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研究生:司徒宇
研究生(外文):Yu Szu Tu
論文名稱:國際與在地非政府組織在緬甸合作模式之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Study of Cooperation Models between International and Domestic Non-governmental Organizations in Myanmar
指導教授:顧長永顧長永引用關係
指導教授(外文):Samuel C.Y.Ku
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:中國與亞太區域研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:175
中文關鍵詞:跨國倡議網絡在地非政府組織國際非政府組織反壩運動少數民族緬甸政府納吉斯風災
外文關鍵詞:dam constructionethnic minoritiesinternational NGOsCyclone Nargisdomestic NGOsTransnational Advocacy NetworkThe Myanmar government
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登盛於2011年就任緬甸總統後,實施了一連串改革開放政策,使得許多機構與學者認為緬甸已和過去大不相同,正邁向民主改革之路;然而,也有其他學者專家表示,緬甸雖有相當程度的開放,其本質仍是軍事政權,顯見各界對緬甸現況乃至未來走向之判讀存在不同的觀點。但不可否認地,緬甸雖進行政治改革,其政府能力不足,無法滿足人民需求的情況仍然存在,在緬甸社會亟需其他力量投入,協助解決國內問題的情況下,非政府組織於緬甸的角色便日益獲得重視。
本論文以納吉斯風災、少數民族與水壩建造等三個不同層面,卻對緬甸社會造成極大影響的議題為例,探討非政府組織帶來的幫助為何。首先,詳盡梳理納吉斯風災、少數民族與水壩建造等議題之發展變化,並闡述緬甸政府在其中造成的負面影響與無能為力之處。再者,由「非政府組織」的角度切入,探討「國際」與「在地」非政府組織於前述三大議題的各別作為與獨特貢獻。最後,以「跨國倡議網絡」(Transnational Advocacy Networks, TAN)的觀點作為發想,列舉國際與在地非政府組織合作的實例,並將國際與在地非政府組織面對納吉斯風災、少數民族與反壩運動等議題的合作內容,歸納為「幫補型」、「計畫型」及「訴求型」等三種模式。證明國際與在地非政府組織於上述三種模式下進行的合作,均能為處理緬甸國內議題帶來更大助益,而二者對緬甸的重要性沒有高低之分,其關係是「趨於對等的相互需要」。
In 2011, Thein Sein, the incumbent president of Myanmar implemented a series of reforms and opening up policies, which led many scholars and experts to believe that Myanmar was moving towards democratic reforms. However, other scholars contended that despite the considerable level of reforms and opening up, the essence of Myanmar’s political regime is still military. This highlights the divergent views and interpretations experts hold on the current and future issues of Myanmar. Even though political reform is a reality in Myanmar, it is also necessary to point out that the Myanmar government does not have the capacity to solve its domestic issues, hence the growing importance of NGOs.
Dealing with the emergence of NGOs in Myanmar, our research is based on three level of analysis: the natural disaster caused by the Cyclone Nargis, the ethnic minorities and the construction of dams. We discuss the impact of these three issues on the Myanmar society and investigate how the NGOs intervene to solve them. First of all, we will thoroughly look at the development of these three issues, the negative impact of the Myanmar government and its inability to solve the domestic issues. Secondly, from the perspective of “NGOs”, we will explore the contribution of the “international” and the “domestic” NGOs to these three issues. Finally, from the perspective of the Transnational Advocacy Network (TAN), we will discuss the relation between the international and domestic NGOs and the content of their cooperation on issues related to the Cyclone Nargis, the ethnic minority, and the construction of dams in Myanmar. The content of their cooperation will be summarized into three different types, i.e “aid and compensation type”, “project type”, and “demand type”. This will show how the international and domestic NGOs work together in a context of mutual needs to deal with the domestic issues of the Myanmar society.
論文審定書.................................................................................................i
誌謝……………………………………………………………………....ii
中文摘要………………………………………………………………...iii
英文摘要………………………………………………………………....iv
目錄..........................................................................................................vi
圖次………………………………………………………………….......x

第一章 緒論..............................................................................................1
第一節 緬甸政府的變遷…………………………………...............................1
第二節 研究動機與目的……………………………………………………...9
第三節 研究途徑…………………………………………………………….11
第四節 研究方法…………………………………………………………….13
第五節 研究限制…………………………………………………………….24
第六節 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………….25

第二章 國際與在地非政府組織的合作—跨國倡議網絡的觀點……39
第一節 跨國倡議網絡之源起與意涵.............................................................39
第二節 國際與在地非政府組織於緬甸的合作.............................................45


第三章 幫補型合作模式:納吉斯風災................................................51
第一節 納吉斯風災.........................................................................................51
壹、軍政府的回應態度與方式..................................................................................52
貳、軍政府造成的負面影響......................................................................................54
第二節 國際非政府組織與納吉斯風災.........................................................56
壹、無國界醫生..........................................................................................................56
貳、國際關懷組織......................................................................................................58
參、世界展望會..........................................................................................................60
第三節 在地非政府組織與納吉斯風災.........................................................63
壹、提供緊急援助......................................................................................................64
貳、協助災民搭建合宜避難所..................................................................................65
參、協助災民維持健康狀態......................................................................................65
肆、協助災民復原心理創傷......................................................................................66
第四節 國際與在地非政府組織的幫補型合作模式.....................................67

第四章 計畫型合作模式:少數民族議題............................................71
第一節 少數民族議題.....................................................................................72
壹、緬甸政府與克欽族之互動..................................................................................75
貳、緬甸政府與撣族之互動......................................................................................78
參、緬甸政府與克倫族之互動..................................................................................82
肆、緬甸政府與羅興亞族之互動..............................................................................85
第二節 國際非政府組織與少數民族.............................................................87
壹、樂施會……………..............................................................................................89
貳、救助兒童會..........................................................................................................92
參、基督徒互援會......................................................................................................94
第三節 在地非政府組織與少數民族.............................................................95
壹、促進少數民族村落之農業發展..........................................................................99
貳、提升少數民族村落之教育水準........................................................................100
參、改善少數民族村落之健康狀態........................................................................100
肆、維繫少數民族村落之基本生計........................................................................101
第四節 國際與在地非政府組織的計畫型合作模式...................................103

第五章 訴求型合作模式:反壩運動..................................................107
第一節 水壩建造議題...................................................................................110
壹、克欽邦建壩爭議................................................................................................111
貳、撣邦建壩爭議....................................................................................................114
參、克耶邦建壩爭議................................................................................................116
肆、克倫邦建壩爭議................................................................................................117
第二節 國際非政府組織與反壩運動...........................................................120
壹、國際河流網絡....................................................................................................123
貳、國際地球權益....................................................................................................125
參、世界自然基金會................................................................................................128
第三節 在地非政府組織與反壩運動...........................................................131
壹、建立聯合組織....................................................................................................134
貳、以多樣化形式呈現反壩主張............................................................................135
第四節 國際與在地非政府組織的訴求型合作模式...................................135
第六章 結論……..................................................................................140
第一節 研究發現...........................................................................................140
第二節 未來觀察...........................................................................................143

參考文獻……........................................................................................145


圖 次

圖2-1 迴飛鏢模式...................................................................................................44
圖2-2 國際與在地非政府組織的相互合作...........................................................50
圖4-1 緬甸聯邦地圖...............................................................................................72
圖4-2 Metta Development Foundation提供計畫援助之區域……………………97
圖4-3在地非政府組織對少數民族村落的援助計畫…………………………..103
圖5-1 緬甸水壩分佈圖.........................................................................................109
圖5-2 克欽邦水壩分佈圖.....................................................................................113
圖5-3 撣邦北部瑞麗江大壩分佈圖.....................................................................115
圖5-4 撣邦東部薩爾溫江大壩分佈圖.................................................................115
圖5-5 魯比達大壩.................................................................................................117
圖5-6 克倫邦水壩分佈圖.....................................................................................119
一、中文部分
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顧長永,2013。《東南亞各國政府與政治:持續與變遷》。台北市:臺灣商務。
顧長永,2015。《緬甸-軍事獨裁五十年》。新加坡:世界科技出版公司。

(二)專書譯著
大衛˙魯文斯(David Lewis)著,馮瑞麒譯,2007。《非政府組織管理初探》(The Management of Non-Governmental Development Organizations: An Introduction) 。台北市:五南。
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波塞(Darrell A. Posey)、杜費德(Graham Dutfield)著,許建初等譯,2003。《超越知識產權-為原住民和當地社區爭取傳統資源權利》。昆明:雲南科技出版社。
賈斯柏˙本特森 (Jesper Bengtsson)著,連舒婷譯,2012。《翁山蘇姬傳:自由無懼˙因愛而戰》(En kamp for frihet: Aung San Suu Kyi)。台中市:晨星。
瑪格莉特˙凱克、凱瑟琳˙辛金克(Margaret E. Keck & Kathryn Sikkink)著,韓召穎、孫英麗譯,2005。《超越國界的活動家:國際政治中的倡議網絡》(Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Netwoks in International Politics)。北京:北京大學出版社。

(三)專書論文
林宗弘,2013年。〈災後重建的政治:兩岸地震案例的比較〉,吳介民主編,《權力資本雙螺旋:台灣視角的中國/兩岸研究》。台北:左岸文化,頁438-483。
李河清,2011。〈國際環境政治〉,張亞中、左正東主編,《國際關係總論》。台北縣:揚智文化,頁551-592。

(四)期刊論文
Thierry Falise著,洪銘成譯,2013/8。〈緬甸新方向:未竟的改革之路〉,《經典》,第181期,頁108-121。
小太陽,2003/1。〈服務全世界:無國界醫生〉,《金色蓮花》,第121期,頁118-124。
王冲,2012/4。〈緬甸非政府組織反壩運動爭議〉,《東南亞研究》,第4期,頁75-82。
王文岳、楊昊,2013/6。〈全球化下的災害治理:以東日本大地震國際救災協力為例〉,《問題與研究》,第52卷第2期,頁145-180。
司徒宇,2015/1。〈非政府組織與緬甸難民援助-以跨國倡議網絡分析〉,《國會月刊》,第43卷第1期,頁46-65。
司徒宇、顧長永,2015/9。〈緬甸政府與少數民族之互動探析-以克欽族、撣族、克倫族、羅興亞族為例〉,《國會月刊》,第43卷第9期,頁24-40。
林德昌,2006/10。〈中國大陸國家與社會關係的演變模式:一項理論上的探索〉,《遠景季刊》,第7卷第4期,頁1-41。
林德昌、王重陽,2007/3。〈非政府組織和公民社會的建構與發展:國際與國家層面的解析〉,《非政府組織學刊》,第2期,頁1-23。
林德昌、藍傳貴,2010/4。〈非政府組織與國際政經理論發展〉,《非政府組織與國際政經理論發展》,第1卷第2期,頁59-75。
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林德昌、簡孝祐,2014/12。〈中國大陸維穩與維權之爭:藉反水庫運動4個案例成敗探討〉,《中共研究》,第48卷第12期,頁60-77。
辛翠玲,2012/9。〈跨國公民政治研究與理論發展之反思〉,《問題與研究》,第51卷第3期,頁1-22。
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李宗義、林宗弘,2013。〈社會韌性與災後重建:汶川地震中的國家與地方社會〉,《東亞研究》,第44卷第2期,頁1-38。
李晨陽,2004。〈緬甸的克倫人與克倫人分離運動〉,《世界民族》,第1期,2004年,頁22-30。
姜家雄、蔡育岱,2007/7。〈國際關係與非政府組織研究〉,《國際關係學報》,第24期,頁115-142。
美國河川組織、地球之友、鱒魚不設限,2012。〈成功拆壩記事-選擇性拆除不合理的水壩,以復育河川〉,《台灣原住民族研究學報》,第2卷第1期,頁187-204。
范曉、易水,2003/12。〈反水壩運動在世界〉,《中國國家地理》,第31期,頁72-83。
陳宗巖,2015/3。〈緬甸果敢衝突對中緬關係的影響〉,《戰略安全研析》,第119期,頁28-35。
陳鴻瑜,2015/3。〈緬甸2015年果敢衝突之歷史分析〉,《戰略安全研析》,第119期,頁20-27。
盛盈仙、盧國益,2013/4。〈跨國倡議網絡下的女權運動-以性別主流化政策為例〉,《長庚人文社會學報》,第6卷第1期,頁69-98。
童貴珊,2005/10。〈折翼天使的守護者:拯救兒童〉,《經典》,第87期,頁126-147。
童貴珊,2006/6。〈平權意識的啟蒙者:CARE for 尼泊爾〉,《經典》,第95期,頁102-121。
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葉心慧,2005/12。〈「無國界醫生」的醫療長征〉,《經典》,第89期,頁68-89。
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葉心慧,2007/5。〈為生靈覓出路:世界自然基金會〉,《經典》,第106期,頁116-129。
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(五)學位論文
王鋒,2006。《緬甸的二元制改革與克倫族建邦運動》。中國:廈門大學碩士論文。
李洁,2011。《1988年以來緬甸民族政策的演變及影響》。中國:雲南大學碩士論文。
和勁松,2001。《當代緬甸軍人政權研究,1962-2000》。中國:雲南師範大學碩士論文。
馬驥,2010。《試析緬甸羅興亞穆斯林民族問題的產生及其影響》。中國:外交學院碩士論文。
陳嚮富,2008。《緬甸軍政府對政治轉型的影響》。台南:國立成功大學政治經濟研究所碩士論文。
張學志,2008。《緬甸克倫族分離運動的興起與衰落》。中國:廈門大學碩士論文。

(六)網際網路
中國大陸水利部,2015/7/23。《2011年全國水利發展統計公報》,
< http://www.mwr.gov.cn/zwzc/hygb/slfztjgb/201212/t20121231_335924.html >。
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孟方樺、閆珂,2013/3/26。〈大壩建設加劇緬甸民族衝突〉,《國際河流網絡》,
< http://www.internationalrivers.org/zh-hans/resources/>。
貌強,2006/1/13。〈撣邦軍重建撣邦的成敗得失〉,《大紀元》,
<http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/6/1/19/n1196289.htm>。
鍾淑惠,2015/9/14。〈「普世」基督徒互援會〉,《台灣教會公報新聞網》, <http://www.tcnn.org.tw/news-detail.php?nid=4160>。
2014/7/31。〈緬甸出臺新《社團組織註冊法》替代原《社團組織法》重新規定國內社團組織及國際非政府組織的註冊申請〉,《緬甸金鳳凰中文報》,<http://www.mmgpmedia.com/business/7431-2014-07-31-07-05-35>。
2015/1/19。〈緬北戰事逐漸緊張 超過1000平民被困戰區〉,《自由時報》,
< http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/breakingnews/1209263>。
2015/2/13。〈緬甸華人反抗爆內戰 10萬難民逃向中國〉,《自由時報》,
< http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/breakingnews/1232971>。
2015/2/17。〈緬甸果敢爆發內戰 數萬難民逃離家園〉,《自由時報》,
< http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/world/breakingnews/1236911>。
2015/6/10。〈扶貧工作-緬甸〉,《香港樂施會》,
< http://www.oxfam.org.hk/tc/myanmar.aspx >。
2015/7/21。〈緬甸開放 樂施會的扶貧機遇〉,《香港樂施會》,
< http://www.oxfam.org.hk/tc/openup.aspx >.
2015/8/27。〈中國在緬甸:中國跨國公司加大在緬甸水電、原油、天然氣以及採礦領域的投資力度〉,《國際地球權益》,<http://www.earthrights.org/sites/default/files/publications/China-in-Burma-update-2008-Chinese.pdf>。
2015/9/11。〈WWF水壩立場〉,《WWF中國》,2015年9月11日,
< http://www.wwfchina.org/publication.php?page=2>。

(七)訪談資料
司徒宇,2015/3/5。當面訪談,緬甸友人,緬甸仰光。
司徒宇,2015/3/5。當面訪談,在地非政府組織人員,緬甸仰光。

二、英文部分
(一)專書
Beckham, Björn, Eva Hansson & Anders Sjögren, eds., 2001. Civil Society and Authoritarianism in the Third World: a Conference Book. Stockholm: Department of Political Science of Stockholm University.
Clark, John, 1991. Democratizing Development: the Role of Voluntary Organizations . West Hartford: Kumarian Press.
Fink, Christina, 2001. Living Silence: Burma under Military Rule. London : Zed Books.
Held, David & Anthony McGrew, 2000. The Global Transformations Reader: an Introduction to the Globalization Debate. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Jackson, Richard, Eamon Murphy & Scott Poynting, eds., 2010. Contemporary State Terrorism: Theory and Practice. London and New York: Routledge.
Keck, Margaret E. & Kathryn Sikkink, 1998. Activists beyond Borders: Advocacy Netwoks in International Politics. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Keohane, Robert ed., 1993. Ideas and Foreign Policy: Beliefs, Institutions, and Political Change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Keohane, Robert O. & Joseph S. Nye, 1989. Power and Interdependence. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2nd ed.
Larkin, Emma, 2011. No Bad News for the King: The True Story of Cyclone Nargis and Its Aftermath in Burma. New York : Penguin Press.
Levitt, Theodore, 1975. The Third Sector: New Tactics for a Responsive Society. New York: AMACOM, American Management Association.
Oberth, Sebastain etc., 2002. Participation of Non-Governmental Organization in International Environmental Governance: Legal Basis and Practical Experience. Berlin: Centre for International & European Environmental Research.
O’Donnell, Guillermo & Philippe C. Schmitter, 1986. Transition from Authoritarian Rule, Vol. 4: Tentative Conclusions about Uncertain Democracies. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Rogers, Benedict, 2012. Burma: a Nation at the Crossroads. London: Rider.
Saha, Soubhik Ronnie, 2011. Working Through Ambiguity: International NGOs in Myanmar. Cambridge: The Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations at Harvard University.
South, Ashley, 2008. Ethnic Politics in Burma: States of Conflict. London and New York: Routledge.
Steinberg, David I., 2010. Burma/Myanmar: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York: Oxford University Press.
Theunis, Sief ed., 1992. Non-Governmental Development Organizations of Developing Countries. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff.
Princen, Thomas etc., 1994. Environmental NGOs in World Politics Linking the Local and the Global. New York: Routledge.
Ware, Anthony, 2012. Context-Sensitive Development: How International NGOs Operate in Myanmar. Sterling, Va.: Kumarian Press.

(二)專書論文
Bech, Ulrich, 1994. “The Reinvention of Politics: Towards a Theory of Reflexive Modernization,” in Ulrich Bech, Anthony Giddens & L. Lash, eds., Reflexive Modernization. Cambridge: Polity. pp. 1-55.
Dorning, Karl, 2006. “Creating an Environment for Participation: International NGOs and the Growth of Civil Society in Burma/Myanmar,” in Trevor Wilson, ed., Myanmar’s Long Road to National Reconciliation. Singapore: ISEAS. pp. 188-217.
Egreteau, Renaud, 2014. “The Continuing Political Salience of the Military in Post-SPDC Myanmar,” in Nick Cheesman, Nicholas Farrelly & Trevor Wilson, eds., Debating Democratization in Myanmar. Singapore: ISEAS. pp. 259-284.
Farrelly, Nicholas, 2012. “Ceasing Ceasefire? Kachin Politics Beyond the Stalemates,” in Nick Cheesman, Monique Skidmore & Trevor Wilson, eds., Myanmar’s Transition: Openings, Obstacles and Opportunities. Singapore: ISEAS. pp. 52-71.
Hall, John A., 1995. “In Search of Civil Society,” in John A. Hall, ed., Civil Society: Theory, History, Comparison. Oxford: Polity. pp. 1-31.
Held, David & Anthony McGrew, 2000. “The Great Globalization Debate: an Introduction,” in David Held & Anthony McGrew, eds., The Global Transformations Reader: an Introduction to the Globalization Debate. Cambridge: Polity Press. pp.1-50.
Kyi, Khin Manng, 1994. “Myanmar: Will Forever Flow the Ayeyarwady?” in Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Southeast Asian Affairs 1994. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 209-230.
Lahpai, Seng Maw, 2014. “State Terrorism and International Compliance: The Kachin Armed Struggle for Political Self-Determination,” in Nick Cheesman, Nicholas Farrelly & Trevor Wilson, eds., Debating Democratization in Myanmar. Singapore: ISEAS. pp. 285-304.
Lambrecht, Curtis W., 2004. “Oxymoronic Development: the Military as Benefactor in the Border Regions of Burma,” in Christopher R. Duncan, ed., Civilizing the Margins: Southeast Asian Government Policies for the Development of Minorities. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. pp. 150-181.
Pederson, Morten B., 2014. “Myanmar’s Democratic Opening: The Process and Prospect of Reform,” in Nick Cheesman, Nicholas Farrelly & Trevor Wilson, eds., Debating Democratization in Myanmar. Singapore: ISEAS. pp. 19-40.
Pederson, Morten B., 2012. “Rethinking International Assistance to Myanmar in a Time of Transition,” in Nick Cheesman, Monique Skidmore & Trevor Wilson, eds., Myanmar’s Transition: Openings, Obstacles and Opportunities. Singapore: ISEAS. pp. 271-286.
Reinalda, Bob, 2001. “Private in From, Public in Purpose: NGOs in International Relations Theory,” in Bas Arts, Bob Reinalda & Math Noortmann eds., Non-State Actors in International Relations. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 11-40.
Scholte, Jan Aart, 1999. “Global Civil Society: Changing the World?” in Centre for the Study of Globalization and Regionalization Working Paper, No. 31/99. UK: University of Warwick. pp. 1-35.
Sjögren, Anders, 2001. “State, Civil Society and Democratization: Theoretical Debates Past and Present,” in Björn Beckham, Eva Hansson & Anders Sjögren, eds., Civil Society and Authoritarianism in the Third World: a Conference Book. Stockholm: Department of Political Science of Stockholm University. pp. 21-48.
Ware, Anthony, 2012. “Context Sensitivity by Development INGOs in Myanmar,” in Nick Cheesman, Monique Skidmore & Trevor Wilson, eds., Myanmar’s Transition: Openings, Obstacles and Opportunities. Singapore: ISEAS. pp. 323-347.
Wells, Tamas & Kyaw Thu Aung, 2014. “Village Networks, Land Law, and Myanmar’s Democratization,” in Nick Cheesman, Nicholas Farrelly & Trevor Wilson, eds., Debating Democratization in Myanmar. Singapore: ISEAS. pp. 75-92.

(三)期刊論文
Aldrich, Daniel P., 2012/7. “Social, Not Physical, Infrastructure: The Critical Role of Civil Society in Disaster Recovery,” Disasters, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 398-419.
Badgley, John, 1994/2. “Myanmar in 1993: a Watershed Year,” Asian Survey, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 153-159.
Clark, Ann Marie, 1995.“Non-Governmental Organizations and Their Influence on International Society,” Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 48, No. 2, pp. 507-525.
Diller, Jonelle M., 1993/4. “Constitutional Reform in a Repressive State: The Case of Burma,” Asian Survey, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 393-407.
Englehart, Neil A., 2012/7-8. “Two Cheers for Burma’s Rigged Election,” Asian Survey, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 666-686.
Foster, Kenneth W., “Associations in the Embrace of an Authoritarian State: State Domination of Society?” Studies in Comparative International Development, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 84-109.
Ghosh, Sujay, 2009. “NGOs as Political Institutions,” Journal of Asia and African Studies, Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 475-495.
Guyot, James F., 1991/2. “Myanmar in 1990: The Unconsummated Election,” Asian Survey, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 205-211.
Haacke, Jurgen, 2010/3.“China’s Role in the Pursuit of Security by Myanmar’s State Peace and Development Council: Boon and Bane?” The Pacific Review, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 113-137.
Hlang, Kyaw Yin, 2009/7. “Setting the Rules for Survival: Why the Burmese Military Regime Survives in an Age of Democratization,” The Pacific Review, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 271-291.
Jalali, Rita, 2002/1. “Civil Society and the State: Turkey after the Earthquake,” Disasters, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 120~139.
Kage, Rieko, 2010/2. “Making Reconstruction Work: Civil Society and Information after War’s End,” Comparative Political Studies, Vol.43, No. 2, pp. 163~187
Keck, Margaret E. & Kathryn Sikkink, 1999. “Transnational Advocacy Networks in International and Regional Politics,” International Social Science Journal, Vol. 51, No. 159, pp. 89-101.
Keohane, Robert O. & Joseph S. Nye, 1974. “Transnational Relations and International Organizations,” World Politics, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 39-62.
Lin, Teh-chang, 2007. “Environmental NGOs and the Anti-Dam Movements in China: a Social Movement with Chinese Characteristics,” Issues & Studies, Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 149-184.
Lin, Teh-chang & Jean Yen-chun Lin, 2007. “The Environmental Civil Society and the Transformation of State-Society Relations in China: Building a Tri-Level Analytical Framework,” Pacific Focus, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 113-139.
Lux, Stephen & Jeffery Straussman, 2003. “Searching for Balance: Vietnamese NGOs Operating in a State-Led Civil Society,” Public Administration and Development, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 173-181.
Min, Win, 2008/11-12. “Looking Inside the Burmese Military,” Asian Survey, Vol. 48, No. 6, pp.1018-1037.
Raustiala, Kal, 1997. “States, NGOs, and International Environmental Institution,” International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 719-740.
Rajib, Shaw & Katsuihciro Goda, 2004/3. “From Disaster to Sustainable Civil Society: The Kobe Experience,” Disasters, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 16~40
Saich, Tony, 2001. “Negotiating the State: the Development and Social Organizations in China,” The China Quarterly, No. 161, pp.124-141.
Selth, Andrew, 2008. “Even Paranoids Have Enemies: Cyclone Nargis and Myanmar’s Fears of Invasion,” Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 379-402.
Selth, Andrew, 2009. “Known Knowns and Known Unknowns: Measuring Myanmar’s Military Capabilities,” Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 272-295.
Sikkink, Kathryn, 1993. “Human Rights, Principles, Issue-Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin America,” International Organization, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 411-441.
South, Ashely, 2004. “Political Transition in Myanmar: a New Model for Democratization,” Contemporary Southeast Asia, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 233-255.
Turnell, Sean, 2011/1-2. “Myanmar in 2010: Doors Open, Doors Close,” Asian Survey, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 148-154.
Yang, Da-hua, 2004. “Civil Society as an Analytic Lens for Contemporary China,” China: An International Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 1-27.

(四)報章雜誌
Alexander, David, 2008/5/6. “Myanmar deaths may top 100,000: U.S. diplomat,” Yahoo! News.
1988/3/31. Far Eastern Economic Review, pp. 34-35.
1988/6/7. Far Eastern Economic Review, pp. 18-20.
2008/5/4. “Hundreds killed by Burma cyclone,” BBC New.
2008/5/7. “Burma Rice Region Decimated—Food Shortage Feared,” Associated Press.
2008/5/8. “Official: UN plane lands in Myanmar with aid after cyclone,” Associated Press.
2008/5/16. “Burma death toll jumps to 78,000,”BBC News.
2008/5/19. “Burma agrees to accept ASEAN cyclone aid,” CNN.
2008/5/26. “When Do We Start Calling It Genocide,” Philanthropy Action.
2013/5/25. “The Story So Far: Democracy on Prescription,” The Economist.
2013/5/25. “Politics: Suu Kyi for President?” The Economist.

(五)網際網路
International Crisis Group, 2011. “Myanmar’s Post-Election Landscape,” Asia Report, No. 118, < http://www.crisisgroup.org/>.
Kramer, Tom, 2009/9. “Burma’s Cease-Fires at Risk: Consequences of the Kokang Crisis for Peace and Democracy,” Transnational Institute,
< http://www.thebestfriend.org/wp-content/uploads/psb1.pdf > .
Kramer, Tom, 2009/7. “Neither War Nor Peace: The Future of the Ceasefire Agreements in Burma,” Transnational Institute,
< http://www.tni.org/sites/www.tni.org/files/download/ceasefire.pdf>.
South, Ashely, 2008/6. “Burma After the Cyclone: Making a Disaster out of a Cyclone,” Australian National University Digital Collection,
< https://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/handle/1885/47277> .
South, Ashely, 2008/2. “Humanitarian Aid to IDPs in Burma: Activities and Debates,” Australian National University Digital Collection, <https://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/47075/3/Forced Migration Review April 2008.pdf > .
South, Ashely, 2013. “Mapping of Myanmar Peacebuilding Civil Society,” Burmalibrary Org,
<http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/Mapping_Myanmar_Peacebuilding_Civil_Society-red.pdf >.
South, Ashely, 2012/3. “Myanmar / Burma: Local Agencies and Global Donors,” Local to Global Protection, <http://www.local2global.info/wp-content/uploads/L2G_funding_Myanmar_final.pdf> .
South, Ashely, 2007/2. “RSC Working Paper no.39 - Burma: the Changing Nature of Displacement Crises,” Australian National University Digital Collection, <https://digitalcollections.anu.edu.au/bitstream/1885/46840/4/Refugee Studies Centre February 2007.pdf > .
South, Ashely, Susanne Kempel, Malin Perhult & Nils Cartensen, 2011/10. “Myanmar – Surviving the Storm: Self-Protection and Survival in the Delta,” Local to Global Protection, <http://www.nargislibrary.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/L2GP_Myanmar_Nargis_study.pdf >.
Bacchin, Valentina, 2012/11. “Internal Displacement in Kachin and Northern Shan States, Myanmar: a Protection Assessment,” <http://www.sem-edu.org>.
2001/12. “Myanmar: the Role of Civil Society,” International Crisis Group, <http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/027-myanmar-the-role-of-civil-society.aspx>.
2003/6/12. “Three Gorges Dam: New Round of Bidding Opens Amidst Controversy,” International Rivers Network, <http://www.internationalrivers.org/programs/threeg/index.php?id=030612.bidding.html>.
2004/9/9. “Myanmar: Aid to the Border Areas,” International Crisis Group, <http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/082-myanmar-aid-to-the-border-areas.aspx>.
2008/8/18. “IRRAWADDY/N’MAI/MALI DAMS,” Burma Rivers Network, <http://burmariversnetwork.org/index.php/dam-projects/irrawaddynmaimali>.
2008/8/18. “SHWELI DAMS,” Burma Rivers Network,
<http://burmariversnetwork.org/index.php/dam-projects/shweli-dams>.
2008/8/18. “SALWEEN DAMS,” Burma Rivers Network,
<http://burmariversnetwork.org/index.php/dam-projects/salween-dams/dagwin>.
2008/10/20. “Burma/Myanmar After Nargis: Time to Normalise Aid Relations,” International Crisis Group, <http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/161-burma-myanmar-after-nargis-time-to-normalise-aid-relations.aspx >.
2011/3. “Stop the Dam Offensive Against the Karenni,” Burma Rivers Network, <http://burmariversnetwork.org/images/stories/publications/english/KarenniBriefer - English.pdf >.
2013. Transparency International, <http://www.transparency.org/cpi2013/results>.
2013. Freedom House, <http://www.freedomhouse.org/report-types/freedom-world>.
2013/2. “State Terror in the Kachin Hills: Burma ArmyAttacks Against Civilians in Northern Burma,” Kachin Women’s Association Thailand (KWAT), <http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs15/State_terror_in_the_kachin_hills.pdf>.
2014/3/14. International Rivers Network,
<http://www.internationalrivers.org/resources/hydropower-projects-on-the-salween-river-an-update-8258>.
2014/11/7. “New Report Documents Recent Violent Conflict in Karen State,” Burma
Rivers Network,
<http://burmariversnetwork.org/index.php/dam-projects/salween-dams/dagwin>.
2015. INGO Forum Myanmar, <http://ingoforummyanmar.org/en/members>.
2015/1/8. International Rivers Network,
<http://www.internationalrivers.org/zh-hans/node/7370>.
2015/4/29. “Regeneration Initiative 01 April 2013-31 March 2014,” Metta Development Foundation,
< http://www.metta-myanmar.org/publications.htm >.
2015/6/1. “Rehabilitation, Reconstruction & Development – A Post Cyclone Nargis Initiative 01 August 2008 – 31 July 2011,” Metta Development Foundation, <http://www.metta-myanmar.org/publications.htm >.
2015/6/8. “The Country Factsheet,” CARE Myanmar,
<http://www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/myanmar-fact-sheet-2012.pdf>.
2015/6/8. “Our Work,” World Vision Myanmar, <http://www.wvi.org/myanmar/our-work>.
2015/6/9. “About Myanmar,” Save the Children Myanmar,
<http://www.savethechildren.org/site/c.8rKLIXMGIpI4E/b.6150543/k.D615/Myanmar.htm>.
2015/6/10. “Oxfam in Myanmar,” Oxfam Myanmar,
< https://www.oxfam.org/en/countries/myanmar-burma >.
2015/7/16. “Christian Aid in Myanmar,” Christian Aid,
< https://www.christianaid.org.uk/whatwedo/asia/burma.aspx?Page=2 >.
2015/8/18. “About EarthRights international,” EarthRights International,
< http://www.earthrights.org/about/about-earthrights-international>.
2015/8/27. “Hatgyi Dam Project and Rights of Indigenous Peoples,” EarthRights International, <http://www.earthrights.org/blog/hatgyi-dam-project-and-rights-indigenous-peoples>.
2015/9/3. “Care Engaged in Myanmar Cyclone Disaster,” CARE Myanmar,
<http://www.care-international.org/news/press-releases/emergency-response/myanmar-care-engaged-in-cyclone-disaster.aspx>.
2015/9/3. “Misery and Devastation in the Irrawaddy Delta,” CARE Myanmar, <http://www.care-international.org/news/press-releases/emergency-response/myanmar-misery-and-devastation-in-the-irrawaddy-delta.aspx>.
2015/9/3. “Myanmar: Cyclone Nargis, Three Months On,” CARE Myanmar, <http://www.care-international.org/news/press-releases/emergency-response/myanmar-three-months-after-cyclone-nargis.aspx>.
2015/9/11. “Myanmar’s Natural Wealth Foundation for the Future,” World Wildlife Fund for Nature, <http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/greatermekong/discovering_the_greater_mekong/countries/myanmar>.
2015/9/11. “WWF Officially Opens Office in Myanmar,” World Wildlife Fund for Nature, <http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/greatermekong/news/?232391/WWF-Officially-Opens-Office-in-Myanmar>.
2015/9/15. “Quarterly Report Oct-Jan,” Wunpawng Ninghtoi,
< http://wunpawng-ninghtoi-wpn.tumblr.com>.
2015/9/15. Karuna Myanmar Social Services,
< http://www.kmss-caritasmyanmar.org >.

2015/9/15. Shalom Foundation, < http://nyeinfoundationmyanmar.org >.
2015/9/16. Kachin Development Networking Group, <http://www.kdng.org/about.html >.
2015/9/16. “Background of the Organisation,” Karen Rivers Watch,
< http://www.tdhgsea.org/?q=node/68>.
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