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研究生:朱建興
研究生(外文):Jian-Xing Zhu
論文名稱:使用動態功率調整以降低RFID系統的辨識時間
論文名稱(外文):Reducing Identification Time Using Dynamic Power Adjustment in RFID Systems
指導教授:許蒼嶺
指導教授(外文):Tsang-ling Sheu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2015
畢業學年度:104
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:無線射頻辨識系統動態功率調整
外文關鍵詞:RFIDDPA
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在RFID系統中如何降低碰撞是減少Reader讀取Tags辨識時間的重要因素,過去文獻所提到的控制方法都沒有讓Reader可以調大或縮小功率以降低Tags的碰撞,為了解決此問題,本論文提出一個動態功率調整機制(Dynamic Power Adjusment, DPA),DPA能夠藉由調大或縮小傳輸功率來有效降低Tags的辨識時間。DPA是使用TDMA Frame來讀取Tags的辨識碼,在Frame中的每一個Slot會呈現三種狀態,分別為成功讀取辨識碼的狀態、產生碰撞的狀態、閒置狀態,我們從這三種狀態中計算出功率調整因素,最後再從功率調整因素計算出調整功率的差值,調整功率的差值考慮兩個不同的面向,如果在一個Frame中閒置狀態的Slot個數遠超過碰撞狀態的Slot個數,Reader會調升功率以讀取更多的Tags;反之,如果在一個Frame中閒置狀態的Slot個數遠少於碰撞狀態的Slot個數,Reader會調降功率以減少Tags數目的讀取。最後我們使用NS-2來模擬所提出的DPA機制,在模擬中我們設計三種拓樸讓Tags呈現均勻分佈、隨機分佈、熱點分佈,從模擬結果中我們驗證了所提出的DPA機制在Tags呈現熱點分佈時會使用更少的時間來完成所有Tags的辨識。
關鍵詞:RFID, Reader, Tag, DPA, TDMA, Frame, Slot, NS-2
In a RFID system, how to avoid collisions among tags is an important factor to reduce reader’s identification time. From the survey of recent control methods, none of them could make reader amplify or reduce power to avoid the collisions. To solve the collision problem, we propose a Dynamic Power Adjustment (DPA) scheme for reader. The proposed DPA can reduce identification time by raising or lowering the transmission power of a reader. DPA uses TDMA frames to read tag’s identification code. There are three cases in a TDMA slot; the state of successfully reading identification number, the state of collision, and the state of idle. We calculate the factors of adjusting power based on the three states, and then compute the power differences from the factors to adjust power. Computing the power differences considers two aspects: one is if the number of idle state in a frame far exceeds the number of collision state, reader will be increased power to read more tags, another one is if the number of idle state in a frame is much smaller than the number of collision state, reader will be cut power to reduce the number of tag’s reading. Finally, we use NS-2 to simulate the proposed DPA. In the simulation. We design three different topologies which place tags in three distributions, even, random, and hot-spot, respectively. From the simulation results, we validate the proposed DPA by demonstrating that it takes much less time in completing the identification of all tags, particularly when tags are placed in hot-spot distribution.
Key Words:RFID, Reader, Tag, DPA, TDMA, Frame, Slot, NS-2
致謝 i
摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 iv
圖表目錄 vii
第一章 導論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究方法 1
1.3 章節介紹 4
第二章 無線射頻辨識系統 5
2.1 RFID運作環境 5
2.2 RFID的讀取電路 8
2.3 讀取辨識碼的控制方法 10
2.4 文獻探討 13
2.5 本論文機制 17
第三章 RFID系統的動態功率調整 18
3.1 RFID的辨識系統架構 18
3.2 動態功率調整 19
3.2.1 功率調整因素 21
3.2.2 功率的調升與調降 26
3.2.3 Reader與Tag的運作流程 28
第四章 模擬與結果討論 31
4.1 Pseudo Code 31
4.2 三種節點分佈的拓樸 37
4.3 結果分析與討論 39
4.3.1 模擬參數的設定 39
4.3.2 辨識時間 40
4.3.3 未讀取Tags數目的比較 46
4.3.4 APC與EC的比較 49
第五章 結論與未來工作 56
5.1 結論 56
5.2 未來工作 57
Reference 59
Acronyms 65
Index 66
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