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研究生:藍傳貴
研究生(外文):Chwan-Kwei Lan
論文名稱:中國大陸與國際人權規範:三個層面的分析
論文名稱(外文):China and International Human Rights Norms: A Three-Level Analysis
指導教授:林德昌林德昌引用關係
指導教授(外文):Dr. Lin, Teh-chang
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:中國與亞太區域研究所
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:184
中文關鍵詞:國際人權規範人權內化人權外交
外文關鍵詞:Internalization of Human RightsHuman Rights DiplomacyInternational Human Rights Standards
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在過去30餘年來,中國大陸對於國際人權體系的參與已然有所擴展,並已簽署了許多重要的國際人權協定。從學術研究的觀點來看,如何解釋中國大陸參與國際人權體系的動機與模式?由於中國大陸是一個專制威權的國家,並有其獨特的政治、經濟和社會發展背景,而且也是聯合國安理會的常任理事國。因此,本研究試圖觀察中國大陸與國際人權規範的互動,並從多邊層面、雙邊層面,以及人權內化等三個不同層面來加以分析。在研究中國大陸和國際人權的互動上,本論文探討了國際規範或國際人權體系對中國大陸的影響,以及中國大陸所採取的態度是遵守或抗拒。本研究發現在針對國際人權規範方面,中國大陸的立場是兩者皆有所採用。有些是遵守,但有些卻是抗拒。抗拒的原因,主要來自於中國大陸本身對人權觀念的傳統看法與堅持,即北京依然堅持國家主權、集體人權和生存發展權等。對於這些立場的堅持,造成了中國大陸對許多國際人權規範的抗拒。在雙邊的層面上,本論文發現美國對中國大陸所進行的人權外交,以及將人權與最惠國待遇加以聯結,希望北京能屈服於美國的壓力,進而改善國內的人權。但北京在對國家主權的堅持下,以及反對來自國外力量的干預政策,也導致美國政府在1994年將人權與貿易脫勾。儘管雙邊和多邊層面的觀察,有助於了解中國大陸與國際人權規範的互動模式,但是此仍無法解釋何以北京仍會主動進行人權政策的修訂與改善,以及加強與國際社會的人權交流。因此,本研究再從單邊的層面來探討,發現中國大陸在國際人權規範的影響下,作為一個大國也重視國家形象,因此中國大陸也自然產生了一種學習和社會化的進程,進而導致人權的內化。本論文希望透過此三個不同層面的探討,建立出一個新的研究架構,使我們能更進一步的解釋中國大陸與國際人權規範的互動關係,也使我們更能深入了解這些問題的本質和特色。
In the past 30 years, the Chinese government has shown a positive interest to the issues of human rights and have actively signed important international agreements related to these issues. From an academic perspective, how to explain the motivations and patterns behind the Chinese participation to the international human rights? China is an authoritarian country with a peculiar political, economic and social development background, and a permanent member of the UN security council, our research attempts to look into the interaction between China and the standards and regulations of the International human rights system from the perspective of multilateral, bilateral, and internalization of human rights.
We try to investigate the influence the international human rights system has on China and see whether China’s response is complying or opposing. Our findings show that Chinese attitude to the norms of the international human rights is both opposing and compliant.The main reasons behind China opposing these norms are its persistence in its traditional beliefs, the respect of its sovereignty, and the importance of collective human rights, survival and economic development. From a bilateral level, the USA uses the human rights diplomacy combined with the most favored nation benefits to get China to improve human right conditions.
However, Chinese persistence in the respect of its sovereignty and non-interference in its internal policies has led the United States to disunite Trade and human right in 1994. Even though the bilateral and multilateral perspectives help to understand the interaction between China and the international human rights standards, they do not explain the initiatives taken by Beijing to improve its human rights policies and to strengthen its relation with with the international community.
From a unilateral level, under the influence of the internal human rights standards, China is aware of the importance of its image as a country, therefore it naturally created a learning and socialization process which led to human internalization.
From a tri-dimension perspective, this thesis attempts to build a new research framework, which will help to explain not only the interaction between China and the international human rights standards, but also to better understand the nature and characteristics of these issues.
論文審定書................................................................................................. i
自序 ............................................................................................................ ii
摘要 ........................................................................................................... iii
Abstract .................................................................................................... iv
圖次 .......................................................................................................... xii
表次 ......................................................................................................... xiii
第一章 緒論 ............................................................................................ 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 ......................................................................... 1
第二節 分析架構 ..................................................................................... 8
第三節 研究方法 ................................................................................... 10
第二章 理論架構 .................................................................................. 13
第一節 前言 ........................................................................................... 13
第二節 全球化與國際規範 ................................................................... 13
第三節 跨國倡議網絡 ........................................................................... 17
第四節 國家的角色 ............................................................................... 25
第五節 小結 ........................................................................................... 30
第三章 國際人權體系的建構與發展 .................................................. 31
第一節 前言 ........................................................................................... 31
第二節 國際人權體系的形成 ............................................................... 31
第三節 聯合國人權委員會與多邊人權體系 ....................................... 37
第四節 國際人權體系的角色與功能 ................................................... 45
第五節 小結 ........................................................................................... 50
第四章 中國大陸人權觀概念的形成與演變 ...................................... 52
第一節 前言 ........................................................................................... 52
第二節 計畫經濟體制下的人權觀念 ................................................... 52
第三節 改革開放時期的人權觀念 ....................................................... 58
第四節 天安門事件後的人權觀念 ....................................................... 62
xi
第五節 小結 ........................................................................................... 65
第五章 中國大陸與國際人權體系:多邊層面 ..................................... 66
第一節 前言 ........................................................................................... 66
第二節 中國大陸對國際人權體系的認知 ........................................... 67
第三節 天安門事件與人權議題:1989 年至1992 年 ........................ 72
第四節 北京的抗衡多邊人權機制: 1993 年至1996 年 ...................... 83
第五節 北京的抗衡多邊人權機制: 1997 年至2004 年 ...................... 93
第六節 小結 ........................................................................................... 98
第六章 中國大陸與美國人權外交:雙邊層面 ................................... 100
第一節 前言 ......................................................................................... 100
第二節 人權外交與雙邊監督機制 ..................................................... 100
第三節 美中雙邊人權外交的對立與衝突 ......................................... 105
第四節 人權外交與最惠國待遇 ......................................................... 114
第五節 小結 ......................................................................................... 125
第七章 中國大陸人權觀念的內化:單邊層面的觀點 .................... 127
第一節 前言 ......................................................................................... 127
第二節 中國大陸的人權外交:動機的詮釋 ..................................... 127
第三節 國家認同與人權政策的演變 ................................................. 132
第四節 國際人權體系的參與:分析與解釋 ..................................... 136
第五節 人權觀念的學習與社會化 ..................................................... 146
第六節 小結 ......................................................................................... 154
第八章 結論 ........................................................................................ 157
參考文獻 ................................................................................................. 163
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蒲俜,2004。〈中國對外關係中的人權政策〉,《教學與研究》,第9期,頁46-51。
蒲俜,2009。〈中國聯合國外交的特點及局限〉,《教學與研究》,第6期,頁82-87。
蒲俜,2012。〈全球化時代的國際組織變遷與中國的戰略選擇〉,《教學與研究》,第1期,頁47-54。
趙磊,2007/10。〈中國與聯合國:理論框架、演進模型分析〉,《中國與世界》,頁47-61。
趙新元,2009/5。〈新時期中國人權發展的三個階段〉,《人權》,頁36-41。
熊光清,2010。〈全球公民社會的發展對國際體系變革的影響〉,《當代世界與社會主義》,第4期,頁129-132。
劉士田、靳利華、劉鐵,2001/7。〈50年來中美關係演變的特點與原因探析〉,《河北師範大學學報》,第24卷,第3期,頁80-83。
劉杰,2007/5。〈國際人權機制與世界人權的和諧發展〉,《人權》,頁26-29。
劉海年,2009/1。〈中國的人權法治建立與發展〉,《南都學壇》,第29卷,第1期,頁75-90。
劉海年,2003。〈中國人權保障的新宣示〉,《中國黨政幹部論壇》,第4期,頁7-8。
劉桂芬,2000。〈中美人權問題:從對抗轉向對話〉,《國際觀察》,第1期,頁27-30。
劉佳佳,2008/5。〈聯合國人權理事會的工作機制及其發展〉,《人權》,頁35-39。
劉軻,2001。〈淺析美國人權外交的實施手段〉,《燕山大學學報》,第1期,頁583-624。
劉金菱,劉曉智,2009。〈淺談中國人權的憲法保障〉,《遼寧師專學報》,第5期,總第65期,頁136-138。
黎爾平,2011/2。〈人權及中國人權模式〉,《學術界》,第153期,頁35-43。
黎爾平,2010。〈中國人權教育背景及對未來的展望〉,《廣州大學學報》,第9卷第3期,頁19-20。
黎爾平,2012/9。〈從國家主權到人民主權:三十年來中國主權與人權互動關係研究〉,《學術界月刊》,第172期,頁218-226。
駱明婷,2012/4。《中國對聯合國人權機制的參與及效應分析》,上海社會科學院世界經濟研究所碩士論文。
蘇長和,2005。〈發現中國新外交:多邊國際制度與中國外交新思維〉,《世界經濟與政治》,第4期,頁11-16。
蘇長和,2011。〈中國與國際體系:尋求包容性的合作關係〉,《外交評論》,第1期,頁9-18。
蘇長和,2007。〈中國的軟權力:以國際制度與中國的關係為例〉,《國際觀察》,第2期,頁27-35。
蘇長和,2011。〈中國與全球治理:進程、行為、結構與知識〉,《國際政治研究》,第1期,頁35-45。
談譚,2010。〈試論國際人權制度的缺陷及其根源〉,《理論月刊》,第3期,頁139-142。
鍾瑞友,2005/1。〈從白皮書到入憲:中國人權事業的展開與抉擇〉,《河南社會科學》,第13卷,第1期,頁10-15。
叢培影、黃日涵,2011。〈美國對華人權外交的演變及實質〉,《國際關係學院學報》,第2期,頁87-93。
羅豪才,2008/3。〈中國特色的人權發展道路〉,《人權》,頁4-6。
羅翔,2012/3。〈中國人權行動計畫2009-2010〉,《商業文化》,頁24。
羅晶,2009/10。〈當代中國人權意識發展的本源性考察〉,《咸寧學院學報》,第29卷,第5期,頁4-6。
藍傳貴、林德昌。2010/4。〈非政府組織與國際政經理論發展〉,《非政府組織與全球治理季刊》,第1卷,第2期,頁59-75。
蘇嵐科,2004。〈試論中美關係的分與合〉,《內蒙古科技與經濟》,第15期,頁8-9。

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