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研究生:朴睿倢
研究生(外文):Jenner James Pratt
論文名稱:教育的軟實力和它在加拿大與亞洲關係的角色:中國個案研究
論文名稱(外文):The Soft Power of Education and Its Role in Canada-Asia Relations: The Case Study of China
指導教授:希家玹
指導教授(外文):Allison Haga
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:亞太事務英語碩士學位學程
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:國際事務學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2016
畢業學年度:104
語文別:英文
論文頁數:198
中文關鍵詞:建構主義,軟實力,孔子學院,亞洲競爭力,加拿大,中國,國際關係
外文關鍵詞:constructivismsoft powerConfucius InstituteAsia competenceCanadaChinainternational relations
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本論文的作者試圖了解為何加拿大對於亞洲崛起之勢的發展如此反應緩慢,與及尋找方法可以克服加拿大之所缺乏的對亞洲的認識和競爭力。針對此問題有許多解釋和補救辦法,但仍缺乏能幫助改變政策的引導。先前對於這方面的議題研究及調查並沒有找到成功解決問題的做法。同時也缺乏以理論方法出發的批判分析。筆者使用建構主義的框架對於此主題做探討、塑造研究方向,並解釋其結果。所有文獻源自於政府及政策機構之報告、學術期刊及新聞出處並採用建構主義的框架。教育的匱乏阻礙了進步,而其補救措施為加拿大的教育必須向亞洲轉移。教育的軟實力具有建立更良好的公共論述之潛力。假如軟實力經由全方位的公共贊助做適當地培養,即會造成相互的吸引力,不僅互動增加,並且賦予共同身份的形成。由於中國是亞洲地區最具影響力的成員國,本研究主要集中於加拿大與中華人民共和國間的密切關係。雖然背負著極大的爭議,孔子學院在本研究論文顯出它是有可能有效地鞏固加拿大在未來「亞洲世紀」中的地位 。
The researcher set out to understand why Canada has been slow to move on the rise of Asia, and to uncover the best course of action for overcoming the country’s Asia competence deficiency. Much has been offered by way of explanations and remedies, but the field of interest is devoid of a comprehensive synthesis of this information for use in effecting policy change. Prior study of this issue area has failed to cut through the web of factors to the core of both the problem, and solution. It also lacks critical analysis from a theoretical approach. The author’s exploration of this topic was conducted using a constructivist framework, allowing it to shape the direction of the research, and interpret its results. All material, sourced from government and policy institute reports, academic journals, and news outlets, passed through this lens. It was made clear that education lies at the heart of what prevents progress, and what must be utilized to create a Canadian shift to Asia. Education’s soft power holds the potential to establish a higher form of public discourse. If this soft power is cultivated properly through cohesive public sponsorship, a two-way flow of attraction will result, increasing interaction, and enabling the formation of a shared identity. As China is the most influential member of the Asian region, this study focused on drawing closer ties between Canada and the PRC. While they are saddled with a great deal of inhibitive controversy, Confucius Institutes come to the fore of this researcher’s work as powerful tools for initiating a deep and lasting pivot in the direction of securing Canada’s place in the coming “Asian century.”
Thesis Verification Letter ……………………………………………………...…… i
Thesis Authorization Form …………………………………………………………
Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………. ii
摘要 ………………………………………………………………………………….. iii
Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………... iv
Chapter 1 – Introduction …………………………………………………………… 1
Section 1.1 - Soft Power …………………………………………………. 2
Section 1.2 – Constructivism…………………………………………….. 3
Section 1.3 - Public Diplomacy-International Education-
Soft Power………………………………………………… 8
Section 1.4 - Methodology………………………………………………. 12
Section 1.4.1 - Boundaries/Challenges of the Study…………………... 12
Section 1.4.2 - Strengths/Value of the Study…………………………... 18

Chapter 2 - Asia’s Rise-China’s Rise……………………………………………… 22
Section 2.1 - Introduction………………………………………………. 22
Section 2.2 - Military……………………………………………………. 25
Section 2.3 - Economics…………………………………………………. 32
Section 2.3.1 - Growth……………………………………………….….. 33
Section 2.3.2 - Investment………………………………………………. 34
Section 2.3.3 - Trade/Trade Agreements………………………………. 36
Section 2.4 - Population…………………………………………………. 38
Section 2.4.1 - Urbanization…………………………………………….. 39
Section 2.4.2 - Youth Bulge……………………………………………... 39
Section 2.4.3 - Middle Class Rise……………………………………….. 40
Section 2.5 - Energy Use………………………………………………… 42
Section 2.6 - Technology and Innovation………………………………. 43
Section 2.6.1 - E and M Commerce…………………………………….. 44
Section 2.7 - Education………………………………………………….. 45
Section 2.8 - Confucius Institutes………………………………………. 47
Section 2.9 - Conclusion………………………………………………… 49

Chapter 3 - The Reasons for Canada to Act……………………………………… 52
Section 3.1 - Introduction……………………………………………….. 52
Section 3.2 - Economics…………………………………………………. 58
Section 3.3 - Energy……………………………………………………... 59
Section 3.4 - Middle Power Position and Integration…………………. 60
Section 3.5 - Environment………………………………………………. 62
Section 3.6 - Trade………………………………………………………. 65
Section 3.7 - Trade and Investment Agreements……………………… 67
Section 3.8 - Taking Advantage of a Middle Class Lifestyle…………. 69
Section 3.9 - Infrastructure and R&D…………………………………. 72
Section 3.10 – Education…………………………………………………74
Section 3.10.1 - Incoming Students…………………………………….. 74
Section 3.10.2 - Outgoing Students…………………………………….. 77
Section 3.10.3 - Language and Cultural Studies………………………. 81
Section 3.11 - Confucius Institutes……………………………………... 85
Section 3.12 - Conclusion……………………………………………….. 89

Chapter 4 - What is Preventing Progress and
What Canada’s Competitors are Doing…………………………... 92
Section 4.1 - Introduction……………………………………………….. 92
Section 4.2 - Perception…………………………………………………. 95
Section 4.2.1 - Perception of Investment/Trade/Business…………….. 99
Section 4.2.2 - Perception of Political Values………………………….. 102
Section 4.2.3 - Perception of Economy…………………………………. 106
Section 4.2.4 - Perception of Threat……………………………………. 112
Section 4.3 - Education in Canada……………………………………... 112
Section 4.3.1 - The Attractiveness of a Canadian Education…………. 116
Section 4.3.2 - Getting Canadian Students to Go International……… 118
Section 4.3.3 - Asia Education Programs and Initiatives……………... 119
Section 4.4 - Confucius Institutes………………………………………. 124
Section 4.5 - Conclusion…………………………………………………. 141

Chapter 5 - What Should Be Done……………………………………………….. 143
Section 5.1 - A Change in Perspective………………………………….. 143
Section 5.2 - Lending a Hand Resolving Problems……………………. 147
Section 5.3 - Innovation in Trade and Business Promotion…………... 149
Section 5.4 - Dealing with the Professional Competence Deficit……… 152
Section 5.5 - Opportunities for Youth………………………………….. 154
Section 5.6 - Asia Education in Canada………………………………... 157
Section 5.7 - International Student Flows……………………………… 160
Section 5.8 - Conclusion…………………………………………………. 163

Chapter 6 - Conclusions…………………………………………………………... 165
Section 6.1 - Soft Power and CIs………………………………………... 165
Section 6.2 - Promotion of Language…………………………………… 169
Section 6.3 - Final Remarks……………………………………………... 172

Bibliography……………………………………………………………………...... 177
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