜殼甜菜鹼之儀器偵測及最佳酵素處理條件探討 36
4.1.1 不同甲醇含量對ELSD偵測器的影響 36
4.1.2 酵素處理濃度對台灣藜殼甜菜鹼萃取之影響 37
4.1.3 酵素處理溫度對台灣藜殼甜菜鹼萃取之影響 37
4.1.4 酵素處理時間對台灣藜殼甜菜鹼萃取之影響 37
4.1.5 不同pH值對酵素處理台灣藜殼甜菜鹼萃取的影響 38
4.1.6 纖維素酶對台灣藜殼甜菜鹼萃取的影響 38
4.2 不同品系之台灣藜殼殼經果膠酵素處理後品質分析 46
4.2.1 甜菜鹼 46
4.2.2 抗氧化能力 50
4.2.3 色素與色澤 54
4.2.4 多酚化合物 64
4.3 主成分分析 75
第5章 結論 80
第6章 參考文獻 81

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