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研究生:鍾健琅
研究生(外文):chung chien-lang
論文名稱:屏東地區國小教室灰塵中多溴聯苯醚濃度分布及其健康風險評估
論文名稱(外文):Dust levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Pingtung elementary school classrooms and their impact on the schoolage children's health
指導教授:趙浩然趙浩然引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chao How-ran
口試委員:葉桂君史順益許逸群林志忠
口試委員(外文):Yeh Kuei-jyumShih, Shun-IHsu, Yi-ChyunChih Chung-lin
口試日期:2016-05-11
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:69
中文關鍵詞:多溴聯苯醚灰塵阻燃劑
外文關鍵詞:Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)DustFlame retardent
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摘 要
學號:N10331014
論文題目:屏東地區國小教室灰塵中多溴聯苯醚濃度分布及其健康風險評估
總頁數:79
學校名稱:國立屏東科技大學 系(所)別:環境工程與科學系
畢業年月:2016年6月 學位別:碩士學位
研究生:鍾健琅 指導教授:趙浩然 博士

論文摘要內容:
國外文獻指出人體暴露多溴聯苯醚(Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs)的主要途徑為接觸、吸入或飲食等途徑,且PBDEs廣泛添加於室內需阻燃之電器或塑膠產品中。然而,PBDEs可能造成神經及甲狀腺失衡,引起嬰幼兒發展遲緩。根據國內外研究指出室內灰塵中含許多內分泌干擾物質(Endocrine disrupter compounds, EDCs)之污染物,其中主要包含經與致癌毒性的類戴奧辛化合物,以及內分泌干擾及生殖毒性的類雌激素化合物等。暴露於上述等污染物之中造成人體健康危害,尤其為孩童。除了家,學校為孩童另一個長期停留之室內環境,有必要瞭解學校教室中灰塵中的EDCs對於神經系統正在發展之孩童族群健康的影響。此項研究的目的是探討小學教室灰塵中PBDEs,國小學齡兒童以吸入的方式暴露在這些汙染物中。教室灰塵包括一般教室和電腦教室以屏東縣都會地區及鄉村地區共10所學校所採集的灰塵。經量測在都會地區一般教室及電腦教室收集到之灰塵Σ14PBDEs平均值分別為370 ng/g和2,511 ng/g;鄉村地區464 ng/g和1,776 ng/g。經由這樣的計算出國小學齡兒童每日經由教室,非經飲食PBDEs攝入量為8.79 %至40.2 %。研究結果證明小學教室是國小學齡兒童非經由飲食汙染物曝露的另一個主要來源。研究發現國小學齡兒童經由教室灰塵攝入多溴聯苯醚的每日攝入量是可以接受的。

關鍵字:多溴聯苯醚、灰塵、阻燃劑
Abstract
Student ID:N10331014
Title of Thesis:Dust levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the Pingtung elementary school classrooms and their impact on the schoolage children's health
Total Pages:79
Name of Institute:National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Name of Department: Department of Environmental Science and Engineering
Date of Graduation:June, 2016 Degree Conferred: Master
Name of Student:Chien-Lang Chung Adviser: Dr. How-Ran Chao

The Contents of Abstract in this Thesis:
According to worldwide dissertations, the main source of human exposure to PBDEs (Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs) is house dust instead of diet and PBDEs are widely added to electronic devices and plastic products for the retardant purpose. However, PBDEs may cause neurological and thyroid disorders, which lead to the developmental delay in infants and toddlers. Based on the worldwide research, contaminants in house dust contains many endocrine disrupters (Endocrine disrupter compounds, EDCs). Those compounds are a dioxin-like compound which is kind of carcinogen, endocrine disrupter compounds, and Estrogen-like compounds which have reproductive toxicity. Human health hazards caused by exposure to those contaminants mentioned above do harm, especially to children. Besides homes, schools are other indoor environment where children have long stayed , so it is necessary to understand the dust in the classrooms containing EDCs has an effect on the health of the children whose neurological system have been developing.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of school-age children exposure to those contaminants via ingestion.Classroom dust was collected from normal classroom and computer classroom in 10 elementary schools in Pingtung urban areas and rural areas. After measurement, the mean levels of Σ14PBDEs in those classrooms are 370 ng/g and 2,510 ng/g in urban areas, and 464 ng/g and 1,780 ng/g in rural areas. After calculation, Taiwanese school-age children might ingest between 8.79 % and 40.2% of the total non-dietary PBDEs intaking daily via classroom dust.
This study suggests that elementary classroom is another main source of non-dietary intake for school-age children exposure to the contaminants. However the daily intakes of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs via classroom dust for Taiwanese school children is acceptable.

Keywords: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Dust, Flame retardent

目錄
摘 要 I
表目錄 VII
圖目錄 VIII
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究源起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 灰塵 3
2.1.1 室內灰塵 3
2.2 多溴聯苯醚 3
2.3 阻燃劑PBDEs之管制情況 10
2.4 溴化阻燃劑之種類與應用 13
2.5 多溴聯苯醚之環境流佈 14
2.5.1 空氣 14
2.5.2 水體及底泥 15
2.5.3 土壤 16
2.5.4 母乳及血液 16
2.5.5人體暴露 17
2.5.6 飲食中PBDEs濃度 18
2.6 阻燃劑PBDEs對生物體造成的毒性 19
第三章 實驗方法與步驟 22
3.1 研究個案收集 22
3.1.1 樣品預處理 22
3.1.2 樣品之收集與保存 22
3.2 材料與設備 26
3.2.1 儀器設備 26
3.2.2 試劑及材料 27
3.3 樣品前處理及化學分析方法 30
3.3.1 灰塵樣品之PBDEs前處理程序及化學分析 30
3.4 數據之整理 30
3.4.1 低於偵測極限樣品之處理方式 30
3.4.2 灰塵樣品中PBDEs之濃度 30
3.5 品保品管 30
3.5.1 內標準品的回收率 31
3.5.2 方法空白分析及空白基質添加待測物標準品回收率 31
3.6 每日攝入量與致癌風險評估 33
3.7 統計分析 35
第四章 結果與討論 36
4.1 個案基本資料 36
4.2 小學地板灰塵樣本: 36
4.3 小學地板灰塵討論 53
4.4 兒童的健康風險評估 55
第五章 結論 58
參考文獻 59


表目錄
表2-1 常見PBDEs溴數同構物及IUPAC號碼對照表 5
表2-3 台灣多溴聯苯醚進口量 12
表3-1 採樣地點代號對照表 23
表3-2 PBDE待測物及同位素標幟標準品溶液 29
表3-3 PBDE品管限值 32
表4-1 一般教室內14種PBDEs濃度 39
表4-2 一般教室內PBDEs同構物濃度 40
表4-3 電腦教室內14種PBDEs濃度 41
表4-4 電腦教室內PBDEs同構物濃度 42
表4-5 小學教室內14種PBDEs濃度中位數、平均值及標準差 43
表4-6 小學教室內14種PBDEs濃度比較 44
表4-7 小學教室內PBDEs同構物濃度比較 45
表4-8 一般教室內PBDEs同構物之相關性 46
表4-9 電腦教室內PBDEs同構物之相關性 47
表4-10 本次研究與其它文獻進行比較 48
表4-11 國小學齡兒童暴露灰塵中的多溴聯苯醚濃度之健康風險 57


圖目錄
圖2-1 多溴聯苯醚的結構式 9
圖2-2 甲狀腺荷爾蒙之結構式 9
圖2-3 台灣多溴聯苯醚進口量資料(中華民國關稅總局) 11
圖3-1 本研究之採樣點示意圖 23
圖3-2 灰塵樣本收集流程 25
圖3-3 收案流程 25
圖3-4 灰塵樣本過篩流程 26
圖4-1 一般教室與電腦教室Σ14PBDEs濃度分佈 49
圖4-2 一般教室與電腦教室Σ14PBDEs平均濃度比較 50
圖4-3 小學教室內PBDEs平均濃度比較 50
圖4-4 一般教室與電腦教室PBDEs同構物比較 51
圖4-5 一般教室與電腦教室PBDEs同構物濃度分佈 52
圖4-6 一般教室與電腦教室PBDEs溴族同構物濃度分佈 53


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